A gospel truth by marketers

C. K. Prahlad in his book “ The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid ” says, “ If we stop believing of the hapless as victims or as a load and get down acknowledging them as resilient and originative enterprisers and value-conscious consumers, a whole new universe of chance will open up ” . This statement has been taken to wish a Gospel truth by sellers in India and many are now seeking hard to aim this untapped potency.

India is a state of 1.13 billion, out of which 70 % of the people are populating in the rural India.

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The sellers all around the universe interested in India are going more funny to research the rural potency. With 128 million families, the rural population is 3 times the urban. As a consequence of rural richness, fuelled by good monsoon and the addition in agribusiness to 200 million tones, the rural India has big devouring category of 41 % of in-between category and8 58 % of the entire disposable income.

The Census of India defines Rural India as anything which is non urban. Village is defined as a ‘basic unit for the rural countries is the gross small town, might consist several crossroadss demarcated by physical boundaries. Thus a Rural is defined when it meets the undermentioned standards:

  • Minimum Population & lt ; = 5,000
  • Population denseness & lt ; = 400/sq. kilometer.
  • 25 % of the male population engaged in agricultural activity

Reserve Bank of India defines rural as ‘Locations with population up to 10,000 will be considered as rural and 10,000 to 100,000 as semi-urban. ‘ Similarly NABARD, Planning Commission, Sahara besides define the small towns on population standards.

As mentioned in The Rural Marketing Book, Pradeep Kashyap and Siddhartha Raut ( ed.2008 ) , the rural economic system has seen enormous growing since 1990s because of 13 back-to-back good monsoons. This assorted extremist alterations in rural market has been testimonial to this development, some of them are as follows ;

  • There has been a 600 % addition in the spending of rural development programmes in the five twelvemonth programs from Eighth to Tenth Five twelvemonth program.
  • 41 million Kisan Credit Cards ( KCC ) has been issued since the origin of the strategy amounting to a sum of Rs. 97,700 crore of cumulative recognition. The figure of KCC issued is more than the 40 million credit-plus-debit cards issued in urban India.
  • Besides a 230 % addition in the flow of institutional recognition for agribusiness from 1997-98 to 2004-05 has been registered.

Today Mobile phones are omnipresent non merely in urban India but besides in rural countries. This phenomenon has increased the range of branding which most company considered a tough sod in rural India. Though it may look a far-fetched thought presently but sing the elephantine leap the economic systems of developing states like India is doing, tapping of rural markets & A ; constructing trade names for this market make sense. There is virtually no branding attempt in these countries so a range for trade name saliency & A ; resonance does n’t increase. Mostly brands in these countries right now are viing on monetary value points which will discontinue to be every bit discriminator as client becomes more evolved & A ; bestowed with fiscal art. But at that place seem to be branding attempts from the seller ‘s point of view and besides there is some franchise on factors other than monetary value from the consumer position.

A batch of work in the field of nomadic telephone has been traveling around e.g. A squad of MIT Media Lab ‘s Next Billion Network participants – following coevals of tech movers and shakers- who are constructing engineerings to assist people in the developing state to raise their incomes, learn to read, acquire where they ‘re traveling, and name their wellness. ( david-chandler, july-2-2009 )

Advanced usage of Mobile application is assisting war lacerate Afghanistan battle corruptness and promote the criterion of life of its people as depicted in the undermentioned new study. ( Loyn, 2009 )

Nokia have besides felt the rural potency and developed merchandise consumer in those parts. Even their communicating for the Model 1100 has been specifically targeted at the rural audience to the full portraying the demand in the rural scenes. ( Banerjee & A ; Sangameshwaran, 2009 )

Besides the value of VAS industry is estimated to be Rs.16500 crores by 2010 harmonizing to a research by RNCOS, with enlargement into rural markets where more services in banking, bet oning informations and Television section will be seen. ( Mobile VAS to Drive Telecom Growth, 2009 ) .

Therefore the hereafter of nomadic selling looks optimistic and with rural economic systems constructing into a sustainable theoretical account, sellers have to no longer think about the return on selling investing.

Literature reappraisal

In the undermentioned literature reappraisal, I have reviewed the assorted published articles & A ; white documents from diaries, books & A ; Reports. First I have looked into the cognition created on rural selling & A ; it deduction, in this sphere a batch of work has been done with a planetary position and rather a few with the Indian market in point of view.

Rural Marketing & A ; its Deduction:

Some of the surveies are on a regular basis published in the Journal of Rural Marketing by RMAAI to assist sellers maintain path of updates in rural market. A survey on development of rural consumerism conducted by Hansa Research reveals the rural ingestion form over a period of five old ages i.e. 2000 to 2005. The survey has data on three degrees i.e. exposure in footings of communicating and instruction, ingestion of several classs of merchandises and distribution of these merchandises.

Harmonizing to the study shampoo ingestion in rural India has increased from 13.9 % in 2000 to 31.9 % in 2005. ( The Rural Marketing Journal of RMAAI, 2007 ) .

Dr. Vinod Kumar Bishnoi and Bharti of Haryana School of Business have done a research paper on Awareness & A ; Consumption Pattern of Rural Consumers towards place and personal attention merchandises. The paper contains inside informations on consciousness and use of trade names in rural countries. It besides tries to happen out the motivations and factors behind trade name pick, the beginnings of information and to mensurate any association between demographics and trade name pick.

Sing motivations and factors behind trade name pick, Bishnoi and Bharti say that rural consumers purchase a merchandise largely for its useful value instead than the peripheral values. Consumers tend to lodge to the trade name once they are satisfied with it. The trade name trueness in this instance is remarkably high even though consumers switch FMCG trade names really often. The rural consumer is besides really quality witting. Ad and retail merchant ‘s advice play a major function in determination devising. The consumer is besides a small cautious with monetary value degrees. The survey besides reveals that there is clear association between income degree and outgo wonts in these merchandises. The primary beginning of information about trade names is telecasting. Retailer, newspaper and wireless are other outstanding beginnings. As Bishnoi and Bharti highlighted in their paper some really interesting facets, that whatever is the taking trade name in all the merchandises that remains prima irrespective of any demographic variable be it income, instruction, age or gender. This might be explained by the fact that the household construction in rural India is such that that several people of assorted instruction and age group remain together.

The modern-day media scenario in India is marked by a frantic proliferation of telecasting channels, FM wireless Stationss, day-to-day newspapers, nomadic telephone and digital media. Despite this state of affairs, as the undermentioned article argues, the hapless while extremely seeable about everyplace in urban and rural India remain, ‘invisible ‘ in the state ‘s mass media. ( Kumar, Jan 2008 ) .

