?FIELD STUDY COURSES PRACTICES AS A BRIDGE TOWARD BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE TEACHING PROFESSION Essay

 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
It would not have been possible to write this research without the help and support of the kind people around us, to only some of whom it is possible to give particular mention here. We would like to thank our adviser of this projected, Dr. Desiree Botengan for the valuable guidance and advice. She inspired us greatly to work in this project. Her willingness to motivate us contributed tremendously to our research. We also would like to thank her for showing us some example that related to the topic of our research. Also to each department that allowed us to disseminate our questionnaire for them to sign. Without them this research would be impossible to start. We are also grateful to Prof. Apler Bansiong, Jr. and Dr. Esper Feliciano- Bayao who help us in our crucial time in getting the statistical values. The pre-service teachers of the College of Teacher Education that answered our questionnaires honestly. We pretty much appreciate your cooperation. The library that provided us sample thesis and serve as our working place. An honourable mention goes to our families and friends for their understanding, financial, moral and support on us in completing this research. Without helps of the particular that mentioned above, we would face many difficulties.

There's a specialist from your university waiting to help you with that essay.
Tell us what you need to have done now!


order now

Most of all thanks to our father God that give us patient to fulfill our assigned task, for everything that He provided in this world that help us in a unique way.

ABSTRACT
Bautista, Arlene V. Doligan, Farahlyn C. Juan, Johnergie M. Paran, Juvani A. Segundo, Marilou A.,October 2013. Field study courses practices as a bridge toward better understanding of the teaching profession. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet. Adviser: Desiree F. Botengan, Ed. D.

The study determines the extent of implementation and degree of influence of the mentoring practices on the field study courses of the College of Teacher Education among BEE and BSE pre-service teachers. The study was conducted during the 1st semester of SY 2012-1013. It also determined if there were significant differences on the extent of implementation and the degree of influence of the mentoring practices during their practice teaching.

The study involved 156 pre=service teachers of the College of Teacher Education of Benguet State University. The main instrument used in the study was a survey questionnaire and data were analyzed through weighted means, t-test and ranking. In general, the extent of implementation of the mentoring practices and its influence to the pre-service teachers is high.

Base from these findings, the researchers recommends that there must be a continuous in service training for the students of FS courses as they go further to their practice teaching; To further increase the degree of influences of mentoring to the FS students, mentors are suggested to have more practice to mentor FS students specially to the personal and emotional mentoring practices. It is also advice that the mentors in the FS courses to focused more on in the practices which is highly needed of the pre service teachers in their deployment.

INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the background on the Field study courses practices as a bridge towards better understanding of the teaching profession. Specifically, the chapter compromises the background of the study, conceptual framework, statement of the problem and the hypotheses of the study.

Background of the Study

The world is changing faster than ever before, and at no other times has been the importance of learning become so pronounced as it is now(Torres, 2002). Educational institutions are also working overtime on their curricula to meet the changes. According to Buazon (2002) curriculum development and management will continue to be decisive factor for any educational undertaking. Buazon added that the evaluation for of every educational undertaking is affected through its curriculum or curricula. The curriculum can be viewed as the very need of all educational systems, which determines its success or failure. For Thomson and Hickey (2002), educational institutions respond slowly to change, and schools often must perform the delicate balancing act of trying to preserve the status quo and teach tradition while promoting social innovations and cultural change. The controversy surrounding curriculum reforms as a solution to the declining quality of education in the country focuses on the teacher education curriculum because it is the teacher who is at the forefront of any educational efforts. For this reason, Disimulacion (2007) emphasized that it is in the teacher that the greatest strength of education lies.

McKeough, Philips, Timmons and Lupart (2006) added that if teachers need to change, then one of the things to consider is whether schools have provided for teachers and instructors to support the new innovations. Further, Bernardo (2005) emphasized that 23.6% of all Teacher Education Institutions just meet the minimum requirements for teaching staff and were viewed as mere transmitters of knowledge and employ very conventional, didactic approaches in teaching. The teaching profession has been struggling to keep pace with the changes in society and the accompanying challenges of the technological world. Field study is a component of the new Pre – Service Teacher Education that aims to exposed the students to actual field experiences so that they can relate the theories learned inside the classroom with those experiences, ( Lucas, 2007). The pre-service preparation in teacher education curriculum is very important. As Salandanan (2001) stated that the teacher education would definitely occupy a center stage in producing the proper mold very much needed in schools and teacher-training institutions play a critical role in preparing the future teacher. Moreover Mckeough, Phillips Timmons and Lupart (2006), pointed out that the teacher preparation was considered to be as important as the development of the instructional program. This view is supported by Orneistein (1991) who stated that a number of educators maintain that undergraduate teacher preparation is the gate keeping process for the teaching profession. The most popular theme of national congresses held on teacher education reflects the critical awareness and serious concerns for the preparation of future teacher in public and private colleges and universities (Salandan, 2001). Thus, in answer to the many concerns and issues directed to the pre-service preparation of teachers, several curriculum reforms were undertaken by the Technical Panel for Education (TPE), Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Department of Education (DepEd). In this context, teacher education institutions in the country implemented two curricula: CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) 11, series 1999 and CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) 30, Series 2004.The academic community in teacher training institutions however is divided in their opinion of two curricula. There are administrators and teachers, who prefer CMO 11 to the current curriculum, which they say is experimental. Whatever the opinions are, and whatever the result are, reforms are undertaken to ensure educational change. Sharma (1997) attempts at school reforms, it is that the ability to improve academic performance using standard, uniformly applied policy cure for the ills of individual schools, their policy makers have (1997) explained the situation further: If a single, glaring lesson is to be learned from past little choice but to undertake the daunting task of managing diversity giving local decision makers the freedom to diverse educational programs appropriate to their situations and the discipline to ensure their effectiveness.

In CMO 30.s. 2004, there are six field study courses anchored on a professional education courses or a cluster of them. The field study courses are spread out in four semesters. As cited in Article V, Section 13, of CMO 30 (2004), the field study courses are intended “to provide students with practical learning experiences in which they can observe, verify, reflect on and actually experience different components of the teaching-learning processes in actual situation”. Lanier and Featherstone (1988) stressed that prospective teachers must be able to demonstrate a specified level of competence by the end of pre service stage in order to be allowed entry into the profession. These are professional and personal competencies that will allow them to be effective and efficient teachers. There are no silver bullets for improving quality. Given the factors that influence teaching, a comprehensive approach that touches on each stage of teacher’s career is the best strategy for improving quality (Reichardt). This study will be undertaken to evaluate the degree of impact of the field study practices in education students. The findings of this study will benefit the supervising instructor in evaluating the performance of field study students through the proper monitoring of their program of activities and accomplishment based on the needed competencies, and the cooperating teachers in assisting the field study students in attaining the needed competencies in the field study courses and in handling problems encountered in the field. Moreover the degree of impact will not justify only by questionnaire but its impact on person’s life.

