A Mass Customization Framework For Cellular Phones Marketing Essay

Development of a mass customization model for cellular phones

Mass customization ( MC ) relates to the ability to supply customized merchandises or services through flexible procedures in high volumes and at moderately low costs. A good apprehension of the client demands has been an jussive mood for the successful mass customization theoretical accounts. The present survey efforts to construct a model to ease mass customization in cellular phones.

First the survey assumes that there exists batch of ambiguity in clients ‘ penchants while taking the characteristics of a cellular phone. By utilizing statistical informations collected from an on-line study I try to turn out this hypothesis. Further, I used the respondents ‘ penchant of the characteristics and overall satisfaction of their current cellular phone to place the most desirable characteristics in a cellular phone. Using these characteristics, I developed a merchandise platform through which a household of merchandises can be obtained. Second, I performed Radio Frequency tests utilizing different cellular phones to analyse if the signal response depends on a type of cellular phone.

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Varun Thaggala

December 2010

development of a mass customization model for cellular phones

by

Varun Thaggala

A thesis

Submitted in partial

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Masters in Industrial Technology in

California State University, Fresno

December 2010

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Table OF CONTENTS

Page

List OF TABLES

Page

List OF FIGURES

Page

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Introduction to Mass Customization

Mass Customization ( MC ) is the procedure of fabricating specific and individualised goods by developing a set of organisational capablenesss that will, over clip, addendum and enrich an bing concern. In other words, Mass Customization is a procedure of understanding and carry throughing the client ‘s demands while run intoing the co- equal jussive mood of accomplishing low cost.

1.2 Need for Mass Customization

Many markets are traveling from a mass-orientation to an individualisation of offerings to clients. Concentrating on the client, nevertheless, is both an jussive mood and a possible expletive. It is acknowledged that consumers ‘ gustatory sensations and penchants are extremely heterogenous. Hence the iterative co-design procedure for finding and carry throughing client penchants slows down operations and increased costs as a company expands its hitherto successful offering ( Kubiak, 1993 ) . Companies around the universe have embraced mass customization in an effort to avoid these booby traps.

Intense competition and sophisticated demand tendencies for individualized merchandises have rendered Mass Customization as competitory jussive mood for all concerns. As consumers become more sophisticated and cognizant of issues refering to the design, quality and functionality of their merchandises and services, they progressively demand to take portion in the design and production procedure ( i.e. to go co-designers and/or co-producers ) , so that they can custom-make merchandises and services to their peculiar demands, profile and demands.

Figure: Customer Order Point ( Modified from Sharon, 2001 ) 1.3 Mass Customization versus Mass Production.

1.3.1 Difference by Concept

Mass production is organized around the industry of extremely engineered, long tally, standardised merchandises, standardisation of parts and JIT rules. The mass manufacturer ( MP ) has a focussed production engineering, and therefore can merely offer a finite, predefined set of merchandises.

The thought of Mass Production has been the jussive mood for Mass Customization. Harmonizing to Joseph Pine ( 1993 ) , “ mass customization is aggregate production of customized goods ” . Mass customization leverages the capablenesss of advanced industrial production to better function niche markets or single clients in instances where individualised merchandise adds value and helps turn a net income. The mass customizer has a absolutely flexible production engineering, and therefore can offer any assortment within a merchandise infinite ( Hotelling ‘s, 1929 ) .

1.3.2 Difference by Value Chain

Mass production assumes and thrives on a homogenous market. Mass production is characterized to bring forth stable demand merchandises at low cost and consistent quality. Consumers are at the terminal of the value concatenation, taking merchandises from the mixtures that companies place in the market.

Figure: Value Chain Models of Mass Production and Mass CustomizationWhereas, Mass customization, integrates consumers into merchandise development, puting them at the beginning of the value concatenation that will convey each client what s/he wants. In a heterogenous market, consumers can take from big mixtures and fit merchandise constellations to their exact penchants.

1.4 Cellular Telephones

The cellular phone is an effectual communicating device, which had 16 million Americans in 1994 ( Sharon, 2001 ) . Today, more than 110 million Americans are endorsers.

Figure 3: Graph demoing addition in figure of Cellular Phone users over the Past Decade.