To successfully market merchandises in rural countries, distribution is a critical barrier which needs to be overcome. An apprehension of the construction of distribution in rural countries would assist in the development of an efficient distribution system. The paper after a thorough literature reappraisal proposes a conceptual model which identifies the drivers of the construction of distribution in rural countries. ( Rajesh & A ; L. K. , January – June, 2005 ) .

The paper discusses the demand for beef uping selling attempts in rural India. The writer references about the rural web, whose basic aim is to seek and acquire clients who are looking for a national scheme in rural selling and supply aid in implementing such programs across different parts with the local expertness. The paper besides deals with cases on how sellers taking to aim their trade name commercials to both urban and rural audiences are required to make good to pre-test the musca volitanss and that the musca volitanss communicate what is intended for the targeted viewing audiences, therefore supplying the footing that there is a immense difference in rural & A ; urban consumer and they have to be dealt with otherwise ( Rajan, 2005 ) .

The 2nd phase of my literature reappraisals cognition on the nomadic telephony- the development with regard to selling, the purpose in developing VAS, user perceptual experience of nomadic selling, the obstruction & A ; barriers to mobile selling.

Carter in the diary of Mobile selling defines mobile telephony as a set of bombilation words like Mobile selling, nomadic advertisement and m-commerce. He examines the Generation Y, the generational cohort born between 1979 and 1994, which research workers think will alter the selling landscape everlastingly. This paper addresses some of the many issues and chances that may impact seller ‘s abilities to make Generation Y African-American nomadic consumers. ( Carter, June 2008 ) .

Another diary in nomadic selling reveals that empirical surveies have been limited to researching consumer justifications for accepting or rejecting cell phone advertisement on either a bad footing among possible nomadic selling users, or a station hoc footing among those who had already chosen to have cell phone advertisement. This research explored consumer justifications in the context of a field trial, in which nomadic phone users were offered subscriptions to a nomadic phone text based advertisement plan. Therefore found out that among acceptors information benefits of cell phone advertisement was premier due to positive attitude towards information & A ; amusement. While for the rejecters the perceptual experience of holding to pay for advertisement was plenty to deter engagement. ( Newell & A ; Meier, Dec 2007 ) .

This diary examines the drivers of consumer credence of SMS-based nomadic advertisement. A conceptual theoretical account and hypotheses are tested with a sample of 4,062 Finnish mobile phone users. Structural equation mold is used to prove five drivers of nomadic advertisement credence:

  1. Utility
  2. Context
  3. Control
  4. Forfeit
  5. Trust

The consequences show that public-service corporation and context are the strongest positive drivers, while forfeit is negatively related to the credence of nomadic advertisement. Thus sellers should pay peculiar attending to the public-service corporation and relevance of nomadic advertisement messages. ( Merisavo, Kajalo, Karjaluoto, Virtanen, & A ; Salmenkivi )

Mobile Selling

I have reviewed the assorted application of nomadic telephone and the consumer perceptual experience towards nomadic selling in peculiar and nomadic application in general.

Besides invention from companies for rural consumer were of considerable significance as houses like Nokia had earlier launched a basic French telephone with a torch ( big parts of rural India do n’t hold electricity ) and an dismay clock.

In another paper, an instrument for mensurating attitudes toward nomadic advertisement is developed. The consequences of a study indicate that:

  1. Consumers by and large have negative attitudes toward nomadic advertisement unless they have specifically consented to it, and
  2. There is a direct relationship between consumer attitudes and consumer behaviour.

Hence concluded that it is non a good thought to direct SMS advertizements to possible clients without permission.

Their attitudes were favourable if advertizements were sent with permission. This implies that permission-based advertisement may go a major mechanism in the nomadic environment in the hereafter. The research notably points out relationship between attitude, purpose and acceptableness of Mobile publicizing through empirical survey. The respondents were more willing to accept inducement based nomadic advertisement. Finally, purpose significantly affected how and when the respondents read the message. ( M. Tsang, Ho, & A ; Ting-Peng, 2004 ) .

Although nomadic phones have been shown to be extremely effectual as instruction content bringing mechanisms, underlying French telephone and subscription costs have limited their utility in many underprivileged states. Thus the writer proposes a theoretical account where instruction content can be subsidized by nomadic advertisement and a concern theoretical account is developed where Sellerss is able to pass on to purchasers in their native lingua and vice-versa in order to shut minutess.

( Salaberry & A ; Upton, June 2007 ) .

The paper touches on many cardinal issues that are finding the nomadic selling sector. The nomadic dike is about to split and sellers have to be prepared for this through good developed and formulated ethical schemes. Customers will hold to be gently cajoled and locked into utile market applications. ( Ranchhod, June 2007 ) .

Impact of Technology in Marketing:

The article “ The Missing link-Why Mobile selling is different ” is rich with illustrations, illustrations and elaborate footers, includes a thorough treatment on how selling, engineering, and concern patterns and theoretical accounts have matured and converged over clip to do the medium what it is today. He discusses the impact web migration from 2G to 3G, globalisation, the alterations in selling patterns, and the value system have had on nomadic selling patterns. He suggests that we need to concentrate on developing successful gross theoretical accounts, create favourable conditions for relationship selling and long term-dialog amongst the participants in the industry, and that we must hold a planetary mentality and to set aside any not-invent-here outlooks. ( Steinbock, June 2006 ) .

Again in the paper stresses on the progressively complex and demanding clients as ICT developments becomes rapid and sellers start get bying with extremely demanding client who require extraordinary experiences and extremely user-friendly service interfaces peculiarly in engineering services, such as nomadic selling ( as illustrated in the Figure below ) . ( Steinbock, June 2006 ) .

Rationale/Information Gap

The rural market works on 4 As i.e. Accessibility, Affordability, Acceptability and Awareness and the traditional four Postscript of marketing cease to be in this scenario.

There is a presence of immense potency in rural India but at the same clip there is a batch of obstruction faced embarking into these markets. Low per capita disposable incomes, big figure of day-to-day pay earners, acute dependance on vagaries of monsoon, seasonal ingestion linked to reap & amp ; festivals and particular juncture, hapless roads power jobs and unavailability of conventional advertisement media.

Equally much as there is possible, there is besides a good sum of ambiguity on how to make trade name saliency in these markets.

In such state of affairs sellers who see immense potency in rural market with around 700 million consumers, everyone would wish to take its trade name to the following degree of trade name saliency & A ; resonance. Hence with increased incursion of nomadic phones at that place has been more opportunity of nomadic communicating come ining the media dark part. It may look farfetched as an thought to trade name merchandise for rural consumer when soon we think that rural consumer emphasis on affordability.