Conceptual Framework

Article V, Section 13 of CHED Memorandum Order no.30, s. 2004, provides the basis for the six field study courses. This section explains that the field study courses are intended to provide students with practical learning experiences in which they can observe, verify, reflect on, and actually experience different components of teaching- learning processes in actual school settings. The experiences will begin with field observation and gradually intensify until students undertake practice teaching. The field study courses therefore served as the practicum courses for the teacher education student. Given that teachers are consistently cited as the most significant factor influencing student outcomes, supporting beginning teachers at the earliest point in their career, to reflect upon their teaching and question their practice, is critical. Mentors play a key role in supporting beginning teachers to become active agents in analyzing and improving their own practice and in doing so develop their identity as teachers. Smith (2004), for instance, examined the nature of staff-wide mentoring on pre-service teacher improvement. The result of the study indicated that although there are barriers, the pre-service teachers achieved desired intensive outcomes from the mentoring program. Other benefits in the partnership were also gained, such as the collegial support, the engagement of the resistant teachers, and intern experience with tuff-wide mentoring. Moir et al,(2010) quoted “Mentors are transformative change agents who bring clarity, voice, compassion, attitude and direction to the beginning teacher. Mentors are transparent in their practice so that beginning teachers are able to connect theory to practice and make these connections in their classroom.”Mentoring is a reciprocal professional relationship which not only helps to improve the professional practice of new teachers, but also aids more experienced teachers to gain fresh perspectives and learn about current educational approaches. Effective mentoring is pivotal to the development of pre-service teachers. Thus, experiential learning is a need to have a renewed look at the teaching- learning process in the classroom. It is on the premise that there is a need to evaluate how effective is the implementation of the Field Study
Courses under the Revised Teacher Education Curriculum. The Teacher Education Council (2009), in view of an effective mentoring scheme describes it as where the mentor and the mentee enter a partnership and plan for success. The mentor supports and encourages learning and development to happen to the mentee who will in turn make it happen to their students. Since there is partnership, it connotes of the existing of convergence in the different aspects of teaching training particularly mentoring practices. Garvey (2000) stated that the overall purpose of mentoring is to improve teaching and learning. Beginning teachers need to be assisted to move from the Initial Orientation stage through the Improved Professional Practice stage to the Developing a Learning Community stage. Hudson (2012), find out in his research in Queensland University of Technology, Australia that mentors used particular mentoring practices to facilitate the mentees’ reflective practices towards teaching in the classroom.

The mentor’s personal attributes, articulation of pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of education system requirements, as well as her ability to model a process for reflection, influenced the mentee’s ability to effectively “reflect on” her teaching and on students’ learning. The mentor modeled specific processes for “reflecting-in-action”, for example, through continuous note-taking and collection of data to identify learning needs and to provide solutions for future planning and pedagogical practices. The mentees’ willingness to accept and utilize their mentors’ feedback significantly influenced their abilities to critically reflect on their own practices. Paatan (2010) conducted a research in Caraga concluded that there was a great extent in the implementation of the Field Study Courses in terms of curriculum, management and attitude in the Teacher Education Institutions under study based on CMO 30, series of 2004, the Revised Teacher Education Curriculum. All the learning skills were able to enhance their competency. Sagandoy (2009) dealt on the evaluation of the implementation status of field study courses in Teacher Education Institutions in Cordillera Administrative Region and generalized that the students attained the identified competencies along human relations, leaderships, communication, instructional and problem solving in their field study courses. In 1996, Basil conducted a study on student teaching in state Colleges and Universities in the Cordillera Administrative Region.

Results showed that student teachers believed that the ability to prepare lesson plans and execute the said plan and being punctual in submitting them are professional qualities that have much effect on student teaching and lesson plan making is one of the mentoring practices in the field study courses. From the Elementary Teacher Preparation Program of the College of Teacher Education in Michigan State University explains further: Learning about the pre-service teachers needs. An intern does not arrive in the classroom in the fall a “proficient” teacher. Rather, an intern comes with basic knowledge of how classrooms operate and a collection of ideas about planning, teaching and assessment that s/he has had a limited number of opportunities to try out. The internship is the time designated in Teacher Preparation Program for the novice to try out, with support, the ideas studied in the program, and to participate in planned experiences that will help him/her develop increasing expertise in a variety of areas. By the internship year, an intern has had little exposure to a teacher’s responsibilities outside the classroom, or how to make use of the material and human resources available in atypical school building. The internship year is the time to learn about and take part in the range of responsibilities required of a classroom teacher. Complicating matters, each intern brings unique strengths and weaknesses to the classroom, and therefore support that was helpful to one intern in the past may not be appropriate for supporting another intern’s learning. The internship year is a time for the intern to receive support that is designed and planned specifically to support his/her ongoing development across the year. Mentoring as a form of teaching. When mentors view themselves as teacher educators, they view their work with a novice teacher as a form of teaching that includes the following characteristics: model being a learning professional think aloud about own practice, including what did not go well explain why, what, how of own practice give yourself permission to not know encourage your intern to develop own practice and make own decisions be explicit about practice, yet communicate the idea that the intern is no expected to copy or imitate the MT communicate that everyone contributes to learning to teach keep children as learners at the forefront; they are the primary responsibility for both MT and intern Mentoring as co-learning. Mentor teachers understand that they have much to learn across their careers as mentors. When mentor teachers view themselves as teachers of another adult, they consider themselves co-learners: voice mistakes, honesty, open-mindedness show interest in learning from the intern’s expertise; the intern is a resource the MT is not “all knowing” and should not be expected to be knowledge is developed through collaboration Core mentoring practices.

Research has shown that the practices in which effective mentors engage are varied and complex and they are adaptable to the novice’s learning needs. The following ideas are drawn from Sharon Feiman-Nemser’s article (Feiman-Nemser, S. [2001]. Helping novices learn to teach: Lessons from an exemplary support teacher. Journal of Teacher Education, 52, 17-30). They serve as a set of core mentoring practices from which to draw. As in any teaching and learning relationship, these practices are based on the assumption that both mentor (collaborating teacher) and novice(intern) are active participants. Figure 1 presents the paradigm of the study showing the relationship of the variables. The independent variables of the study consists the mentoring practices in Field Study Courses along professional, personal and emotional, and instructional. The dependent variables are the extent of practice and the degree of influence of each mentoring practices. The learner variables is the field of specialization.

Independent Variables
Professional and Personal Competencies. Professional and personal Competencies according to Lardizabal (2000) are embodied in the Policies and Standards for Teacher Education as formulated by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports. Specifically there are two main concerns in the pre-service education teachers, namely: (1) preparation of teachers imbued with the ideas, aspirations, and traditions of the Philippine life and culture, and (2) preparation of teachers sufficiently equipped with knowledge of effective delivery system. In the pre-service teacher education program, it emphasizes the development of teachers who posses personal and professional competencies. Professional Competencies refers to the teacher’s knowledge of general subject matter to be taught, his understanding of psychological and emotional principles , and his understanding and appreciation of teaching profession (Lardizabal 2000). For Corpuz and Salandan (2007), a professional teacher perceives themselves as someone who can effect change or learning (sense of efficacy) because they are INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLES

INTERVENING VARIABLE

Figure 1.The paradigm of the study showing the relationship of the variables expert in what they teaches(subject matter knowledge), and in how they teaches(pedagogical knowledge). With regard to personal qualities, personality is defined as the sum total of one’s characteristics. This subjects the teacher more than any other professionals to security to the minutest detail and observation. The teacher’s personality determines the impressions they makes upon students and colleagues. The professional competence of a teacher is created within the process of professionalization which includes: 1. theoretical preparation as a part of initial and in-service education 2. experience got from the student teachers´ practical training and from practice at school 3. influences of the professional environment, the pedagogical faculty and particularly school teaching staff 4. reflections of the reality in education (active adaptation to the changes in the educational system and requirements that the society imposes on education) 5. self-reflection through the peers’ and experienced teachers’ presence during lessons, and headmasters´ and pupils’/students’ evaluation or other specific means (e.g. micro-teaching). Professional competence has the following elements:

subject competence
pedagogical competence
personal competence

Personal competence can be described as a high level of personal responsibility, creativity, ability to solve problems, critical thinking, ability to work in teams, to initiate changes, high level of social abilities together with understanding, empathy and tolerance, and moral values. Subject competence means the quality and quantity of professional knowledge required in the academic disciplines related to the subject matters of teaching. Pedagogical/teaching competence relates to the pedagogical work of the teacher, and to teaching in particular. Student teachers may acquire the fundamentals of this competence especially in their professional studies. The following summary offers a list of indispensable competencies that characterize the teaching profession and the professional knowledge that forms its theoretical base (Vašutová 1998).