Peoples use cellular phones to hold fast entree to information for search and entry on-the-go, and speedy communicating through instant messaging and voice naming ( Weiss, 2002 ) . Furthermore, people use the embedded cellular phone characteristics such as games, cameras, organisers and nomadic cyberspace for assorted intents of amusement, forming, or even shopping. The cellular phone is going an built-in portion of people ‘s mundane life, and doing people more ‘connected ‘ .

1.5 Customization in Cellular Telephones

The modern twenty-four hours phone offers customization in different ways. Among them, the Cosmetic attack is the most successful signifier of customization as it represents the least complex scenario for client engagement. A cellular phone today offer ‘s customization in:

1.5.1 Call Related Features

Early customizations in phones started by custom-making the ‘call- related ‘ characteristics. Features such as phone book, name log memory, company ID, Voicemail and Menu come under this class, where the first four characteristics provides the needful information for phone calls, and the last one enables entree to this information.

1.5.2 Personal Preferences

With farther promotions, consumers are able to take or download their ain individualized scenes doing their phones unique. Features such as mutable faceplates, ringtones, subjects, bill of fare ordination, show contrast, etc. pertained to a alone individuality of a consumer.

1.5.3 Entertainment

The modern cell phone offers customization in amusement. Customers can download applications onto their cell phones and utilize them vividly. Past research concluded that consumers would bask custom-making a merchandise if they confront the customized merchandise as uniqueness.

1.6 Problem of Variety in Cellular Telephones

Cellular phones are acquiring smaller and lighter, but they support more characteristics at the same clip. It is what ( Norman, 1988 ) warned against as ‘creeping featurism ‘ , which is ‘a inclination to add to the figure of characteristics that a device can make, frequently widening the figure beyond all grounds ‘ . Although these characteristics can supply more public-service corporations, they can besides perplex the design and do the cellular phone more hard to utilize.

The competition among phone makers, forces them to supply their hallmark cellular phones with the best characteristics in the market. This competitory race complicates the client ‘s position while taking a cellular phone. ‘Though the presentation possibilities are spread outing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours, client ‘s capacity to understand, usage and incorporate new information and engineering has non grown at the same rate ” ( Watzman, 2003 ) .With the unchanged homo ‘s cognitive bound, a cellular phone packed with excessively many characteristics may overpower the users due to its assortment and complexness.

Figure 4: Assortment Explained

1.7 Need of Framework for Mass Customizing Cellular Telephones

Lampel & A ; Mintzberg ( 1998 ) assert that, since most of the theoretical MC attacks were developed explicitly based on the Value-Chain theoretical account they are non able to back up Mass Customization activities comprehensively. Because of an bing deficiency of proficient competency, non-expert clients frequently do non cognize what they truly want and are besides frequently non cognizant of their existent penchants until they see them physically. Furthermore, even if they are capable of placing their existent demands, they will hold jobs in pass oning them to providers, particularly at a degree of merchandise specification. Constructing a model with a which would decrease the complexness of choosing the characteristics

1.8 Purpose of the Study

As discussed before, a company tries to construct a merchandise to consumers ‘ penchants. The big handiness of cellular phones and its characteristics create an ambiguity for clients while choosing the characteristics of their cellular phone. The demand for developing a model which simplifies the client ‘s attack to MCM is a complex and intricate job for the industries, but however critical for their fiscal success.

The present survey efforts identify the merchandise household and merchandise platforms through consumers can custom-make a cellular phone to their demands. It presents a model which lessens the complexness, by polishing the elements of merchandise platforms, which are an built-in portion of the model.

Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.1 Mass Customization

The impression of incorporating user demands into the production and design procedure has had great importance in mass customization. This thought is a promising scheme for companies being forced to respond to the turning individualisation of demand ( Franke & A ; Piller, 2002 ) . In mass customization constructs, goods and services are made to run into single client ‘s demands produced with close mass production efficiency ( Tseng & A ; Jiao, 2001 ) . Mass customization embarks a new paradigm for fabricating industries ( Pine, 1993 ) . It recognizes each client as an single and provides each of them with seamster made characteristics that can merely be offered in the pre-industrial trade systems.

Mass customization ( Schafer, Konstan, & A ; Riedl, 1999 ) was first popularized by Pine in 1993 ( Pine, 1993 ) . In this book Pine argues that companies need to switch from the old universe of mass production where “ standardised merchandises, homogenous markets, and long merchandise life and development rhythms were the rife, to the new universe where the assortment and customization supplant standardized merchandises. ” Pine argues that constructing one merchandise is merely non adequate any more. Companies need to be able to at a lower limit, develop multiple merchandises that meet the multiple demands of multiple clients.