Much has been written about rural selling, the ingestion forms, attitudes & A ; behaviour of rural consumer in India and Mobile selling in isolation but the whole position of nomadic selling for rural India is non covered in the literatures.

Therefore this survey aims to look at the future chances of nomadic telephone as a agency to pass on trade name publicity and make a trade name resonance with the rural consumer.

Research Aims

Aims are as follows ;

  • To happen out the present use of nomadic telephone among rural users and their perceptual experience of trade names utilizing nomadic selling.
  • To happen out the technology/language barriers in implementing stigmatization activities in the rural environment.

The aims will take to happen out what are the engineering barriers, authoritiess policies and technological progresss for the execution & A ; development of nomadic application to ease synergistic selling. It besides aims to understand the acceptableness of engineering in the rural environment and the linguistic communication barrier, since most of the rural India has lower literacy rate and utilize local linguistic communications as agencies of communicating is prevailing.

The 2nd nonsubjective purposes to happen out the acceptableness of nomadic selling in the rural context and how will it impact a trade name. We intend to detect whether the consumer reacts to marketing communicating over nomadic phone in positive mode and how will it impact the purchase purpose of the trade name.


Secondary Research:

  • Present and future platforms/technology which makes nomadic telephone omnipresent for Rural India
  • Analyzing the stigmatization & A ; marketing attempts of companies for rural India, the figure of companies interested in marketing & A ; branding their merchandises for rural India

Primary Research:

Qualitative research is applied to understand the consumer perceptual experience in rural India while utilizing nomadic telephone. This is done in two phases ;

  • Focus group treatment with rural respondents
  • Depth interviews with rural respondents
  • Depth Interviews with sellers after the FGDs/DIs

Sample Design

The TG of the survey is defined as:

Age: above 15

SEC RI, R2, R3

Location: West Bengal, Gujarat

Gender: Males & A ; Females

Given is that the determination shapers in rural India are by and large the caput of the household, who is the male member. Besides the same holds true for nomadic users, though a considerable sum of adult females these yearss are utilizing nomadic phones excessively. So I have conducted FGDs across all age group for the male sample size. Each FGD had people from the same caste & A ; same gender to keep coherence & A ; focal point in the treatment.

West Bengal has the least nomadic phone user whereas Gujarat is one of the highest nomadic phone users. Hence it ‘s a contrasting survey to happen out the motive underlying the usage of nomadic phones and the chance of nomadic selling. The following table represents the No. of users in Gujarat and West Bengal.

  • 2 focal point group treatment in each location i.e. Gujarat and West Bengal
  • Five depth interviews in each location
  • Interviews with sellers after the FGDs

Profile of respondents:

  • All respondent must be utilizing nomadic telephones in day-to-day footing
  • Should be literate with primary school instruction

Secondary research

From being charged for incoming calls to acquiring paid for calls you receive and so a wage per 2nd government, Indian radio telephone has come a long manner.

India has one of the biggest telecom markets in the universe. It has the third-largest telecom web in the universe and second-largest among the emerging economic systems. The Indian telecom industry generated grosss of about US $ 32 billion in 2007-08 with a growing rate of 60 per cent over 2006-07. It witnessed a compound one-year growing rate ( CAGR ) of about 29 per cent from 2002-03 to 2007-08.

  • Entire telecom endorsers – 545.05 million ( January 2010 )
  • Teledensity – 43.50 ( September 2009 )
  • Addition of nomadic endorsers ( July-August 2009 ) – 15.08 million
  • Annual growing rate of telecom endorsers ( June 2008-June 2009 ) – 42.68 per cent
  • Average Revenue Per User ( ARPU ) for GSM ( as on 30 June 2009 ) – US $ 3.80

The wireless subscriber base increased from 535.15 million in December 2009 to 545.05 million at the terminal of January this twelvemonth for a monthly growing rate of 3.79 per cent. The wireless denseness in the state now stands at 46.37.

It grew at a CAGR of 45.21 per cent from June 2004 to June 2009. The French telephone market in India, dwelling of Mobile and fixed French telephones, registered an overall growing of 5.8 per centum from 2007-08 to 2008-09. ( India, 2009 )

The value added service ( VAS ) market in India has a great potency for growing and gross from this growing potency is expected to make above INR 250 billion by the twelvemonth 2009-10 and more than 30 % of the gross of the telecom entree service suppliers in the following 5-7 old ages. The VAS industry in India generated gross of US $ 1.2 billion in 2007-08 and is expected to make US $ 4.0 billion by 2015.

Top 11 Radio Operators in the state: ( September 2009 ) ( India, 2009 )

Among the radio service suppliers, Tata had a 14.97 % portion of the net add-ons during January, followed by Bharti Airtel with 14.31 % , Reliance 14.08 % , Vodafone 13.78 % , Idea 11.42 % , BSNL 11.29 % , Aircel 10.10 % , Uninor 6.68 % , Stel 1.83 % , Sistema 1.07 % , Loop 0.26 % and MTNL 0.23 % .

Market portion of top 12 operators:

Bharti Airtel had a market portion of 22.33 per cent, followed by Reliance with 17.72 % , Vodafone 17.27 % , BSNL 11.95 % , Tata 11.07 % , Idea 10.99 % , Aircel 6.06 % , MTNL 0.90 % , Sistema 0.60 % , Loop 0.50 % , Uninor 0.47 % , Stel 0.09 % and HFCL 0.06 % .

Present engineering in India:

Tata Teleservices which launched its GSM operations under trade name name Tata DoCoMo will be another participant to look out for in the following few quarters. Unitech Wireless has launched its services in 2009 and has a subscriber base of 2.5 million as of Jan 2010. New entrant S Tel added 0.22 million endorsers to take its endorser base to 0.36 million.

Reliance regulations CDMA followed by Tata Teleservices ( Tata Indicom ) . Shyam telelink has rebranded to MTS India has a subscriber base of 3.5 million ( as of Jan 2010 ) . CDMA does n’t look every bit much over-crowded as GSM but when put together the overall image of Indian telecom looks crowded with 12 operators and 3 waiting in the wings. Reliance and Tata are the 2 companies to watch out for with the double drama of GSM and CDMA operations.