Professional competence
Professional knowledge
subject competence
knowledge of academic/subject disciplines and their methodology, cognitive theory interactive and co-operation competence, social competence
interpersonal strategy, social pedagogy
strategy of learning pupils/students
theory of learning, motivation, learning styles, didactics
communication skills
rhetoric, stylistics, pedagogical communication
curriculum projects (designs)
theory of design, curriculum theory
organization and management of learning activities of pupils and students theory of class and school management

problem solving competence in education
theory of problem solving, decision-making ,educational situations activity supporting and heuristic methodical approaches to teaching/learning didactics, strategy of teaching
development of pupils’/students’ personality
theory of personality, pedagogical diagnostics

management of efficient and objective means of assessment of the learning/teaching results monitoring, theory of evaluation, testing
managing the didactical and information technologies
net-based learning theory, ICT
pedagogical creativity in preparation of teaching (instructional) tools and innovative methodology theory of creativity
self-reflection and self-development
tools of self-monitoring and self-evaluation

Buchberger ( 2000) and Sander (1996) stated that the development of pedagogical competence is one of the key targets of initial teacher education and the continuous professional development of teachers. Nevertheless, the curriculum of teacher education is marked by an uneven ratio of academic and professional studies (at the expense of pedagogical and didactical disciplines and teaching practice). The fact results from incorrect judgment on the ratio between the subject matter and pedagogical components in the teacher profession. The discrepancy deepens with the higher degree of schools/higher level of education. Instructional Competencies. Instructional competencies in this study is focused on the ability of the BEE and BSE students in distinguishing general principles of teaching and in utilizing instructional materials. Lardizabal (2000) pointed out that the problems which teachers must face in relation to classroom teaching are what to be done in the classroom, what type of classroom experience can contribute to social adjustment and to the attainment of the objectives of a course and how to treat subject matter and learners. Instructional competencies include general principles of teaching, preparation and utilization of instructional materials, classroom management and evaluation(Sagandoy, 2002). Moreover, Macarayan (2006) pointed out that the teacher’s task requires that one who enters the teaching profession must be a master of his subject matter and the techniques of teaching and he must possess a wide variety of positive personality traits and professional qualities.

In 1996, Basil showed that student teachers of the Cordillera Administrative Region believed that the ability to prepare lesson plans and execute the said plan and being punctual in submitting them are professional qualities that have much effect on student teaching. However, there is a need to improve teaching methods and procedures particularly along alternative topics and their presentation. The success of the teaching-learning process depends on a great extent on the attitude and ability of the teacher to handle her class(Sagandoy,2002). Effective teaching and learning cannot take place in poorly managed classroom (Corpuz and Salandan, 2007). Calmorin (1994) stressed that evaluation is based upon broad personality objective in education program. This includes subject matter achievement, values, attitudes, interest, ideals, and way of thinking, work habits, personal, spiritual and social adaptability. In addition, the impact of technology and the changes in the educational setting, call for other forms of assessment. Authentic and alternative assessments are becoming popular among teachers. These are undertaken by teachers and their students in assessing themselves that provide information to be used as feedback to modify teaching and learning activities(Black and William,1998).

Intervening Variables
Field of Specialization. Field of specialization in this study refers to the nine subject areas covered: English, Mathematics, Social Studies, Biological Science, Physics, Filipino, Values, PEHMA, and Technology and Livelihood Education for Bachelor of Secondary Education and majors, General Education and Pre-school Education for Bachelor of Elementary Education. The Philippine Education for All (EFA) 2015 National Action Plan (2006) reported that in mathematics, science and social studies, the proficiency of teachers in their respective subjects was the second most important predictor of student achievement. Result of the Third International Math and Science Study(TIMSS) noted that the Philippines ranked third from the bottom. This is seen as indicative of the low quality of basic education (EMDC, RSDC, 2002). As stated in the Medium- Term Plan for Higher Education, 2005-2010, the greater challenges lies in improving the quality of teacher education graduates, especially in the fields of English, science and mathematics. It is often assumed that students who have majored in mathematics and the natural sciences have above performance in mathematics and science related activities and those are not good in mathematics and the natural science are believed to be those who majored in Filipino, music, art and physical education and social studies. In 1925, Yale professor George Counts observed key problems in Philippine basic education that, alas, still resonate today. Half of the children were outside the reach of schools. Pupil performance was generally low in subjects that relied on English, although achievement in math and science was at similarity with the average performance of American schoolchildren. The functional literacy of Filipino pupils left much to be desired, constraining learning in later grades. Pre-school education at the kindergarten level (age group 5-6 years) must aim to develop children in all aspects (physical, social, emotional, and cognitive) so that they will be better prepared to adjust and cope with life situations and the demands of formal schooling; and to maximize the children’s potential through a variety of carefully selected and meaningful experiences considering their interests and capabilities (A. R. Ammons ,2010).

Since effective teachers for the early years are not miraculously formed in college, it is even more important that we pay attention to teacher turnover or retention. It is in this light that we should ask ourselves whether we are providing preschool and kindergarten teachers with all the support they need (Graham, 2008). The approach to curriculum design in the country is based on content topic and competency. The Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) prescribes competencies for the subject areas in all the grade/year levels. The DECS Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Education develops, publishes and disseminates these learning competencies to the field. Most of the subject/learning areas have a list of learning competencies expected to be mastered by the children at the end of each grade/year level and also at the end of elementary/secondary schooling. Some subject/learning areas have a combination of both(i.e. learning competencies under each content/topic). The curriculum is designed to be interpreted by teachers and implemented with variations. Schools are encouraged to innovate and enrich or adapt, as long as they have met the basic requirements of the curriculum. In this context, the regional science high schools offer an enriched science and mathematics programmed whereby students take additional science and mathematics subjects. In some private schools, English, science and mathematics subjects are taken in lieu of values education; this is because subjects like religion, moral values and ethics already have been incorporated. In addition, students are required to participate in co-curricular activities. These are managed by students with the teacher as facilitator/moderator.

Statement of the Problem

The study dealt on the field study courses practices as a bridge toward better understanding of the teaching profession. Specifically, it endeavored to answer the following problems: 1. What is extent of use of the mentoring practices for field study courses? 2. What is the difference in the extent of practice of mentoring for the FS Courses according to BSE and BSE pre-service teachers? 3. What is the degree of influence of the mentoring practices to enhance the teaching skills of field study student? 4. What is the difference in the degree of influences of mentoring to the FS students when compared according to the BEE and BSE students?

Hypotheses of the Study

In this study, the following alternative hypotheses were tested: 1. There is a significant difference in the extent of practice of mentoring FS courses when compared according to the BSE and BEE pre-service teachers. 2. There is a significant difference in the degree of influence of mentoring practices as perceived by BSE and BEE pre-service teacher on their FS courses to enhance the teaching skills.

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

The study made use of descriptive survey research in determining the extent of practice of the mentoring practices in personal, professional and instructional competencies and the degree of influence to the pre-service teachers in their field study courses.

Population and Locale of the Study

The study was conducted in the College of Teacher Education of Benguet State University in La Trinidad, Benguet that has existed for more than ninety years. The study was conducted during the first semester of school year 2013-2014. Figure 1 presents the location of the Benguet State University on the map of La Trinidad Benguet which is involved in the study . Table 1 presents the respondents of the study who are pre- service teachers taking Bachelor of Elementary Education (BEEd) majors in General Education and Pre-school Education and Bachelor of Secondary Education majors in English, Mathematics, Physics, Values, Music, Arts and Physical Education(PEHMA), Technology and Livelihood Education, Social Studies (history) and Biological Science. For the enrollees of BEEd, we considered only 30% and 30% for BSEd using the stratified random sampling to determine the number of respondents.

Table 1. Respondents of the field study students

Field of Specialization
F

BEE

General Education

41
Pre-School Education

13
BSE

English
9
Mathematics
9

Filipino
9
Values
9
PEHMA
9
Technology and Livelihood Education

9
Social Studies

9
Biological Science

9
Physics
9

TOTAL
156

Data Collection Instruments

The data collection instrument used in gathering data was a survey – questionnaire (Appendix C). The questionnaire was patterned from the questionnaire used by Sagandoy (2005) and Bayao (2011) in their study but with modifications to fit the needs of the study. The other contents of the questionnaire were taken from the Field Study Course Book, Metoring Practices Elementary Preparation Program, Department of Education ( Dep Ed), and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) based on CMO 30 competencies . There are two sets of the questionnaire, a number of questionnaires for every group. The tool contains the same mentoring practices but generating different perceptions. The questionnaire primarily generated respondents’ insights of the mentoring practices especially on professional, personal and emotional and the last is the instructional. The first part of the questionnaire focused on to what extent of practice on the mentoring practices for the pre- service teachers of the College of Teacher Education taking Elementary and Secondary on their practice teaching.

