A Study On Highway Service Provider Marketing Essay

In the globalization, the main roads web plays an of import function in enhance the state ‘s fight. The route users in Malaysia have become better instruction background, their demand for high quality service expends with the addition in clients ‘ purchasing power. The route users non merely needed route safety but besides a good service and installations. This instance survey will concentrate on service quality and client satisfaction of main roads users. The intent of this survey is to measure the client ‘s satisfaction and perceptual experience of the service provided by the PLUS Expressway Berhad utilizing SERVQUAL theoretical account and towards service quality of highways direction service in Malaysia.

Service quality can be features into four basic characteristics, service is intangible, service is a procedure, service is partially of consumed or experienced at the clip produced and the client participates in the procedure of service production. Customer satisfaction is the head province of the client about a company when their outlooks have been met or exceed over the life-time of merchandise or service. Satisfaction is a map of sensed service and outlooks.

There's a specialist from your university waiting to help you with that essay.
Tell us what you need to have done now!

order now

The survey adopted quantitative methodological analysis on convenient trying with 300 questionnaires distributed to the main road users based on quotation mark race in Malaysia at Rest and Service Areas of North South Expressways. At the determination of the research, it is observed that the respondents perceived quality of the service were less than outlook. The greatest disparity among the dimensions between outlook and perceptual experience agencies was pavement status. At the consequences, the main road users are still non satisfied with the services provided by the PLUS. The main road service supplier has be aftering the of import of the pavement status that including driving comfort, safety of route and route line taging. Without proper attention and care of these pavement elements will increase the figure of ailments received and dissatisfaction among the main road users.

Problem of statement

Customer satisfaction and quality has become of import for virtually all concern because of increasing competition and client more demanding. To achieve client satisfaction companies need to accomplish quality non merely by extinguishing the causes for direct complains but need to supply their merchandises or services with first-class, attractive quality and supply the delectation to the client.

Projek Leburaya Utara Selatan ( PLUS ) gives full committednesss in supplying the best services to fulfill its clients and route users. Although PLUS has provided top notch installations to their route users, ailment are still received from the route users particularly during gay seasons when bulks of urban inhabitant return to their hometown. Customer studies have been performed antecedently at assorted locations but there was apprehensiveness sing the cogency and dependability of old methods.

How to mensurate service quality and client satisfaction in the Highway direction services.

The dissatisfaction of the main roads user are discovered excessively late, as they complaint through electronic media or newspapers. The top standard for bettering keeping are service betterments and service relationship. PLUS emphasised on the improving and upgrading the bing installations to guarantee the comfort and satisfaction of route users and clients. PLUS have been spent bettering the bing Rest and Service countries and food-court. The gasoline station offer new construct by supplying nutrient mercantile establishments, convenience shops and constitution of Wi-Fi connectivity. These betterments have truly perceived by the users as good purpose or fulfill their existent demands.

How to find the current position of the service quality and client satisfaction in the main roads direction services and disagreement between perceptual experiences and outlook of main roads users towards the service provided.

This survey is an attempt to derive penetration into the service quality and client satisfaction of the main road users.

Research aim and research inquiry

Research aim

The aim of this survey is to measure the service quality degree of Malayan main roads from the route users ‘ positions.

To analyze outlook of the client and perceptual experience of service quality provided by PLUS Expressways utilizing modified SERVQUAL instruments.

To measure clients satisfaction towards service quality of Highways in Malaysia.

Research Question

This survey will turn to the research inquiry as below:

What of the spreads of outlook and perceptual experiences toward main road direction services in Malaysia of main road users?

The survey principle is that service quality is a complex and elusive concept. Each main road users have different background and civilization. Therefore, the perceptual experience of service provided by the PLUS direction service will be different. Besides, the demands of the main road users will be different from each other. It is of import to cognize the demands of main road user to supply better services.

What is the client satisfaction degree among the main road users?

Customer satisfaction is determined by specifying the client perceptual experience of quality, outlook and penchants. The net income will get down to fall if the increasing dissatisfaction of clients. Besides, the service supplier besides needs to cognize which part of service truly satisfies the main road users. This survey is to measure the satisfaction degree of main roads users about the service provided.

Significance of the survey

The two concept of service quality and client satisfaction are briefly discussed and a definition of the concept provided as used in this research. The original definition of service quality identified it as the difference between consumer outlook and perceptual experience although the definition is similar to that of client satisfaction and originated the confusion between the concepts.

The consumer evaluates that the service quality involves in comparing of outlook with perceptual experiences

The definition reflects service quality is based on the disconfirmation theory.

Customer satisfaction derives from the sensed service quality meeting or exceeding, antecedently held experience.

The definition of client satisfaction has besides eluded consistence with definitions being derived from either cognitive or affectional appraisals.

Literature reappraisal

The intent of literature reappraisal is provided the basic position on the nature of main road service suppliers, its service and installation provided to the main roads users. Besides, it besides summaries the related research on client satisfaction service quality and conceptual model.