The mean gross per user of CDMA is 99 rupees and that of GSM is 205 rupees. With 3 new participants coming in for GSM the ARPU ‘s will come down. CDMA which is supposed to be a better web for informations entree can utilize this chance to increase the ARPU ‘s and endorsers. It merely has to screen out the French telephone handiness issue. ( India, 2009 )

Penetration in Rural India:

As on 31st September 2009, out of the entire 500 million endorsers, the rural endorsers contribute 151.8 million, consisting of 10.13 million wireline and 141 million radio. The Rural teledensity as on September 2009 was 18.46 % as compared to 9.20 % during the old twelvemonth in March’08. Subscription in Urban Areas grew from 328.55 Million in Jun-09 to 357.22 Million in Sep-09, taking the urban Teledensity to 102.79. Rural subscription increased from 136.27 Million to 151.81 Million, taking the Rural Teledensity from 16.61 in Jun-09 to 18.46 at the terminal of Sep-09.

Entire Wireless ( GSM + CDMA ) subscriber base increased from 427.29 Million at the terminal of June-09 to 471.73 Million at the terminal of Sept-09, thereby demoing a growing of 10.4 % . During this one-fourth 44.43 million endorsers were added. Wireless Teledensity increased from 36.64 at the terminal of June-09 to 40.31 at the terminal of Sept-09.

Rural subscription ( 12.5 % ) has been turning at a faster rate than Urban ( 9.5 % ) . The portion of rural radio subscription is 30 % in entire wireless subscription. Overall rate of growing of Wireless Subscription in QE Sept-09 ( 10.40 % ) is higher as compared to old one-fourth ( 9.07 % ) . Higher growing rate could chiefly be attributed to the launch of GSM services by Tata Teleservices Limited across service countries.

Future Developments:

Technologies in India:

WiMax base for “ Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access ” is a standard-based radio engineering that allows broadband connexions over long distances.

The Economic Times, mentioning a survey by US market research house Strategy Analytics, reports that India will go the largest WiMAX market in the Asia-Pacific by 2013.

The survey forecasts that consumer subscriptions in the underdeveloped Asiatic states will turn at a compound rate of 132 % through 2013, with the subscriber base making about 27 million in that year.Most emerging markets WiMAX suppliers will establish their initial services in major urban countries, to take advantage of concentrations of bing Internet users with buying power. However, over the longer term the most rapid growing is expected to be in second-tier metropoliss and in rural countries, where there is well less competition from incumbent broadband providers. ( Study Predicts India to be Largest WiMAX market in Asia Pacific by 2013, 2010 ) .

BSNL, HCL Infosystems Ltd and Intel Corp. have started a series of wide-reaching enterprises to spur economic and educational chances in India by spread outing entree to wireless broadband Internet and low-cost computing machines. This is in support of the India authorities ‘s Bharat Nirman rural development docket. Intel and BSNL will jointly propagate radio broadband Internet in what is intended to finally go a countrywide Mobile WiMAX web. BSNL will besides work with the two to do available in rural India WiMAX-capable nettop computing machines designed by the two companies and made in India by HCL utilizing the Intel atom processor.

( BSNL, HCL, Intel bring WiMAX to rural India, 2009 )

Despite spectrum auction holds and other bureaucratism, India is set to be the biggest base on Earth for WiMAX by 2012, and state-owned bearer BSNL, which has pre-auction entree to its spectrum, has gone unrecorded with the state ‘s first Mobile WiMAX web.

BSNL has two parallel undertakings, one for rural countries and one for tube webs kicked started by Minister Sachin Pilot. BSNL intends to show in a new epoch of growing in rural countries by offering a broadband velocity of 7Mbps at a distance of 15 kilometres.

WiMax plans to convey to the underserved communities several cardinal applications to run into the Indian authorities ‘s mark to cut down the state ‘s woebegone degrees of broadband incursion.

Some of them will include ;

  • Utility measure payments
  • Issue of official paperss like land or vehicle enrollments or birth certifications province e-government procedures
  • Inter-village communications
  • Purposes to tackle picture to back up telemedicine and distant instruction

The authorities expects the endorser base for combined radio and wireline connexions to touch 600 million by the terminal of 2012, from 500 million at the terminal of September 2009.But the nomadic WiMAX constituent may probably to be much smaller – with WiMAX used for fixed radio broadband Internet entree by concern and some residential clients since most companies in India program to utilize 3G services for nomadic Internet and WiMAX for fixed broadband entree.

3G is the third-generation of nomadic phone engineering criterions. The typical services associated with 3G include wireless voice telephone and broadband radio informations, all in a nomadic environment. However, with the capableness for high-velocity radio informations transportation, 3G has enhanced or made possible a myriad of extra applications such as nomadic picture, secure nomadic ecommerce, location-based services, nomadic gambling and sound on demand.

India ‘s taking telecoms houses Bharti Airtel, Reliance Communications, Vodafone Essar and new entrant Telenor are enthusiastic to take part in the 3G auction for all-India spectrum.

Few international telecom groups like AT & A ; T, Australia ‘s Telstra and South Korea ‘s SK Telecom are besides interested in command for the 3G spectrum to derive bridgehead in the fastest turning telecomm market of India.

Though the 3G path record does n’t animate assurance, since in Europe, overbidding about bankrupted many operators. India ‘s state-owned BSNL has been offering 3G since a twelvemonth ago, in 300 metropoliss with a consumer base of 700,000, but has cut tariff twice.

Restrictions to 3G have been the slow acceptance of nomadic cyberspace in the state as statistic says, merely 40,000 or so iPhones are being used in the state and smartphones make up good under 5 % of the French telephone market. Of India ‘s 530 million-plus endorsers, merely 2 million on a regular basis use the nomadic Internet, largely to download images of cricket participants and Bollywood stars, harmonizing to the Internet & A ; Mobile Association of India.

Mobile Selling in different geographicss:


In 2003, Mobile2Win ( M2W ) has launched India ‘s first short message service-enabled hoardings which use SMS codifications alternatively of eight-digit phone Numberss on ads.

By directing an SMS to a figure – 8558 – and identifying in the relevant codification, prospective clients will have trade name or promotion-related information immediately. The service eliminates the demand to retrieve eight-digit Numberss.

M2W, which executed the undertaking for Mumbai-based Creations Publicity, is eyeing countries in Gujarat ( western metropolis ) and southern parts of the state for its SMS-enabled hoardings.

‘We are aiming service companies, who want to make out to prospective clients straight through these wireless selling runs ‘ – said one of the Mobile selling bureau.

In 2004, Kellogg ‘s India has launched a short message service ( SMS ) run to bind in with an offline advertisement push for its flagship Corn Flakes trade name in India. The run titled “ Dimaag chalega nahin daudega, ” was a multimedia run utilizing telecasting, wireless and film advertisement, which allows consumers to register for the Kellogg ‘s Club to have, downloads from the trade name, such as wallpapers for nomadic phones and wellness tips. Kellogg ‘s, which has secured its topographic point as one of the early adoptive parents of Short Messaging Service in the ready-to-eat cereals class with the radio enterprise, worked with nomadic selling bureau Mobile2Win to develop the run.