The following scale was used to rate the extent of practice: Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating
5 Very Highly Practiced
4 Highly Practiced
3 Moderately Practiced
2 Fairly Practiced
2 Not Practiced
The second part of the questionnaire focused on the degree of influence of applying the mentoring practices on their practice teaching. The following scale was used to rate the degree of influence: Numerical Rating Descriptive Rating

5 Very Highly Practiced
4 Highly Practiced
3 Moderately Practiced
2 Fairly Practiced
1 Not practiced

Data Collection Procedure

After seeking approval from the adviser of this research, Department Chairman of the Elementary Education and for the Secondary Education and also to the respondents, the researchers requested the assistance of several individuals in looking for the respondents of each majors. Furthermore more, we read the letters to the respondents before floating the questionnaires and after few minutes, the questionnaires were retrieved but some are the day after.

Treatment of Data

Descriptive analysis like the weighted mean was used to determine the extent
of practice and degree of influence of professional, personal, emotional and instructional competencies of the mentoring practices in their field study courses.

Due to the nature of the study, non-parametric test were used. After mentoring practices had been ranked, the weighted mean was used to determine the degree of implementation and its influence to the respondents.

The formula for weighted mean is as follows ( Calmorin, 2005): X=
Where:
X = weighted arithmetic mean
= sum of all the products of f and x where f is the frequency of …… each score and x is the weight of each score = sum of all the respondents tested The use of inferential statistical t-test tool determined the significant differences of the mentoring practices among the BEE and BSE pre-service teachers was set at 0.05. The formula for t-test is:

where,
x1¯ = Mean of first set of values
x2¯ = Mean of second set of values
S1  = Standard deviation of first set of values
S2  = Standard deviation of second set of values
n1  = Total number of values in first set
n2 = Total number of values in second set

The formula for Standard Deviation:

where,
x = Values given
x¯ = Mean
n = Total number of values
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of data gathered from the pre- service teachers which are in Elementary and Secondary Education of the Benguet State University. It focuses on (a) the extent of implementation of the mentoring practices for field study courses on professional, personal, emotional and instructional competencies; (b) the degree of influence of the mentoring practices to the respondents.

Extent of implementation of the mentoring practices among the Bachelor of Elementary and Secondary Education

Table 2 shows the extent of use of the mentoring practices on professional, personal, emotional and instructional as perceived by the pre-service teachers on their practice teaching. Differences on their perceptions were also analyzed. Professional

BEE pre-service teachers’ perception. The table shows that the pre-service teachers performed highest in “Lesson Planning”,(4.54) followed by “Questioning Technique”(4.46) and “Model effective teaching and management technique”(4.43). The overall mean is 4.17(highly practice). These results indicate that the pre-service teachers highly practiced lesson planning, questioning techniques, and model effective teaching and management technique in mentoring practices. Because as a Table 2. Extent of Use of Mentoring Practices to BEE and BSE Pre -Service // //////////////Teachers on Professional Competency
PROFESSIONAL

BEE

BSE

M

DE

SD

WM

D

SD
1. Lesson planning
4.54
VHP
.62
4.0
HP
.92
2. Set of varied strategies/approaches/
techniques
4.13
HP
.61
4.1
HP
.84
3. Classroom management
4.09
HP
.80
4.2
HP
.88
4. Assessment of learning outcomes
4.41
HP
.71
4.1
HP

.86
5. Questioning techniques
4.46
HP
.60
4.0
HP
.82
6. Preparation of instructional materials
3.93
HP
.69
4.0
HP
.87
7. Preparation of examinations/various
4.0
HP
.72
4.1
HP
.79
8. Assessment modes
4.0
HP
.70
3.9
HP
.78
9. Accomplishment of different forms and related work
4.15
HP
.75
3.9
HP

.85
10. Observe and evaluate the performance of the student teacher 4.26
HP
.66
3.9
HP
.90
11. Keep a record of observations and post conferences with the student teachers 4.17
HP
..65
3.8
HP
.94
12. Model effective teaching and management technique
4.43
HP
.71
3.8
HP
.90
13. Provide the student teacher opportunity to teach independently and collaboratively 4.22
HP
.66
4.0
HP
.93
14. Allow the student teacher participate in co-curricular and school community activities 4.09
HP
.79
3.9
HP
.90

15. Complete a set of summative evaluation reports for each student teacher 3.70
HP
.78
3.9
HP
.86
16. Recommend a PASS or FAIL standing for the student teacher for the practicum 4.15
HP
1.09
3.8
HP
.92
17. Assists with the routing of professional settings, institutions, structures, and politics 4.15
HP
.82
3.9
HP
.91
18. Facilitates professional development
4.33
HP
.76
3.9
HP
.88

General Weighted Mean
4.17
HP

3.95
HP

Legend:
DESCRIPTIVE EQUVALENCE
DESCRIPTIVE RATING
4.51 – 5
Very Highly P Very Highly Practiced 3.51 – 4.50
Highly Practiced
2.51 – 3.50
Moderately Practiced
1.51 – 2.50
Fairly Practiced
1.0 – 1.50
Not Practiced

pre-service teachers, they must be expert in lesson planning and in the art of questioning when implementing the lesson plan in class, they had to model effective teaching in management technique in the classroom. The pre-service teachers rated themselves lowest in “Compile a set of summative evaluation report for each student teacher”,(3.70) followed by “Preparation of Instructional materials”(3.93) and “ Preparation of examination/various and assessment modes”(4.0) BSE pre-service teachers’ perception. The professional rated the “classroom management” as the highest (4.2) followed by “set of varied strategies or approaches or techniques and preparation of examination or various” (4.1). These finding is according to the BSE student belief on the extent of practice of the mentoring practices all this accounted for the high rating in the all items. According to Lanier and Featherstone (1988) stress that prospective teachers must be able to demonstrate a specified level competent by the end of the pre-service stage in order to be allowed entry to the profession. The importance of being a professional in teaching is a need in our profession, not only for the student improvement but for its good effect to the community and the country. The BSE student’s rated lowest the “Keep a record of observations and post conferences with the student teachers” (3.8), and “model effective teaching and management technique and recommended a pass or fail standing for student for student teacher for the practicum” (3.8). There are some only observation and conference conduct by the critic teacher because of the busy schedule or some activities in the school. The recording of observation and conference are not given importance for professionalization same on the needs in management technique. The belief of the BSE student in the capability of a professional teacher is more on the strategies of a teacher on how she or he handled the class on different strategies or approaches and techniques appropriate on the grade level and age of the students. The overall mean is (3.52) highly practiced.