2.2 Need for Mass Customization

Companies need to carry through a client ‘s outlooks in footings of merchandise and service specifications, monetary value, and quality, in a dynamic environment, where merchandises life rhythm is dramatically reduced and rivals appear from everyplace, anytime. Competition on a planetary market means that clients are going more demanding, either through bring forthing and merchandising merchandises and services across the universe, or by selling locally but viing with planetary participants. Companies must react to the demands poised by planetary competition and the demand to mass-customize their production which needs to be supported by interoperable IT systems.

It may non be practical to back up user at a clip or to construct in entire personalization capablenesss specific to one user. It may be preferred to get down with solution that identifies a few common critical successes attributes that are a key for improved public presentation. Mass customization is a rational manner for houses to get by with this continuously-evolving concern environment.

2.3 Optimizing Consumer Responses to Mass Customization

To successfully implement the mass customization in merchandise, companies need to understand and cognize how to optimise consumer responses to mass customization. A better apprehension of the consumer responses to mass customization can assist companies to more successfully present mass customization schemes in new merchandises. Merely if the consumers believe that the value of a mass-customized merchandise significantly exceeds that of an off-the shelf merchandise, consumers are willing to mass custom-make a merchandise.

2.4 Benefits and Drawbacks of Mass Customization for Consumers

The possible benefits of mass customizing merchandises for the consumers are two times. First, the consumer can mass custom-make the merchandise in such a manner that it better fits his/her useful and aesthetic penchants than a standard off-the-rack merchandise does ( Franke & A ; Piller, 2003 ) . A past study conducted by Franke and piller ( 2004 ) showed that 165 consumers designed a sum of 159 different tickers, proposing that standard off-shelf-product may non optimally match to consumers ‘ single penchants. Consumers can mass custom-make the functionality and/or visual aspect of a merchandise. Mass custom-making the merchandises ‘ functionality consequences in a merchandise that fits an person ‘s useful desires.

In add-on to the enhanced tantrum to one ‘s penchants, consumers may besides comprehend the procedure of ‘doing-it-yourself ‘ as self-rewarding. They would besides see joy during the co-design undertaking as a consequence of an per se rewarding, artistic and originative act. As a consequence, the mass customized merchandise is valued more than consumers would value an indistinguishable off-the-rack merchandise. Past research besides concluded that making a merchandise partially yourself may besides ensue in the development of a stronger emotional bond with this merchandise ( Mugge, Schoormans, & A ; Schifferstein, 2009 ) and the consumers showed willingness to pay a premium monetary value for mass-customized merchandise.

Although, mass custom-making merchandise can offer consumers several benefits, mass customization might hold a downside every bit good. First of all, mass customization requires consumers ‘ investing of clip and attempt ( Mugge, Schoormans, & A ; Schifferstein, 2009 ) . During the co-design undertaking offered by mass customization, consumers have to do much more picks with regard to the merchandise than in an ordinary purchase state of affairs. As a consequence, consumers have to direct more clip and attending to the purchase of a mass-customized merchandise than to that of an off-the shelf merchandise. The 2nd drawback is that consumers may comprehend the undertaking of planing one ‘s ain merchandise as complex and hazardous. Consumers may besides go overwhelmed by the increased figure of possibilities at their disposal ( Dellaert & A ; Stremersch, 2005 ) .

2.5 Factors that affect the sensed benefits and drawbacks of the Mass customization

It is really important to acknowledge which groups of consumers would derive comparatively more benefits from Mass Customization and will comprehend fewer drawbacks.

2.5.1 Recent surveies indicate that

Peoples who are knowing with higher incomes are more likely to buy mass-customized merchandises because of their tangibleness to Internet and past purchases through it.

Persons who pursue differentness comparative to others are likely to comprehend more benefits from the construct of mass customization.

Creative people may be more able to custom-make a merchandise in such a manner that it fulfills their demands.

2.5.2 The merchandise class that is mass customized

In add-on to the single differences between consumers, the merchandise class may play an of import function in consumers ‘ grasp of mass customization. For certain merchandise classs, mass customization may offer consumers comparatively more value than for others.