In 2005, it was estimated that nomadic selling will be the following BIG thing. Cadbury tied up with Reliance Mobile to advance its ‘Pappu Paas Ho Gaya ‘ run in 2005. A pupil logging onto this Reliance service for exam consequences would have the message ‘Congrats – Pappu base on balls Ho gaya ‘ if he had passed.

Hewlett-Packard, the IT giant, ran a nomadic run based around the tagline “ Your notebook tells your narrative ” in 2009, and a separate enterprise aimed specifically at pupils.

The caput of the organisation ‘s selling and consumer personal systems group, said “ nomadic selling is the most antiphonal medium of all time so far. We get a alone individuality of the client. ”

In June 2009, Nokia Life Tools was launched in India, which includes Agriculture, Education and Entertainment related services particularly designed for the consumers in rural countries and little towns of India as one of top emerging nomadic markets.

Developed states – Eastern Europe

Turkey- One of Mobilera ‘s most outstanding activities is running segmented and permission based nomadic communities for trade names wishing to pull and get new clients, retain bing 1s, addition stickiness and trigger the usage of merchandises and services. A typical client is Turkcell, a Turkish Mobile operator in a market where the norm young person has two and a half SIM cards and there is small trueness.

Mobilera created a nomadic trueness programme utilizing a combination of demographic informations and operator information on persons ‘ behavior and use. Customers were so invited to fall in the programme and offered awards and tickets in return. Over clip this has accumulated 18m users – half of Turkcell ‘s entire user base.

In Georgia, it oversaw a launch run for Geocell, a new Mobile operator, of a nomadic young person community called Zoom. The run used a assortment of events and selling. The specific nomadic elements were:

  • Free nine content was made available on a WAP site, along with a free airtime welcome fillip.
  • SMS Trivia from a launch party was besides made available.
  • A 2-for-1 offer could be redeemed at McDonalds.

The entire run, affecting a uninterrupted tally of such offers, resulted in a 140 per cent rise in Geocell rank. In farther activity, discounted cinema tickets were offered to members: 40 per cent of members used the offer more than one time. In add-on to driving endorsers to Geocell, the company besides claims that Zoom members spend on norm 10 per cent more on Mobile services than mean Geocell clients. Other illustrations were cited from Ukraine and Moldova.

Developing states – A Case of Africa:

One of the characteristics of the South African market ( besides available in Serbia and Egypt and likely to look in other markets ) is free “ Please Name Me ” ( PCM ) messaging. Mobile phone users will direct this type of SMS message – typically they have a quota of free PCMs as portion of their airtime trade – to a contact instead than doing a call which would incur a cost.

There are some 20m PCM messagess sent in South Africa every twenty-four hours. Consumers besides use them to corroborate the times of pre-agreed minutess – such as picking or dropping person off – with the clip that the message is sent functioning as the prompt for the understood clip the action to take topographic point. The PCMs can besides transport commercial messages and these are typically booked out by advertizers at the earliest chance.

The state has besides experienced rapid growing in instant messaging on Mobiles ( which is cheaper for consumers than directing an SMS ) . The taking provider, Mixit, has 7.5m South African clients and has launched into other markets.

PCMs have been used by OMO, the Unilever detergent pulverization.

Over a 38 twenty-four hours run in November 2007, 34m messages were tagged with prize-related extra content by the Unilever trade name, including free airtime and a few cell phones. The consequences were:

  • 485,000 entries were received from 185,000 alone visitants
  • The entire run cost was 14,500 euros, giving a cost per contact of merely 8 eurocent
  • Unilever has launched many other nomadic runs later.

Advertisers such as Cadbury ‘s and Peugeot have besides aired similar runs.

Africa is place to the universe ‘s largest mobile-based payment system, M-PESA, which allows clients to direct money to any cell phone figure in Kenya. The two-year-old service already has over 6 million users, more than double the figure of Kenyans who have bank histories. Westerners who have entree to look intoing histories, ATMs, and wire services may non understand the significance of this capableness, but to the unbanked multitudes of workers who would otherwise hold to digest long coach trips to present money to their households in rural countries, this service represents important authorization.

Advanced usage of Mobile application is assisting war lacerate Afghanistan battle corruptness and promote the criterion of life of its people as depicted in the undermentioned intelligence study.

There are countless utilizations of Mobile application & A ; services which can be used in tandem with development of Rural India.

Language & A ; content

The ubiquitousness of nomadic phones apart from the intent of Voice application is restricted for acceptance by the multitudes. This is apparent by the fact that the application are developed in the 1st & A ; 2nd universe states and largely by the English speech production population and therefore doing it hard for the multitudes to accommodate. Hence a demand for development of application in local linguistic communication is of import.

Therefore in geographicss were nomadic application has seen growing it was chiefly due to the development of engineerings portable in the peculiar part and implemented to provide to the local demands. One such construct is the linguistic communication direction merchandises, subsidized by contextual advertisement.

Although this construct can be sensitive to consumer recoil against anything other than subscription or opt-in advertisement, bearers and advertizers are looking for improved agencies to section and mark nomadic user demographics, particularly in states with quickly turning populations ( e.g. , India and China ) . This convergence for radio services, a commonalty of demand for English linguistic communication capablenesss and a ready supply of planetary advertizers eager for “ 3rd screen ” stigmatization makes for a compelling instance as to why radio bearers, application suppliers and content suppliers should see offering nomadic linguistic communication direction services as a means to off-set high.

Similarly other merchandises for Education and Health Awareness plans can be associated with contextual advertisement and offered to consumers in the media dark part.

( Beginning: Language Aid Products Support Mobile Advertising In Underprivileged Countries, International Journal of Mobile Marketing, June 2007 )

A Research was conducted by the Stanford ( University ) Learning Laboratory ( SLL ) to understand the chances of portable electronic devices to maximise larning effectivity found that “ merely holding entree to the application anytime, anyplace increased day-to-day attending to larning Spanish and boosted motive ” .

Hence nomadic application has the possible to be used for larning aid and be able to learn the linguistic communication of the medium to its users assisting so to promote the societal & A ; instruction of the users.

Prospects of Mobile advertisement:

Mobile advertisement, although in its nascent phase is turning as planetary trade names are speedy to acknowledge the alone personal nature of cell-phones as compared to other media like computing machines, telecasting and print media. A important portion of this theoretical account is linguistic communication itself: Sellerss must be able to pass on to purchasers in their native lingua and vice-versa in order to shut minutess. Mobile advertisement has the possible to transact in such close trade by enabling the consumer to interact with the trade name in their local linguistic communication.