Table 3. Extent of Use of Mentoring Practices to BEE and BSE Pre -Service // //////////////Teachers on Personal and Emotional Competency
PERSONAL AND EMOTIONAL

BEE

BSE

M
DE
SD
M
DE
SD
1. Challenges and encourages appropriately to facilitate growth 4.33
HP
.73
3.7
HP
.91
2. Provides wisdom, advice, counsel, coaching
4.44
HP
.72

3.8
HP
.93
3. Provides acceptance, encouragement, and moral support
4.28
HP
.71
3.9
HP
.84
4. Provides nourishment, caring, and protection
4.20
HP
.68
3.8
HP
.86
5. Integrates professional support with other areas such as faith and family 4.22
HP
.77
3.8
HP
.93
6. Enjoys the opportunity to pass on their wisdom and knowledge and collaboration with early career professionals 4.19
HP
.93
3.4
MP
.90
7. Encourage and support the acculturation of the student into the district 4.22
HP
.66

3.4
MP
.91
8. Maintain a relationship with the student consistent with the Code of Professional Conduct 4.30
HP
.77
4.0
HP
.9

General Weighted Mean

4.27

HP

3.72

HP

Legend:
DESCRIPTIVE EQUVALENCE
DESCRIPTIVE RATING
4.51 – 5
Very Highly P Very Highly Practiced 3.51 – 4.50
Highly Practiced
2.51 – 3.50
Moderately Practiced
1.51 – 2.50
Fairly Practiced
1.0 – 1.50
Not Practiced

Personal and Emotional
BEE pre-service teachers’ perception. The table shows that the pre-service teachers have highly practiced in personal and emotional mentoring practices as indicated by the overall mean of 4.27. They have highest practiced on “Provide wisdom, advice, counsel, coughing”, (4.44) followed by “Challenges and encourage appropriately to facilitate growth”(4.33) and “ Maintain relationship with the student consistent with the code of professional conduct”(4.30). These results indicate that the pr-service teachers have highly practiced in providing wisdom, advice, counsel, coughing, giving appropriate challenges and encouragement, and maintain good relationship with the students. However, the lowest mean are “Enjoys the opportunity to pass on their wisdom and knowledge and collaboration with early career professionals” (4.19) and “Integrates professional support with the areas such as faith and family”(4.22) BSE pre-service teachers’ perception. The personal and emotional performed highest in “maintain a relationship with the student consistent with the code of professional conduct (4.0) followed by “Provides nourishment, caring, and protection (3.9) and “Provides wisdom, advice, counsel, coaching” , “Provides nourishment , caring, and protection”, and integrates professional support with other areas such as faith and family” with the same (3.8). The overall mean is (3.7) highly practiced. According to Corpus and Salandan (2007) Pointed out that open mindedness is basic in promoting respect and trust between teachers and students. It opens awareness for unrestricted search for information and evidence.

A good relationship with the consistent of being a professional is a good motivation. The BSE student rated lowest the “enjoys the opportunity to pass on their wisdom and knowledge and collaboration with early professionals” and “encourage and support the acculturation of the student into the district” same in (3.9). The traditional way of teaching is a hindrance on the student participation in the class. Because of this there is no collaboration in learning of the students. Teacher centred is not only the technique in teaching there are lots of methods to be used. Personal and emotional conducts of a teacher’s are need to be practice now a days, because of different attitude of the student today. The changes also of the technology affect the student attitude. The code of professional
conduct is a must to be implemented or practice by the teachers.

Table 4. Extent of Use of Mentoring Practices to BEE and BSE Pre -Service // //////////////Teachers on Instructional Competency
INSTRUCTIONAL

BEE

BSE

M

DE

SD

M

DE

SD

1. Prepare and implement a joint mentorship growth plan with the student 4.13
HP
.80
4.30
HP
.88
2. Regular class observation and post conference
4.19
HP
.75
4.22
HP

.84
3. Model and demonstrate effective teaching strategies
4.24
HP
.75
4.02
HP
.87
4. Observe and provide feedback to the student
4.33
HP
.64
4.15
HP
.86
5. Assist the student in identifying personal strengths and planning for further professional growth.

4.20

HP

.68

4.30

HP

.91
6. Assist the student with curriculum and instructional planning. 4.09
HP
.81
4.22
HP
.93

7. Helps the student to decide what to treat as relevant in a situation in other words, how to frame a problem 4.16
HP
.78
4.28
HP
.93
8. Finds out how the student is thinking about a situation by asking him/her to elaborate on an initial statement 4.20
HP
.71
4.22
HP
.84
9. Acknowledges and compliments the student on specific aspects of her/his teaching 4.24
HP
.78
4.22
HP
81
10. Helps the student to focus attention on students’ thinking and sense making in addition to more formal assessments

4.26

HP

.70

4.31

HP

.82

11. Connects specific examples of children’s sense-making to research and theory 4.24
HP
.62
4.28
HP
1.01
12. The mentor models ways of thinking about teaching in specific contexts, so student can understand the thinking behind a teacher’s actions and can develop broadly useful perspectives 4.22
HP
.79
4.15
HP
.92
13. Help the student to articulate goals for growth and to assess progress in working toward those goals 4.17
HP
.77
4.26
HP
.89
14. Offers and suggests potential areas of growth to the student 4.22
HP
.72
4.20
HP
.94
15. Joins the student and field instructor in framing problems of teaching practice, identifying a range of potential solutions, and discussing whether problems are resolved. 4.19
HP
.73
4.41
HP

.90
16. Joins the student in unit and lesson planning
4.50
HP
.56
4.06
HP
.92

General Weighted Mean

4.22

HP

3.55

HP

OVERALL MEAN

4.21

HP

4.22

HP

DESCRIPTIVE EQUVALENCE
DESCRIPTIVE RATING
4.51 – 5
Very Highly P Very Highly Practiced 3.51 – 4.50
Highly Practiced

2.51 – 3.50
Moderately Practiced
1.51 – 2.50
Fairly Practiced
1.0 – 1.50
Not Practiced
Legend:

Instructional
BEE pre-service teachers’ perception. The table shows that the pre-service teachers have highly practiced on the Instructional mentoring as evidenced by the overall mean of 4.22. Leading in the mean is “Joins the students in unit planning” with 4.50 as mean. Following closely is “ Observe and provide feedback to the students” with a mean of 4.33 and “ Help the students to focus attention on student’s thinking and sense in making addition to more formal assessments”,(2.26). Listed lowest on the table is “Assist the student with curriculum and instructional planning” with 4.09 as mean, followed by “Prepare and implement a joint mentorship growth plan with the student” (4.13) and “Helps the student to decide what to treat as relevant in a situation in other words, how to frame a problem”(4.16) The data reflects that the student is highly involved in unit and lesson planning. And that the pre-service teachers practiced more on observing and providing feedback to students. However, the respondents attributed to the fact that they are not more on assessing the students with the curriculum and instructional planning. BSE pre-service teachers’ perception. The strong emphasis on the “student and field instructor in framing problems of teaching practice, identifying a large of potential solutions, and discussing whether problems are resolved (4.41) followed by “the student focus attention on student thinking and sense making in addition to more formal assessments. According to Ornstein (1990) mentioned that real life experiences provide the most direct type of learning but they are difficult to supply in the traditional classroom. He speaks of verbal experiences as may be easier for teachers to supply but they may be difficult for many students to understand. Student teacher believed that there is so much need for new and updated instructional materials and varied educational activities (Basil, 1996). Basil further mentioned that he inadequacy of school materials affect significantly student teaching. In support, Austria (1999) found that the educational preparation of student teachers revealed a significant difference and insufficiency in the number of non- print materials, which gave them difficulty in dealing with their student. “Model and demonstrate effective teaching strategies” (4.02) rate lowest by the BSE student followed by “Observed and provide feedback to the student” and “The mentor models (think aloud) ways of thinking about teaching in specific contexts, so student can understand the thinking behind a teacher’s actions and can develop broadly useful perspectives

Degree of influence of the mentoring practices among the Bachelor of Elementary and Secondary Education

Table 5 shows the degree of influence of the mentoring practices on professional, personal, emotional and instructional as perceived by the pre-service teachers on their practice teaching. Differences on their perceptions were also analyzed. Professional

BEE pre-service teachers’ perception. The table shows that the students perform highest in the ‘’Lesson Planning,’’ (4.46).Followed by “Provide the student teacher opportunity to teach independently and collaboratively,” (4.43) and “Allow the student teacher participate in co-curricular and school/community activities”, (4.33). The overall weighted mean is 4.18 (high influence). These results indicate that the field study students learn how lesson planning; provide opportunity to teach independently and collaboratively, and participate in co-curricular and school/community activities influence a novice teacher. Because creating a great teacher have to undergone in many challenges. Schon’s (1983,1987) work postulate reflection on action (critical analysis of a past teaching experience) and reflection in action, where critical analysis occurs in the present while teaching. Reflection without practice becomes a passive response, therefore, purposive reflection necessitates a productive Table 5. Perceive Degree of Influence of Mentoring to BEE and BSE Pre -Service Teachers on Professional Competency
.