2.5.3 Past research indicates that:

The comparative benefit of self-expressiveness is enhanced if the result of the mass customized merchandise and its mass customizing elements are seeable ( Schoormans, Brunel, & A ; Mugge, 2007 ) .

The frequence of merchandise ‘s usage intensifies the importance of the benefits that mass customization can offer.

The mass customizing is more valuable for lasting merchandises ( that are used comparatively frequently and serve as agencies to back up consumers ‘ individualism ) than for fast-moving consumer goods. For illustration, it is more interesting to mass custom-make dresss like vesture, footwear, jewellery, bags, tickers and life manner merchandises like autos, furniture, MP3-players than useful merchandises like screwdrivers, lawn mowers, rinsing machines etc.

2.5.4 The specific mass customization procedure

One of the biggest lessons from past research is that there is no 1 best manner to mass-customize, and seeking to copy successful companies like Dell can take to serious failures. Take, for illustration, the widespread belief that mass customization entails edifice merchandises to order. That is non ever true. As discussed earlier, clients are looking for merchandises that fit their demands, and they do non needfully care whether those offerings are physically built to their order or whether those points come from a warehouse merely every bit long as their demands are fulfilled at a sensible monetary value. See Sears Holdings Corp. and its multibillion-dollar online concern that uses embodiments and style-matching engineering to assist clients shop through countless merchandises, including kitchen contraptions and furniture. Sears focuses on personalising the shopping experience but non its merchandises, and the consequences at some concern units have been impressive: double-digit additions in the mean order value.

The cardinal message is that a company should “ custom-make its mass-customization scheme ” ( Lampel & A ; Mintzberg, 1996 ) A based on the demands of its client base, the province of the competition and the engineering available. It should non blindly use successful mass customizers as templets to copy. After all, mass customization is basically non about standard patterns ; it is about an entrepreneurial enterprise that is loosely applicable to any concern for which clients might be willing to pay for trim solutions or experiences. Indeed, the clip has come to see mass customization as a strategic mechanism to aline an organisation with its clients ‘ demands by deploying three critical capablenesss. Ultimately, the challenges of mass customization suggest a possible strategic value of those three capabilities-after all, what is difficult to develop will be hard to copy, and as such the capablenesss can be a powerful beginning of sustainable competitory advantage.

2.6 Merchandise Platforms and Families

2.6.1Product Family:

A merchandise household is a group of related merchandises based on a merchandise platform, easing mass customization by supplying a assortment of merchandises for different market sections cost efficaciously. *

2.6.2Product Platform:

A merchandise platform is the set of characteristics, constituents or subsystems that remain changeless from merchandise to merchandise, within a given merchandise household. A successful merchandise household depends on how good the tradeoff between the economic benefits and public presentation losingss incurred from holding a shared platform are managed. * .

2.6.3Types of merchandise platforms:

In platform- based merchandise development, there are two common types for merchandise households.

2.6.4Module based merchandise household:

Merchandises obtained in a theoretical account based merchandise household are obtained by adding, replacing, and/or taking one or more faculties from the platform.

2.6.5Scale based merchandise household:

Merchandises are created by scaling one or more variables related to the platform design to fulfill a assortment of market niches.

Most of the old research attempts related to merchandise design and merchandise households have been focused on the client ‘s functions and undertakings in a deterministic fabrication environment. In a merchandise household design for mass customization, a method to bring forth a assortment of merchandises should be considered for dynamic and assorted market sections to reflect a assortment of client demands and penchants.

In add-on, dynamic factors, like client demands and tendencies, companies ‘ schemes, and engineerings, should be considered to increase client ‘s satisfaction in developing a household of merchandises. Therefore, we need to turn to how to capture the dynamic factors for developing customized households of merchandises. A market based larning mechanism is one manner to reflect assorted and dynamic market environments in a multi-agent system.

Because market section provides guidelines for finding and directing client demands, it can be used to place the standards for planing merchandise household more accurately and non-hypothetically ( Simpson et al. , 2005 ) . In an electronic market environment, clients ‘ penchants can be determines by information related to clients ‘ buying forms and ratings for merchandises.