Easier Segmentation & A ; Targeting for Sellers:

There is a cost of bringing for any service and person has to pay for it as competition additions and more and more companies get into monetary value war, pointed out by Deputy Managing manager of Bharti Airtel. This loss of net income is either shared by the company by denting its gross or the consumer as the telecomm market becomes more competitory.

It is honoring for advertizer since they are able to get the better of the challenge of foretelling who ‘s on the other side of a merchandise or service purchase and aim them with trade names harmonizing to the demographics. The targeting of advertizement with the usage of demographics informations will ensue in less cluttering of the medium every bit good as other media. This will supply valuable penetration into the ‘back-end demographics ‘ of a nomadic client.

A download from situation-specific phrase kit, e.g. , “ On the Jobsite, ” likely portions certain cardinal personal demographics ( e.g. , 18-40 twelvemonth old male ) as others who download the same bundle.

From the linguistic communication direction way ( base to secondary ) an advertizer may garner, what is the end-user ‘s native linguistic communication, while the nomadic figure itself and built-in GPS capableness contained within most French telephones tells about the current location and hence the base market. Thus a decently developed application in nomadic telephone might be able to supply the four “ aureate demographics ” to a possible advertizer: gender, age, linguistic communication, and location.

None the less a simple station paid client provides demographics information which can be shared with the sellers with due permission, for preciseness targeting of selling messages in assorted runs.

Why nomadic advertisement is moneymaking for Service suppliers?

The monetary value war has driven naming rates to well under 1 cent per minute, decelerating the industry ‘s net income growing and denting stock monetary values. The demand to look for alternate gross watercourses becomes more of import to equilibrate the bottom line, service suppliers are looking into coaction with sellers either through application developer or media bureau. It can be a win-win state of affairs for the service suppliers every bit good as the sellers and non to bury the consumer, if the contextual targeting of advertisement is maintained. It might be backlash if the sellers start pelting with irrelevant advertisement and make the similar sort of jumble as in other media ensuing in low consumer battle and rejection of messages.

Some of the suggested theoretical account can be Google-esque advertisement supported theoretical account or more evolved new concern theoretical accounts in voice. Vodafone has already piloted a free airtime deployment for consumers willing to take an advertizement alternatively of their regular ring-tone. Over 1.5 million nomadic phone users are subjecting their companies to publicizing already by choosing for this service across many circles. This phenomenon is driven by advertizers seeking to do the targeting of their ads more precise and it ‘s a moneymaking options for service suppliers who are combating with lower ARPU. Thus subsidising call through newer advertisement theoretical account provides an alternate gross watercourses.

Restrictions of Mobile Selling:

After understanding the scenario of nomadic selling with regard to engineering and tendencies of trade name publicities in India in general and rural countries in peculiar, here are some of the restraints in the execution of nomadic selling.

Technology is fast changing and for communicating of multimedia messages better bandwidth is required which is hard to be implemented with the present engineering available. Though development for new engineerings like 3G and WiMax are on its manner, which promises a batch of advanced ways of selling in this omnipresent medium of nomadic phones

Better French telephone for response of multimedia messages are a requirement and for developing state like India where most of the people belong to the in-between income group investing in dearly-won 3G-enabled French telephone is a tougher proposition. Besides the present design of French telephone and user interface makes it hard for rural consumer to understand and seamlessly browse through the application.

Poor literacy rate in particularly in rural countries makes it hard in the apprehension of application & A ; services. Besides the deficiency of consciousness of services available to the consumer and limited beginning of consciousness medium is a route block.

India is a land of 1000 linguistic communications and likewise varied civilization, all with their ain niceties and tradition, therefore developing content in local linguistic communication is a challenged in such a diverse state of affairs.

Not merely textual content but besides multimedia content has to be in sync with the cultural intension and need non pique any subdivision since it ‘s of import for sellers to entice their consumers and non turn them off.

Primary Research

Discussion Guidelines

Depth interview will follow the laddering attack i.e. inquiries will examine respondents about the merchandise characteristic to understand the user feature.

I have used Story Completion and Thematic Apperception Test as projective techniques to understand the respondents. FGDs have a funnel attack with the same set of inquiries as used in Depth Interviews, to contract down the subject from the wide countries of treatment to more specific country of nomadic selling.

Approach of the treatment

Questionnaire probes into the usage form of the respondents and seek to happen out the behaviour and eventually the ingestion form with respect to advertizements and trade names.

Behaviour is dependent on the attitude & A ; beliefs of the respondents, so examining was done on these parametric quantities to happen out the perceptual experience of nomadic advertizements in general and other advertizement & A ; trade names in general.

Usage – & gt ; Behaviour – & gt ; Consumption form.

Use – public-service corporation, frequence, intent of usage.

Attitude & A ; beliefs – position symbol, smarting, Information drivers, Importance of instruction.

Behaviour – purchase, ownership, purchase purpose, callback of trade names.

Finally the questionnaire tries to happen out the outlook of respondents from nomadic selling.

Analysis templet:

Understanding the Answering demographics:

  • Age.
  • Occupation.
  • Education.


  • Daily activities involved.
  • Utility of nomadic phones.
  • Purpose of phones in life.

Brand wonts:

  • Trade names exposed to.
  • Buying wonts.
  • Main influencer.
  • Brand callback.
  • Attitude towards trade names.

Media descriptive anthropology:

  • Media exposed to.
  • Media ingestion form.
  • Media influencer.

Attitude towards Ad:

  • Favorite advertizement.
  • Drivers for influencer in Advertisement.

Understanding of Mobile selling:

  • Understanding of mobile/sms selling.
  • Recall of any nomadic campaign/application.
  • Utility of nomadic advertisement.

Trade name:

  • Brand callback of any run
  • Trade names considered for nomadic advertizement


  • Expectation from nomadic phones
  • Ads
  • Political campaigns by Brand

Refer to [ Appendix 1 ] for elaborate Discussion Guidelines.

Customer speak


“ I donot use samariums who ‘s traveling to type in English ” . “ I use it to acquire market information and talk to friends and relative that ‘s it ” . “ I use my phone for computation, this is really helpful and saves me a batch of clip ” – respondents in in Amgachia every bit good as Sanand & A ; Telav. “ My boy keeps on altering the nomadic phones but I donot, merely changes when there ‘s a new offer or strategy ” a adult female who late changed to Airtel from BSNL because there ‘s no low priced top-ups available in BSNL. “ These younger people keep on downloading vocals, we do n’t ” -Still most of them had set a hullo melodies, merely few out-rightly rejected the thought of seting a hullo melody since it ‘s a waste of Rs.15 per month. “ Life without Mobile will go like a bullock cart, we ‘ll travel back to primitive age if nomadic phones non around for a twenty-four hours.We ‘ll hold to utilize pigeons for communicating if we no longer have nomadic phones ” – at a FGD is Sanand small town.