MENTORING PRACTICES

PROFESSIONAL

BEE

BSE

M

DE

SD

M

DE

SD

1. Lesson planning
4.46
HI
.64
4.0
HI
.99
2. Set of varied strategies/approaches/
techniques
4.41
HI
.66
3.9

HI
.90
3. Classroom management
4.20
HI
.76
3.8
HI
.86
4. Assessment of learning outcomes
4.05
HI
.74
3.9
HI
.79
5. Questioning techniques
4.07
HI
.72
3.9
HI
.88
6. Preparation of instructional materials
4.26
HI
.62
4.0
HI
.93
7. Preparation of examinations/various
3.98
HI
.79
3.8

HI
.87
8. assessment modes
4.02
HI
.76
3.9
HI
.85
9. Accomplishment of different forms and related work
4.07

.75
3.9
HI
.93
10. Observe and evaluate the performance of the student teacher 4.24
HI
.67
4.0
HI
.97
11. Keep a record of observations and post conferences with the student teachers 4.11
HI
.77
4.0
HI
.99
12. Model effective teaching and management technique
4.15
HI
.66
3.9
HI

.91
13. Provide the student teacher opportunity to teach independently and collaboratively 4.43
HI
.63
3.6
HI
.95
14. Allow the student teacher participate in co-curricular and school/community activities 4.33
HI
.70
4.0
HI
.95
15. Complete a set of summative evaluation reports for each student teacher

4.22
HI
.72
3.9
HI
1.05
16. Recommend a PASS or FAIL standing for the student teacher for the practicum 3.93
HI
.84
3.8
HI
1.07
17. Assists with the routing of professional settings, institutions, structures, and politics 4.11
HI
.84
3.8

HI
.98
18. Facilitates professional development
4.28
HI
.68
4.0

HI
.93

General Weighted Mean
4.18
HI

3.89
HI

Legend:

DESCRIPTIVE EQUVALENCE

DESCRIPTIVE RATING
4.51 – 5
Very High Influence
3.51 – 4.50
High Influence
2.51 – 3.50
Moderate Influence
1.51 – 2.50
Less Influence
1.0 – 1.50
No Influence

outcome that demonstrate practice have been enhance (van Manen, 1977), which
can be particularly useful when there is an explicit emphasis on specific teaching practices (Devis, 2006). The opportunity of a student teacher to make a lesson plan and to execute it gives a better perception on what is happening in a classroom. Experiencing it from a classroom has a great purpose. Challenges will be encountered by the student teacher that will soon be encountered in the field. Learning how to handle a problem in a classroom thorough experiencing it is better than reading it through text. It will result to more suitable solution for the problem. The students rated them lowest in the “Recommend a PASS or FAIL standing for the student teacher for the practicum,” (3.93). This is the result on the practice teaching held in a classroom. Results are not shown more on the comments and recommendation of the teacher. To illustrate, it would be hard to delineate between making a judgement and considering strategies as two separate reflective processes as suggested by Eby and Kujawa (1994); also whether considering moral principles is at the forefront of reflection (e.g., Eby & Kujawa’s work) or Lee’s own last-step proposal of acceptance/rejection of an evaluation process would be a final reflective decision. It would seem reasonable to suggest that teachers may trial many times the solutions from a reflected process and yet not come to an acceptance or rejection of a proposed solution, particularly as circumstances can change within the teaching content and context.

BSE pre-service teachers’ perception. Base on the analysis under Professional with general weighted mean of 3.8; item (1)Lesson Planning, (6)Preparation of instructional materials, (10)Observe and evaluate the performance of the student teacher, and (18)Facilitates professional development got the highest rate with 4.0 and the item Provide the student teacher opportunity to teach independently and collaboratively has the lowest rating having 3.6 Thus, the result implicates different rating on the mentoring practices and the four item mentions is found out that it is highly practiced and observed among the BSE students along their practice teaching in ordinance of their respective mentors and have the difference in practicing the item Providing the student teacher opportunity to teach independently and collaboratively.Likewise, the degree of equivalence has the difference in the implication of the results of the data corresponding to the different weighted mean of the mentoring practices Personal and
Emotional

BEE pre-service teachers’ perception. The table 6 shows that the mentee help mentee through “Provides wisdom, advice, council and coaching,” (4.39) followed by “Maintain a relationship with the student consistent with the Code of Professional Conduct,” (4.35) and “Challenges and encourage appropriately to facilitate growth,” (4.31). These findings conclude that the mentor influence the mentee in different ways. Every word comes from the mentor count as treasure in a mentee. These words will results to a better relationship between two professional persons.

An effective mentor encourages and facilitate a consistent approach to reflection and can offer alternative viewpoints and perspective, but still allows the mentee to act on reflections and trial alternatives (KOrthagen, 1983; Schon ,1983, 1987 ). Effective critical self-reflection (as opposed to general or vague recollections) needs to be developed over a period of time within the school setting to understand skills and strategies aligned with reflective practices (Lee, 2005, Loughran, 2002) A mentor is intended to provide guidance and assistance to the mentee for improving pupil learning and teaching practice. A success to the mentee is directly related to the quality of mentoring received. The mentee reflects the mentor on many things like in handling class, solving a problem and dealing with others. Mentoring must be situated in such a way that the mentor must find the right mix between giving the mentee support while empowering them with responsibility.

Table 6. Perceive Degree of Influence of Mentoring to BEE and BSE Pre -Service Teachers on Personal and Emotional

PERSONAL AND EMOTIONAL

BEE

BSE

M
DE
SD
M
DE
SD

1. Challenges and encourages appropriately to facilitate growth 4.31
HI
.75
3.7
HI
.90
2. Provides wisdom, advice, counsel, coaching
4.39
HI
.68
3.8
HI
1.03
3. Provides acceptance, encouragement, and moral support
4.30
HI
.74
3.9
HI
86
4. Provides nourishment, caring, and protection
4.24
HI
.80
3.8
HI
.97
5. Integrates professional support with other areas such as faith and family
4.20
HI
.71
3.8
HI
.87
6. Enjoys the opportunity to pass on their wisdom and knowledge and collaboration with early career professionals 4.28
HI
.71
3.4
MI
.97
7. Encourage and support the acculturation of the student into the district 4.17
HI
.75
3.4
MI
.63
8. Maintain a relationship with the student consistent with the Code of Professional Conduct 4.35
HI
.78
4.0
HI
.96

General Weighted Mean
4.28
HI

3.72
HI

Legend:
DESCRIPTIVE EQUVALENCE
DESCRIPTIVE RATING
4.51 – 5
Very High Influence
3.51 – 4.50
High Influence
2.51 – 3.50
Moderate Influence
1.51 – 2.50
Less Influence
1.0 – 1.50
No Influence
The mentee rated the lowest in the “Encourage and support the acculturation of the student into the district,” (4.17). Being able to adopt in a certain culture is one of the advantage of a teacher. Not everything is provided in the school for example is in what is present in that society that can be use in a classroom setting. Existing literature has provided evidence that teachers’ belief in the ability to teach directly influences their instructional behaviour, which in turn, promotes students’ outcomes and success (de Mesquita & Drake, 1994; Goddard, Tschannen-Moran, & Hoy, 2001). It has also been reported that minority pre-service teachers’ self-concept including ethnic identity positively affected their teaching efficacy (Flores ; Clark, 2004). Therefore, it is crucial to develop an understanding of the psychological constructs of teaching efficacy, acculturation and ethnic identity of minority teachers who are serving ELL students, and to examine differences in these aspects as a result of teaching experience, route to certification, and program taught. BSE pre-service teachers’ perception.The weighted mean of 3.7; item (8) Maintain relationship with the student consistent with the code of ethics rate as the highest and item (6) Enjoys the opportunity to pass on their wisdom and knowledge and collaboration with early Career professionals and (7) Encourage and support the acculturation of the student into the district is found out to have the lowest rate among the BSE pre service teachers. The result implicates that BSE pre service teachers is not that highly trained and equipped in terms of their personal and emotional aspects to their practice teaching regarding with different activities during the floating of our questionnaire which mean they need more trainings and seminar to meet their needs to enhance their practice teaching. The findings support the idea of Lieberman (1995), “What everyone appears to want for students – a wide array of learning opportunities that engage students in experiencing, creating, and solving real problems, using their own experiences, and working with others – is for some reason denied to teachers as learners” (p. 592). Long, 1997,experience and knowledge of primary teaching gives the mentor credibility.