Chapter 3 Methodology

3.1 Researching a Perfect Customized Model: Dell Computers

Michael Dell foundedA Dell ComputerA with a simple vision and concern construct that personal computing machines could be built to order and sold straight to clients. Dell Mass customization is more than merely configuring a specific constituent ( hardware or package ) . It viewed co-design of an full system including services, experiences and human satisfaction at the person every bit good as at the community degree.

Desktop and laptop clients order whatever constellation of microprocessor velocity, random entree memory ( RAM ) , hard-disk capacity, CD-ROM thrust, fax/modem, proctor size, talkers, and other accoutrements they preferred. The orders are directed to the nearest mill. This sell-direct scheme meant that Dell had no in-house stock of finished goods stock lists and that, unlike rivals utilizing the traditional value concatenation model it did non hold to wait for resellers to unclutter out their ain stock lists before it could force new theoretical accounts into the market place.

Michael Dell believed his attack to PC fabrication had two advantages:

By go throughing distributers and retail traders eliminated the markups of resellers, and

Building to order greatly reduced the costs and hazards associated with transporting big stocks of parts, constituents, and finished goods.

The scheme gave the company a significant cost and profit-margin advantage over challengers that manufactured Personal computers in volume and kept their distributers and retail merchants stocked with ample stock lists. Equally of import was the fact that clients who bought from Dell got the satisfaction of holding their computing machines customized to their peculiar liking and pocketbook. The clients are besides offered with great client service, which wins his/her trust in valued service. It was shown that particularly in the service industry a long term relationship between supplier and client is responsible for a company ‘s success.

Figure 5: Dell mass customizable theoretical account

3.1About the Survey

The present survey proposes a model for the customization of cellular phones. The model efforts to integrate the most coveted characteristics of a cellular phone user. In order to place the most coveted characteristics, an on-line study ‘What people want in a cellular phone ‘ was developed utilizing an on-line study edifice site, Surveygizmo.com.

Surveygizmo.com is an unfastened beginning web site which allows users to develop on-line studies. The application comes with many helpful characteristics and users can take from more than 20 inquiry types which are ideal for research, tracking, selling mechanization, and insight into what clients want. Surveygizmo.com gives the user sum control by offering colour and visual aspect customization of studies so each can be designed to user ‘s penchants. The user can custom-make their study so it blends absolutely, with various inquiry options. ( Surveygizmo.com )

Surveygizmo.com besides offers a characteristic of making web-links for the study ‘s which can be posted in electronic mails, societal networking sites and on-line treatment signifiers. Surveies can besides be converted into studies so the user can reexamine the information in a format that is clear and easy to understand. The website offers pupils a free Enterprise degree history for academic & amp ; non- net income intents, leting 250 responses per month.

3.3 Organization of the Survey

The study entitled “ What people want in a Cellular phone ” which has a series of wireless and look into box inquiries enquires a respondent ‘s penchants while taking a cellular phone. The study consists of 11 inquiries which were divided into certain classs.

Class

Question figure

Type

Collects

General Information

Question 1

Check box

Gender

Question 2

Check box

Age

Current cellular Telephone Information

Question 3

Check Box

Cellular phone trade name

Question 4

Radio

Satisfied characteristics in current cellular phone

Question 5

Radio

Aim

Feature penchants

Question 6

Likert Scale

Importance of a characteristic while taking a cellular phone

Question 7

Check box

Touch screen penchant

Question 8

Radio

Desired classs of Applications

Earlier Customization

Question 9

Radio

Customized characteristics in current cellular phone

Question 10

Check box

Cost of customization

Extra Features

Question 11

Text box

Additional desired characteristics non mentioned in the above inquiries

Table: Organization of the Survey

The sample choice for the study was done largely by Random trying. A web nexus was created utilizing Surveygizmo.com and was included in a individualized electronic mail sent to researcher ‘s contact list. The electronic mail was besides sent to local association at Fresno province, the Indian Student Club ( ISC ) . The nine had largely pupils and alumnas of Fresno province. Wholly, the electronic mail was sent to about 400 respondents of which most were pupils.

The web nexus with the individualized message was besides posted in societal networking sites like Facebook.com, Orkut.com and LinkedIn.com. A transcript of the study and electronic mail with the web nexus can be found in the Appendix. A clip line of about 45 yearss was given to the respondents to take the study. The respondents were requested to take the study and reply it by October twenty-fifth 2010. A pursuer electronic mail was sent to all the 400 respondents on October twentieth 2010 as a balance for the approaching deadline.