Most of the respondent considered nomadic phones to be of import and they do n’t maintain it on soundless manners even when they are watching a film in film.

Attitudes towards Brands & A ; Ad:

“ I like watching ads merely when it ‘s amusing otherwise I change channels, its really annoying to watch them in the center of soaps ” . Respondent from Amgachia, WB said “ I like watching ads and seek out merchandises like decorative after watching ads in Television ” Respondent in Kaneti, Gujarat said “ I buy merchandises ( consumer goods ) merely at the recommendation of retail merchants in our town “ ” I do n’t take telemarketers earnestly, yes I do receive calls from Bima ( Insurance ) agents etc, but ne’er went for these strategy, will travel for tested and tried agents. These people will state something and finally offer you something else ” ” I buy large ticket points from the trader in the nearby town whatever he suggest has been good and we ever buy merchandise from them ” ” I bought this phone ( a Nokia high terminal ) because I liked it… .it be me 15K ( virtually of no usage to the peculiar respondent ) ” – a rich husbandman in Kanati small town of Sanand.

The rich husbandman preferred to purchase a high-end phone which did non hold a gujarati text messaging installations even when the low-end Nokia theoretical account had the characteristic but it does n’t his self-importance to purchase a cheaper merchandise.

They all emphasized on purchasing Nokia French telephone, since it has been tried and tested and give more value for money than inexpensive Chinese French telephone. They even knew about Chinese handset- some of them said “ Chinese French telephones are inexpensive and they crash easy but Nokia is tougher and there is warrant ”

Woman in Amgachia, who is a wellness worker in Village, said “ I do most of the shopping, my boy accompanies ” this was a one-off instance most of the high ticket point purchase are done by male even in the instance of nomadic phones and services to take it ‘s done by male members, though it will be used by a female.


“ Agriculture related information which will convey me more net incomes is something I want ” . Most of the respondents in the FGD at Sanand show misgiving towards service supplier since they thought money is deducted for nil when they click onto something. Hence most of them are discerning of utilizing any new service likewise for nomadic advertisement. If they reply back to some Sms with codification for some publicity they are charged extortionately therefore they avoid making it. A male respondent in Amgachia said “ I would wish to have information which will salvage clip for me ” . “ Would want to give credits and have money in footings of top up straight by reloading through nomadic phones ” – said an car driver from nearby small town at Telav. Respondent who are day-to-day pay earner like car driver and contractors etc, would desire a service like “ name back messaging ” . An car driver in Shela said “ if I can utilize my nomadic phone to interpret all that my rider talk in English so that I understand them better, whenever I ‘m covering with non Gujarati talkers ” . “ If I get to download things free of cost I ‘ll make it ” . “ If I listen to Advertisement and in return I get some inducement I ‘ll make it ” . “ Salary samarium initiated by the authorities is a good thing I do n’t hv to look into my bank history for it now ”

Analysis & A ; Findingss

  • Mobile phones are seen as a communicating device, preponderantly for voice communicating, they are non much exposed to other public-service corporation of nomadic phones. But some think there is possible for other public-service corporation ; they find it really ready to hand for computation.
  • They want to happen public-service corporation in nomadic application.

  • Mobile phone to most of the user is really of import as it keeps them connected to the universe. Mobile phone is an of import object for flashing societal position hence a rich husbandman will hold a high terminal phone even if he does n’t happen a public-service corporation of such a phone, he goes by the expression and aesthetics of it and retailer hiking his self-importance to purchase such point. Besides a rich rural respondent did non utilize the local linguistic communication enabled basic cheaper phone since it does n’t travel with his societal position. High terminal phones should besides come up with local linguistic communication enabled cardinal tablets
  • Language is a immense barrier for utilizing the SMS service – Most of them do n’t utilize samariums because it is in English linguistic communication. Literacy in rural countries is really low and though the respondents were all literate ( primary instruction ) they can non compose or read in English which the linguistic communication of SMS.
  • All French telephone do n’t come with local linguistic communication compatibility even when some of the French telephone has, most of the respondent are non cognizant of this and do n’t take into consideration this characteristic while purchasing phones since they assume SMS are merely in English.

  • Ads are seen as an invasion in personal infinite, they are unwanted in the center of a telecasting plan but wireless ads are all right. Besides in nomadic phones they do n’t much pay attentiveness to telecaller since it ‘s considered non a trust worthy beginning. But if it advertisement negotiations about offers and inducement, it is recognized whole heartedly.
  • Voice or image advertizements are more appealing since once more instruction and literacy is a job. Peoples in Rural India are non good versed in English. Besides by and large rural consumers are more attracted towards brassy colourss and images.
  • There is no trade name callback of any nomadic runs or samariums run among the respondent even among husbandman after giving a stimulation of the tractor trade name Mahindra since this trade name do advance themselves through samariums marketing among rural consumers. Brand callback is present for amusing ads in Television and non related to buy purpose.
  • Respondent in West Bengal are acute to utilize nomadic phones for educational/informative application whereas respondent in Gujarat wanted to utilize nomadic phones for their concern ( agribusiness ) purposes. Overall they all agree they need to be motivated with an inducement to watch advertizement in Mobiles phones. This besides shows the cultural differences in the two geographicss. Besides explains the low teledensity of phones in West Bengal as compared to Gujarat.
  • Respondents in Gujarat were more trade name witting than in West Bengal and demands value for money at every purchase. Whereas respondents in Bengal stressed on price reduction offers and will travel for cheaper merchandises on-sale or with offers. This can seen as a colored position but it has been observed and validated by comparing across same SECs in both the geographicss.
  • Womans respondents in West Bengal would purchase merchandise from the food market shop for the household but adult females respondent in Gujarat would merely purchase merchandise for themselves by their ain else all other shopping is done by the household caput chiefly the Husband or male parent.
  • Merely if the adult female is educated she exercises her pick though in audience with a male member while buying any trade names.
  • Womans in West Bengal were better equipped with nomadic phones than in Gujarat though the propinquity of the small town in both the location was about the same. Besides the installation of primary instruction and exposure of Television and media was besides same.
  • Womans wanted more of chitchat and soap operas to watch and work forces are more inclined to maximise their income or at least cut down their spends through Mobiles, but adult females are besides interested in having wellness information.
  • Purchase is non much influenced by Television or wireless advertizement does n’t work in these part and respondents are fundamentally influenced by test or Word of Mouth ( friends and neighbours ) .
  • But they do watch ads for amusement and to fundamentally cognize about the merchandise characteristic but will purchase merely when there is an advocator. The phenomena has been consistent both in the respondent of Bengal & A ; Gujarat.
  • Trust is a large factor, therefore the rural in-between category looks for branded points instead than inexpensive street trade names. They want value witting consumers and will prefer to pass money for a god merchandise.
  • Surprising most of the center aged respondents ne’er played games on Mobile or showed involvements in them ; it was merely adolescents who play on their male parent ‘s phones at times.
  • There is a feeling of misgiving among rural consumer for telemarketers. This has besides to make with the fact that unwittingly they have spend money in downloading or answering to publicity SMSes which resulted in tax write-off in their prepaid cards. So now they do n’t desire to even experiment with any such strategies.