Formal mentoring programs are considered to be a “planned and intentional process” Findings highlighted that assessing the mentee can be an issue. Some claim there is tension between being a confidant and assessor. Ways to address these issues included self assessment for discussion purposes and focusing the discussion on specific practices. One mentor educator claimed that pre-service teacher “self assessment using a framework on adaily or weekly basis and then at the end of practicum” would assist in providing information for purposeful mentor-mentee dialogue. “Taking those „self-identified? strengths/needs and discussing these in each follow up session during the practicum”, this could focus on “a pre-determined aim/concept of the lessons for mentor feedback”. There was a sense that dividing “practicum into areas and reflecting on those areas (e.g., behavior management, curriculum, school events, and classroom management)” may assist the mentor for developing the mentee as a teacher and for assessment purposes. In addition, a mentor can assist the mentee’s development even after the conclusion of practicum: “Mentor availability post practicum when decided between mentee/mentor to assist ; support with on-going journey”. Instructional

BEE pre-service teachers’ perception. The table shows that the mentor support the mentee by “Joins the student and field instructor in framing problems of teaching practice, identifying a range of potential solutions and discussing whether problems are solved,” (4.41) followed by “Helps the student to focus attention on students’ thinking and sense making in addition to more formal assessments,” (4.31) and “Prepare and implement a joint mentorship growth plan with the student, Assist the student in identifying personal strengths and planning for further professional growth,” (4.30). The teacher has the role to ensure that the student teacher that he/she is prepared to be in a classroom to share knowledge to the young learner. Some of the many attributes of effective mentor/cooperating teacher that were identified in the literature (Capel, 2003; Cothhran et al., 2008, Kim Yau in Mawer 1996; McCullik, 2001; Zanting et al., 2001) include: Ability to demonstrate effective interpersonal skills, skilled at giving pre-lesson guidance, provide constructive and positive feedback, competent in physical education, willing to listen to student teacher concerns and ideas, and omitted to the profession of teaching physical education. Review of lessons plans prior to teaching allowed the mentee the opportunity to share her/his idea, ask questions and make informed adjustments. A teachers’ role may include may include supporting and challenging the pre-service teacher by promoting a problem-solving approach when reflecting about their learning and teaching. This may help a student teacher to situate their self in real life situation. Table 7. Perceive Degree of Influence of Mentoring to BEE and BSE Pre – Service Teachers on Instructional Competency

INSTRUCTIONAL

M
BEE

DE

SD

M
BSE

DE

SD

1. Prepare and implement a joint mentorship growth plan with the student 4.30
HI
.82
3.6
HI
.95
2. Regular class observation and post conference
4.22
HI
.72
4.2
HI
.96
3. Model and demonstrate effective teaching strategies
4.02
HI
.74
3.9
HI
.97
4. Observe and provide feedback to the student
4.15
HI
.72
4.0
HI
.92
5. Assist the student in identifying personal strengths and planning for further professional growth. 4.30
HI
.74
4.0
HI
.94
6. Assist the student with curriculum and instructional planning. 4.22

HI
.68
3.9
HI
.95
7. Helps the student to decide what to treat as relevant in a situation in other words, how to frame a problem 4.28
HI
.69
3.8
HI
1.04
8. Finds out how the student is thinking about a situation by asking him/her to elaborate on an initial statement 4.22
HI
.69
3.8
HI
1.03
9. Acknowledges and compliments the student on specific aspects of her/his teaching 4.22
HI
.70
4.1
HI
.94
10. Helps the student to focus attention on students’ thinking and sense making in addition to more formal assessments 4.31
HI
.68
4.3
HI
1.0
11. Connects specific examples of children’s sense-making to research and theory 4.28

HI
.71
3.8
HI
.96
12. The mentor models ways of thinking about teaching in specific contexts, so student can understand the thinking behind a teacher’s actions

4.15

HI

.73

4.0

HI

.98

Table 7 cont..

13. Help the student to articulate goals for growth and to assess progress in working toward those goals 4.26
HI
.83
4.0
HI
.96
14. Offers and suggests potential areas of growth to the student 4.20
HI
.69
3.9
HI
1.05

15. Joins the student and field instructor in framing problems of teaching practice, identifying a range of potential solutions, and discussing whether problems are resolved.

4.41

HI

4.0

HI

.99
16. Joins the student in unit and lesson planning
4.06
HI
.94
4.0
HI
.98

General Weighted Mean
4.25
HI

3.95
HI

OVERALL MEAN

4.23

HI

3.85

HI

Legend:
PERCIEVE DEGREE OF INFLUENCE
DESCRIPTIVE EQUVALENCE
DESCRIPTIVE RATING
4.51 – 5
Very High Influence
3.51 – 4.50
High Influence
2.51 – 3.50
Moderate Influence
1.51 – 2.50
Less Influence
1.0 – 1.50
No Influence

The mentors rated the lowest in the “Model and demonstrate effective teaching strategies,” (4.02). Hence, pre-service teacher require guidance by experienced teachers who can facilitate the reflective processes; however such opportunities require guidance from competent teacher who has knowledge of effective classroom practices and the individual nature of the students within the class. It is observed that teaching strategies are often used by the teacher. Common reason is that handling many sections of students is impossible to execute each teaching strategies. Meaning is that it is hard to observe which teaching strategies will be effective for the class. BSE pre-service teachers’ perception. the weighted mean 3.89; item (10) Helps the student to focus attention on students thinking and sense making in addition to more formal assessments, (2) Regular class observation and post conference, and (9) Acknowledges and compliments the students on specific aspects of her/his teaching are rank as the highest weighted mean and item (1) Prepare and implement a joint mentorship growth plan with the student has the lowest weighted mean. The result found out that mentoring practices regarding with instructional among the BSE students is more practiced and observed on their practice teaching with regards to the different weighted mean likewise, the degree of equivalence has the difference in the implication of the results of the data corresponding to the different weighted mean of the mentoring practices.

The findings support the a meta-analysis of various measures of teacher preparation, Wilson,Floden and Ferrini-Mundy (2002) find education coursework a betterpredictor of teaching success than subject matter major or GPA prior to entering the lateral entry program. Teachers credit their educationcoursework with providing essential instructional and disciplinary skills.However, critics argue that the considerable variation among teacher trainingprograms renders evaluations of such programs questionable, if notimpossible. Data limitations prevent most studies from directly linking thecontent of education coursework to student achievement. Instead, many studies use teacher certification status or teachers’ scores on standardized certification examinations as proxies for the degree of pedagogical training. As to the summative result of the Perceive of the Degree of Influence of the Mentoring Practices among Bachelor of Secondary Education Pre Service Teachers with the general weighted mean 3.88 including the three area: Professional, Personal and Emotional, and Instructional. Base on the analysis of the data their implicates of different rating on the study conditions about the Perceive of the Degree of Influence of the Mentoring Practices among Bachelor of Secondary Education Pre Service Teachers by the student respondents taking BSE assume by the differences on the waited mean and the difference in the result of the standard deviation which is shown in table 5. Likewise, the degree of equivalence has the difference in the implication of the results of the data corresponding to the different waited mean of the study conditions. Base on the research of Hudson, it was acknowledged that mentors require time to establish the relationship and troubleshoot potential problems in the early stages: “Time to build a respectful professional relation prior to placement with mentor and site coordinator. So an initial visit with clear guidelines for the mentoring process and an exchange of email addresses contained in the process in the planning cycle are the three areas in wich beginning teachers need assisstance: professional, instructional and personal and emotional (based on Anderson 1998 and Enz 1992.See the figure next page.