3.4 About the Model

The chief purpose of the survey is to construct a model which facilitates the Mass customization of cellular phones by diminishing assortment and complexness. First, all the characteristics mentioned in the study are categorized into five classs viz. Camera ( CA ) , Design ( DE ) , Durability ( DU ) , Connectivity ( CO ) and Personalization ( P ) . Second, a merchandise platform is built with the most coveted characteristics ( obtained from study ) in each several class as the constituents of this merchandise platform. Third, the constituents placed in the merchandise platform are provided with either faculty or graduated table based customizable degrees. The customizable degrees created in each constituent of merchandise platform depend on the Market penetration, Product engineerings, Manufacturing procedure and Organizational capablenesss of the cellular phone fabrication company.

The remainder of the characteristics in each class, provide no customization. The figure 6 gives a brief mentality of the proposed model.

Camera ( CA )

Picture Quality

Rapid climb

Design ( DE )

Weight

Size

Color

Manner

Durability ( DU )

Battery Life

Case Strength

Connectivity ( CO )

Computer Sync

Internet

Bluetooth

Personalization ( P )

Ringtones

Games

Applications

Music

Merchandise Platform

Figure 6: Merchandise Platform

Measure 1:

Topographic point the characteristic with most figure of responses in the several class in the merchandise platform.

Measure 2:

Provide customizable degrees merely in these constituents in two ways

Faculty based:

For eg: If the option ‘Style ‘ is placed on the platform, give 2-3 types of manners ( depending on and past user purchases )

Scale based:

For eg: If the ‘Battery life ‘ characteristic becomes a portion of the platform, so, supply a battery which gives 16hrs, 8 hour, and 4 hour of battery life.

Note: The design of model is purely dependent on the selected market ( sample size ) . It purely corresponds to response rates got from the study.

Pi

Pi1

Pi2

Pi3

COi

COi1

COi2

COi3

Couple

DUi1

DUi2

DUi3

DEi

DEi1

DEi2

DEi3

CAi

CAi1

CAi2

CAi3

Merchandise platform

Rest of facets ( No customization or minimum customization )

Figure 7: Merchandise Platform

3.5 Radio Frequency Test

It is argued that the signal response factor has a immense influence on a Cellular phone ‘s public presentation. Analyzing the factors responsible for the disagreements in signal response would assist a client to heighten his penchants while taking a cellular phone.

The chief factors responsible for signal response of a cellular phone are

Volume of web traffic

The location of the cellular phone from the signal tower

The type of cellular phone

These three factors are dependent on each other. Since the volume of web traffic and location of cellular phone are variable they have a immense impact on the signal response of cellular phone. In order to analyze how the type of cellular phone effects the signal response, the first two factors are to be standardized. This is done in a wireless frequence trial called the Single site confirmation.

3.5.1 Single Site Verification ( SSV )

Single site confirmation is a RF trial which is conducted in the propinquity of a individual signal conveying site ( S ) . All the signals transmitted from the adjacent sites are blocked or locked utilizing some parametric quantities. As there is merely one signal tranmitting site, the volume of web traffic will be the same when a RF trial is performed with different cellular phones. Since the trials would be performed on the same thrust path for all the cellular phones, the location of the cellular phones is standardized. Three cellular phones termed Mobile Origination ( MO ) , Mobile Termination ( MT ) and Long Mobile Origination ( LMO ) perform the call related trials in the SSV. Two informations cards, High velocity download package entree ( HSDPA ) and High velocity upload package entree ( HSUPA ) perform the informations download and upload trials severally. All the constituents used in the trial are jointly called as User Equipments ( UE ) .

A usage made package called Agilent tracks the call related trials in the signifier of dropped and blocked calls and informations trials as download and upload failures. In add-on, the package besides records the throughput and signal strength each UE acquires from the individual site. The following tabular array summarizes the SSV trial.