Recommendation & A ; Model:

A model to ease credence of nomadic selling message among consumer and maximise selling aim of trade names.

  1. Collaborate with Service suppliers:
  2. Service suppliers are looking into coaction with sellers either through application developer or media bureau. It can be a win-win state of affairs for the service suppliers every bit good as the sellers and non to bury the consumer, if the contextual targeting of advertisement is maintained. Though development of new engineerings like 3G and WiMax are on its manner, which promises a batch of advanced ways of selling in this omnipresent medium of nomadic phones.

  3. Preciseness targeting:
  4. It is honoring for advertizer since they are able to get the better of the challenge of foretelling who ‘s on the other side of a merchandise or service purchase and aim them with trade names harmonizing to the demographics. The targeting of advertizement with the usage of demographics informations will ensue in less cluttering of the medium every bit good as other media. This will supply valuable penetration into the ‘back-end demographics ‘ of a nomadic client.

  5. Develop content relevant for the consumers in coaction with Media bureaus:
  6. Develop content of important importance by understanding the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours life of rural consumer so that they are invariably in touch with the trade name through the usage of application. Application development has to be made maintaining in head the literacy rate of the mark audience and cultural niceties while constructing application. E.g. the linguistic communication aid application which goes onto go a manner of life for the consumer and so merely can a trade name reach the phase of resonance in the head of rural consumer.


Rural selling has been an of import class in MICA, and nomadic telephone as it seems from the current scenario of technological progresss will move as a important accelerator for future invention in marketing & A ; communicating.

Explore the rural selling chances which as agreed by sellers all over Earth & A ; India, promises immense growing I came up with a conceptual theoretical account to maximise credence of nomadic advertisement among rural consumers. Mobile selling guarantees a batch of avenues for sellers to introduce and make the possible consumers hence it can be a important tool in promoting the societal position of the underprivileged societies.

As a concluding note, this conceptual survey offers to supply a treatment on how nomadic advertisement might subsidise wireless substructure growing among underprivileged societies and besides allow sellers to aim more specifically & amp ; easy consumer in media dark part.

Besides with the coaction of private spouses, societal development in rural countries with the aid of nomadic communicating will be faster. Sellers can increase their consumer base by aiming the immense potency at the underside of pyramid and hence increase their bottom line significantly every bit good as promote the societal position of the people by implementing selling theoretical account.

Restriction of the Study.

The research was conducted on a specific part ( small towns in Gujarat and West Bengal ) which is non a proper representative of the existence ( Rural consumer in India ) . Due to logistical restriction few FGDs was conducted, if there were more no. of FGDs a information cut was able to be reinforced. But given the clip frame and resources this was what could be covered. The Centre for the survey was small towns in close propinquity of Ahmadabad and Kolkata though they are small towns in nose count informations, they are to a great extent influenced by urban civilization and hence the existent rural consumer can be different in certain behavioural facets

Scope for Further Study

A quantitative survey can be conducted at these specific location to formalize the parametric quantities impacting trade name saliency in nomadic selling for consumers in the present survey and reenforcing the model for a manner frontward. The survey can be conducted in other part to acquire a more generic position across the rural demographics in India and confirm the findings of this survey. The survey can be fragmented into classs to understand the drivers for saliency and factors which can be impacting nomadic selling. Similar surveies can be carried out for specific age groups and socio economic categorization in rural countries to reinforce/reject the recommendation in this survey.


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  2. ( 2007, April ) . The Rural Marketing Journal of RMAAI.
  3. Banerjee, R. , & A ; Sangameshwaran, P. ( 2009, October ) . Nokia looks to tap billion clients in rural India. Retrieved from Economic Times Business: hypertext transfer protocol: //economictimes.indiatimes.com/features/brand-equity/Nokia-looks-to-tap-billion-customers-in-rural-India/articleshow/5170911.cms
  4. Carter, E. ( June 2008 ) . MOBILE Selling AND GENERATION Y. International Journal of Mobile Marketing.
  5. David-chandler, m.-n.-o. ( july-2-2009 ) . cellphone-is-not-just-for-calling-texting. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2009/07/cellphones-will-change-the-world-mit-david-chandler-mit-news-officejuly-2-2009a-cellphone-is-not-just-for-calling-texting.html
  6. Hairong, L. , & A ; Leslie, T. ( june 2008 ) . MOBILE RESEARCH IN Selling: . International Journal of Mobile Marketing.
  7. India, T. R. ( 2009 ) . The Indian Telecom Services Performance Indicators. Delhi.
  8. Kumar, K. J. ( Jan 2008 ) . Poverty, advertisement and the Indian intelligence. media intelligence.
  9. Loyn, D. ( 2009, October ) . Mobiles transform Afghan banking. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk: hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8330776.stm
  10. M. Tsang, M. , Ho, S.-C. , & A ; Ting-Peng, L. ( 2004 ) . Consumer Attitudes Toward Mobile Advertising. International Journal of Electronic Commerce.
  11. Merisavo, M. , Kajalo, S. , Karjaluoto, H. , Virtanen, V. , & A ; Salmenkivi. ( n.d. ) . An Empirical Survey of the Drivers of Consumer Acceptance of Mobile Advertising. Journal of Interactive Advertising.
  12. Mobile VAS to Drive Telecom Growth. ( 2009, August ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //tech2.in.com/i: hypertext transfer protocol: //tech2.in.com/india/news/mobile-phones/mobile-vas-to-drive-telecom-growth/82342/0
  13. Newell, J. , & A ; Meier, M. ( Dec 2007 ) . DESPERATELY SEEKING OPT

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