According to Dobozy, Scevak, Bryer, Bartlett, &Biehler, 2009, successful management of student behaviour requires a good understanding of students’ emotional, social and moral development (Snowman Theorists have presented a variety of ways for teachers to become effective in managing students. For example, Kounin (1970), who based his work on WilliamGlasser’s research, outlines how to manage groups of students and coined “withitness” as thenotion of knowing what is going on in the classroom at all times. According to Jacob Kounin’s theory, managing students necessitates devising techniques for dealing with behavior problems as they arise. Pre-service teachers need to equip themselves by “preplanningspecific elements of classroom management” (Crosswell, 2009, p. 41). Some of these elements include learning about proactive, preventative measures for creating a positiveemotional classroom climate such as planning, implementation and organization, establishingclear expectations and consequences (rules, routines and procedures), developing positive relationships with students, and manipulating the environment such as furniture arrangements to produce conditions conducive for learning (Konza, Grainger & Bradshaw, 2001; Marzano&Marzano, 2003). Other educators suggest that catering for students’ needs through differentiated teaching and learning can engage students in education and minimize potentialbehavior difficulties. Arthur-Kelly, Lyons, Butterfield, & Gordon, 2007; Burden, 2003;Tomlinson, 2000, early-career teachers can require assistance from experienced teachers to manage the learning environment (Sugai& Horner, 2002). It is important to have teachers who are effective classroom managers to guide the practices of those in their early-career stages. Mentor teachers articulating these practices to their mentees. Currently, school-wide approaches are proving effective when positive behavior support is provided to teachers.

Summary on the Extent of Implementation of the Mentoring Practices to BEE and BSE Pre -Service Teachers

Table 8 presents the summary of the extent of implementation of mentoring practices along professional, personal and emotional and instructional on their field study courses as perceive by the BEE and BSE pre-service teachers. Students’ perception. As reflected in the table, the mentoring practices identified in the study as indicated by the overall mean 4.22 for BEE and 3.73 for BSE described as “highly practiced”. The BEE pre-service teachers rated as the highest the personal and emotional competency with a mean of 4.27 and professional for BSE with a mean of 3.95. The lowest for BEE is the professional competency with a mean of 4.17 and instructional for BSE with a mean of 3.55. Although both BEE and BSE call it as highly practiced on the mentoring practices on their field study courses but statistically the highly practice of BEE is in actuality different from the highly practice of BSE. Therefore, the research hypothesis that there is a significant difference in the extent of practice of mentoring is accepted.

Table 8. Summary on Extent of use of the mentoring practices among BEE and BSE pre-service teachers MENTORING PRACTICES
BEE
BSE

MEAN
DESCRIPTION
MEAN
DESCRIPTION

PROFESSIONAL
4.17
HP
3.95
HP
PERSONAL AND EMOTIONAL

4.27
HP
3.72
HP
INSTRUCTIONAL
4.22

HP
3.55
HP
Over All Mean
4.22
HP
3.73
HP
t stat = 3.57 * t Critical = 2.92 Legend:
DESCRIPTIVE EQUVALENCE
DESCRIPTIVE RATING
4.51 – 5
Very Highly P Very Highly Practiced 3.51 – 4.50
Highly Practiced
2.51 – 3.50
Moderately Practiced
1.51 – 2.50
Fairly Practiced
1.0 – 1.50
Not Practiced

Summary on Degree of influence of the Mentoring Practices
to BEE and BSE Pre -Service Teachers

Table 9 presents the summary of the degree of influence of mentoring practices along professional, personal and emotional and instructional on their field study courses as perceive by the BEE and BSE pre-service teachers. Students’ perception. Overall result as perceived by the pre-service teachers on the mentoring practices is “highly influence”. The BEE pre-service teachers rated as the highest the instructional competency with a mean of 4.25 and 3.95 for BSE. with a mean of 3.95. The lowest for BEE is the professional competency with a mean of 4.18 and personal and emotional for BSE with a mean of 3.72. Even if the pre-service teachers of
BEE have a higher overall mean than the BSE pre-service teachers but statistically there is no difference at all. Therefore, the research hypothesis that there is a significant difference in the degree of influence of mentoring practices as perceived by BSE and BEE pre-service teacher on their FS courses to enhance the teaching skills is rejected.

Table 8. Summary on Extent of use of the mentoring practices among BEE and BSE pre-service teachers MENTORING PRACTICES
BEE
BSE

MEAN
DESCRIPTION
MEAN
DESCRIPTION

PROFESSIONAL
4.18

HI
3.89
HI
PERSONAL AND EMOTIONAL
4.28

HI
3.72
HI
INSTRUCTIONAL
4.25
HI
3.95
HI

Over All Mean

4.23
HI
3.85
HI
t stat = 0.14 ** t Critical = 2.91

Legend:
DESCRIPTIVE EQUVALENCE
DESCRIPTIVE RATING
4.51 – 5
Very High Influence
3.51 – 4.50
High Influence
2.51 – 3.50
Moderate Influence
1.51 – 2.50
Less Influence
1.0 – 1.50
No Influence

SUMMARY

The salient findings of the study are as follows:
1. The extent of implementation of the mentoring practices to the pre-service teachers of the College of teacher Education of Benguet State University on their Field Study Courses is highly practiced. However there is a significant difference on the implementation of mentoring practices. 2. The degree of influence of the mentoring practices to the BEE and BSE pre-service teachers was still high.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the conclusions and recommendations based from the findings of the study. Conclusion

The following conclusions were drawn:
1. In general, mentoring is highly practiced to BEE and BSE students in the FS courses but based on the statistical result, the highly practiced of BEE is in equality to the highly practiced of BSE. 2. BSE pre-service teachers find enjoying the opportunity to pass on wisdom and knowledge and collaboration with early career professionals; and encouraging and supporting him acculturation of the student into the district as moderately practiced. 3. BSE students have a highly practiced in the extent of use mentoring for the FS courses specially in preparing and implementing a joint mentorship growth plan with the student, assisting the student in identifying personal strengths and planning for further professional growth, and joining the student and field instructor in framing problems of teaching practice, identifying a range of potential solutions, and discussing whether problems are resolved. But it is not that so far to compare to the extent of the mentoring practices among BEE students. 4. The results of the extent of practice which is high goes with the degree of influence which is also high so therefore it connotes that as the mentoring practices are frequently practiced, expect that there is an influence to the pre-service teachers. 5. Mentors of BEE and BSE students of the FS courses performed and share their wisdom to increase the degree in influencing the FS students as to the mentoring practices among the pre service teachers but in mentoring practices in personal and emotional declared which is not yet well highly practice.

Recommendations
1. A continuous in service training for the students of FS courses as they go further to their practice teaching. 2. It is best suggested having more practices to increase the range of the mentoring practices for both BSE and BEE students of the FS courses to ensure the ability of the Pre service teachers. 3. Strengthening of the application of the mentoring practices for the pre-service teachers. 4. To further increase the degree of influences of mentoring to the FS students, mentors are suggested to have more practice to mentor FS students especially to the personal and emotional mentoring practices. It is also advice that the mentors in the FS courses to focused more on in the practices which is highly needed of the pre service teachers

No Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Free Essays
Bullying and People Essay

Bullying- everyone knows about it, but a lot of people don’t realize why it’s serious. Bullying can be defined as unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involve a real or perceived power imbalance. About 30% of teens in the U.S have been involved in bullying. People should care …

Free Essays
Most difficult aspects of learning English Essay

I studied English language at school and in university, but when I started to work in Russian-American it-company I met several difficulties with my English. I understood that my English wasn’t perfect and I need study more to build my career,, because in this company and generally you have to …

Free Essays
Cell Phone Essay

Many kids these days have cell phones. You often see teenagers talking on their phones, or, just as often, texting. It has become a part of everyday life, and a part of our society. It is encouraged socially, especially among teenagers, to have a phone. Cell phones can be very …

x

Hi!
I'm Terry

Would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out