User Equipment ( UE )

Function

Agilent records

Moment

Calls MT

Throughput, dropped calls and blocked calls

Meitnerium

Receives calls from MO

Throughput, dropped calls and blocked calls

LMO

Calls a wireless station

Throughput, dropped calls and blocked calls

HSDPA

Downloads a 3000MB file from a waiter

Throughput, Download failures

HSUPA

Uploads a 5000MB file to a waiter

Throughput, Upload failures

Table: SSV Test

3.5.2 Signal tower and Site Selection:

A signal tower site which does non hold any intervention from the neighbouring sites is selected in Bloomfield, New Mexico, USA for the RF trial. The towers at the site transmit signals in three sectors, viz. Alpha ( 74 MHz ) , Beta ( 82 MHz ) and Gamma ( 90 MHz ) . Each UE receives the signal in the signifier of scrambling codifications which the UE intercepts to either do calls or behavior informations transportations.

3.5.3 Drive Route and Data Collection:

A drive path of about 7 mile radius is selected around the signal tower site. Get downing from the site ( S ) , the signal strength received in each of the UE ‘s is recorded along the path. The drive trial is conducted for different types of cellular phones which support 3G. HSDPA and HSUPA are non changed during any of the thrust trials. The signal strength received by each UE is recorded and is checked for any call related and informations transportation issues.

Figure 8: Site Location ( Reproduced by permission from Avion Systems, Inc, Atlanta )

The throughput in each of the UE ‘s is recorded in footings of RSCP ( Radio beginning codification power ) . Generally, an UE ‘s is said to be geting good signal strength if it has a RSCP value between -65 and -95.

Chapter 4: Consequences

The present survey proposes a model easing the Mass customization of cellular phones. The survey uses the consequences of an on-line study to place the most desirable characteristics in a cellular phone. The survey besides uses an internship experience as an RF applied scientist to prove if the signal response depends on the type of cellular phone.

4.1 Survey Results

The study which was sent to about 400 people and was posted in the societal networking sites received about 125 responses. Out of these, 107 responses were completed and the remainder were either partly completed or abandoned. To hold a colored analysis of the consequences, merely the completed studies were considered. The general information about the respondents like the gender, age and their current cellular phone maker are shown in table 4. From the study consequences, it is inferred that most of the respondents use Apple ‘s ( I phone ) which has a niche in the smart phones market.

Variable

Description

Percentage

Gender

Male

Female

66.4 %

33.6 %

Age

& lt ; 20 old ages

20-30 old ages

& gt ; 30 old ages

1.9 %

96.2 %

1.9 %

Current cellular phone

Apple ( I phone )

Nokia

Samsung

Sony Ericsson

LG

HTC

Blackberry

Motorola

Other

28 %

24.3 %

13.1 %

13.1 %

7.5 %

5.6 %

2.8 %

0.9 %

4.7 %

Table 3: General Information of Respondents

Question 5 collected the information about the intent for which the respondents largely used their cellular phone. Table 4, compares the statistics of the cellular phone use in 2000 and 2010. Although, a cellular phone is still used as a trade good to speak, its use for browse and amusement has doubled in the past decennary.

Aim

2000

2010

Talk

Text

Browse

Entertainment

Other

96 %

25 %

15 %

20 %

6 %

95 %

39 %

42 %

44 %

8 %

Table 4: Comparison of Cellular Phone Use: Modified from Arnest ( 2004 )

The respondents were besides asked to choose the characteristics with which they were satisfied in their current cellular phones. Table 6 shows the responses about the satisfied characteristics in a respondent ‘s current cellular phone. The characteristics such as easiness of operation, size and manner had the most satisfaction degree while the characteristics such as Bluetooth, battery life and Camera ( Zoom ) had the least satisfaction degree. The statistics imply that most of the respondents were non satisfied with either one or more of the characteristics in their current cellular phones. Supplying some degree of customization in these characteristics while taking their cellular phones would increase the client satisfaction.

Feature

Percentage

Ease of Operation

Manner

Music

Size

Color

Camera ( Picture Quality )

Weight

Internet handiness

Cost

Bluetooth

Battery life

Camera ( rapid climb )

61.7 %

59.8 %

51.4 %

50.5 %

47.7 %

47.7 %

45.8 %

44.9 %

42.1 %

32.7 %

30 %

24.3 %

Table 5: Satisfied Features in a Cellular Telephone

4.2 Constructing the Model

The respondents were asked to bespeak the importance degree of a characteristic while taking their cellular phones. The responses were recorded on Likert graduated table in diminishing degrees of importance. The response rates for each characteristic under the ‘most of import ‘ class are given below.

Class

Features

Response rate for

‘most of import ‘

Camera ( CA )

Picture Quality

Rapid climb

65 %

48 %

Design ( DE )

Size

Weight

Color

Manner

65 %

57 %

50 %

56 %

Durability ( DU )

Battery life

Case strength

85 %

47 %

Connectivity ( CO )

Computer Sync

Internet

Bluetooth

66 %

61.5 %

55.8 %

Personalization ( P )

Applications

Ringtones

Games

Music

52 %

18 %

52 %

60 %

Table 6: Customer Responses for Feature as Most Important

4.2.1Building the Merchandise Platform

Constructing a solid platform with the most of import characteristics in a cellular phone would ease an efficient manner of bring forthing household of merchandises. As discussed in Figure 7, the merchandise platform for the model is built on the most coveted characteristics obtained from the study consequences. Hence, mentioning to Postpone 6 the merchandise platform is in the undermentioned manner.

Size

Manner

Option1

Option1

Option2

Option2

Option3

Option3

Applications

Music

Option 1

Option 1

Option 2

Option 2

Option 3

Option 3

Computer Sync

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Picture Quality

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Battery life

Option 1

Option 2

Option 3

Merchandise Platform

Figure 9: Merchandise platform with Most Desired Features

The choice of options for each of the above constituents of merchandise platform is done through Market penetration, Product engineerings, Manufacturing procedure and Organizational capablenesss of the cellular phone fabrication company. For illustration, the study collected the respondent ‘s penchants in the applications for their cellular phones. 71 % of the respondents wanted applications for amusement followed by 53 % for societal networking and 51 % for public-service corporations. Supplying the options in these classs would heighten a client ‘s penchants while taking his cellular phone. Similarly, the options for the other characteristics are selected.

4.2.2 Building Product Families:

Merchandise households are a group of related merchandises that portion common characteristics, constituents, or subsystems and that satisfy a assortment of markets. The merchandise platform plays an of import function in constructing merchandise households. A assortment of merchandises can be made by widening the merchandise platform harmonizing to the market section. It is besides acknowledge that with the degree of customization, the cost of the merchandise additions.

Figure 10: Building Merchandise Families

4.3 Radio Frequency Test

In order to prove if the signal response depends on the type of cellular phone, a figure of RF trials were conducted utilizing different cellular phones in Bloomfield, New Mexico, USA. In every RF trial, the cellular phones used as MO, MT and LMO were changed with another theoretical account. The RSCP values obtained during the RF trial performed by each type of cellular phone is given below.

Cellular phone Model

Average RSCP ( Throughput )

Calls

Data Failures

Moment

Meitnerium

LMO

HSDPA

HSUPA

Dropped Calls

Blocked Calls

Download Failures

Upload Failures

Samsung A837

Sony Ericsson W995

Nokia 7370

LG U890

Samsung A737

Nokia 6350

Motorola V750

-70

-89

-67

-100

-76

-80

-90

-71

-88

-68

-101

-74

-79

-89

-70

-88

-68

-99

-76

-77

-88

-66

-66

-66

-67

-65

-67

-67

-64

-64

-64

-66

-67

-70

-69

0

3

0

0

1

0

2

1

0

0

2

1

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Table 7: Summary of RF Test performed with assorted cellular phones. ( Reproduced with permission from Avion Systems, Atlanta )

The RSCP values obtained from the HSDPA and HSUPA which were non changed during each trial thrust do non demo any major alterations bespeaking consistence in signal strength along the full path around the site. Besides, there are a batch of disagreements in the RSCP values of MO, MT and LMO of each cellular type. This indicates that, the each theoretical account of cellular phones used in the RF trial has intercepted the signal strength otherwise.

The consequences besides show that signal response varies from theoretical account to pattern. For illustration, the Nokia 7370 and Nokia 6350 showed a border of approximately 10 points of difference in RSCP value. Hence, the RF trial indicated that, signal response depends on the type of cellular phone. Hence, it should be on as a constituent of the merchandise platform.

Chapter 5: Chapter 5 Title

Typically, chapter 5 offers a decision or recommendation, which is required per the Title 5 Education Code. Here, you might bespeak what specifically has been derived from your research and offer hereafter research workers recommendations for how the work might be expanded. Consult with your commission when crafting the decision chapter of your thesis. It is likely that you will desire to merely title chapter 5, CONCLUSION.

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REFERENCES ( WORKS CITED, OR SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY )

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