Highway in Malaysia

All the privatised toll main roads in Malaysia is regulated by Malayan Highway Authority ( MHA ) . This statuary organic structure was established in conformity with the Malayan Law, Act 231, Highway Authority Malaysia ( incorporation ) Act 1980. The aim of MHA is to oversee and put to death the design, building, ordinance, operation and care of main roads, better and roll up tolls. Addition, traffic safety substructure is upgrade to better safety characteristics. Besides, a figure of enterprises such 24 hr vehicle dislocation and accident services and 24 hours call Centres have been introduced to heighten the frog safety.

PLUS Expressway Berhad

PLUS Expressway was incorporated in Malaysia as public company on 29 January 2002 under the Companies Act, 1965. PLUS is subordinate for PLUS Expressway keeping company which the primary concern consists of the operation and care of the Expressways. PLUS operates and maintains three interrelated freewaies: The North-South Expressways ( NSE ) , The New Klang Valley Expressways ( NKVE ) and a subdivision of the Federal main roads Route 2 ( FHR2 ) . The North-South Expressways is 846 kilometer toll freeway for, Bukit Kayu Hitam to Johor Bahru. It besides managed the Malaysia-Singapore Second Crossing ( Linkedua Sdn Bhd ) , Butterworth-Kulim Expressways ( BKE ) and the North-South Central Linl ( ELITE Sdn Bhd ) .

Customer satisfaction

Customer satisfaction theories are based on the societal and experimental psychological surveies carried out by Lewin ( 1936 ) in the first half twentieth Century. Investigating the self-esteem concept is utile to explicate the satisfaction perceptual experience and the nexus between satisfaction and trust.

Customer satisfaction is an equivocal and abstract construct and the existent manifestation of the province of the satisfaction will change from individual to individual and from service to service. The degree of satisfaction can change depending on psychological and physical variables. The consumer ‘s feeling about ingestion experiences will impact their rating of the merchandise quality. Post-purchase rating of merchandises is closely related to the development of feeling by satisfaction.

Harmonizing to Kotler, satisfaction is a individual ‘s feelings of pleasance or letdown ensuing from comparing a merchandise ‘s sensed public presentation in relation to his or her outlook. Satisfaction is a map of sensed public presentation and outlook. It the public presentation exceeds outlooks ; the client is extremely satisfied or delighted. If the public presentation matches the outlook, the client is satisfied. If the public presentation falls short of outlooks, the client is dissatisfied. To transcend outlooks of client, the service suppliers have to travel above or beyond the basic client service. Gatewood and Riordan ( 1977 ) justify that satisfaction with run intoing the client ‘s demands and outlooks by presenting goods and services to the satisfaction of the client.

Service Quality

Servicess are defined as activities that required personal contact. The feature of services are intangibles, heterogeneousness of the merchandises and inseparability of production and ingestion. Harmonizing Hill -1987, the consumer and the manufacturer are required for a service to be produce. The director required to understand the services construct, service bringing system and service degrees. As the consumer has a cardinal function in the definition and rating of all three elements. It will assist the director to hold clear apprehension of client outlook and perceptual experiences ( Sasser et al. 1978 ) .

Service quality can besides be defined as the difference between client outlook of service and sensed service. Harmonizing Mendzela and Craig, there are four thoughts to measure in be aftering successful service. These are including researching value, authorising people, supplying information and achieving consistence across the experience. In the procedure to researching value, the service suppliers are able to understand client ‘s values where they feel valuable in a positive experience. Empowering employees will assist them to execute at their ability. When client acquiring more information, it will assist serve supplier to better understanding client and acquiring what they expect. Finally, the consistence accomplishment will better solidify the customer-firm relationship due to the client service concatenation become stronger.

Relationship between satisfaction and service quality

Quality is the accretion of satisfaction for many clients over the service experience, but satisfaction is merely mentioning to a client ‘s perceptual experience of a individual service experience. The difference in the grade, way and disagreement between client ‘s perceptual experience and outlook will ensue in a degree of satisfaction or dissatisfaction ( Hill, 1992 ) . Customer satisfaction is the grade of the efficaciously provided a merchandise or service that meets the client ‘s demands. Perceived service quality is the grade and way of disagreement between consumer ‘s perceptual experience and outlook ( Parasuraman et al, 1989 ) . Rust et Al ( 1996 ) , illustrates the of import linkages between perceived quality from both nonsubjective quality and outlooks. Perceived quality besides updated the outlooks to bring forth new outlooks where a direct effects of outlook on satisfaction – the higher the outlook, the higher the satisfaction.

2nd article: Influence of service and merchandise quality towards Customer satisfaction: A instance survey at the staff cafeteria in the hotel industry.


To be globally competitory service industries must accomplish a quality service that exceeds client ‘s outlook. Service quality will find on the administration success or failure. Besides, service qualities besides determine a clients ‘ satisfaction but it is complicated to find in the dynamic concern environment. Service satisfaction is a map of clients ‘ experience and reaction to the supplier ‘s behavior during service given.

This survey will applied in Malaysia context to place the quality factors of nutrient service suppliers that influences client satisfaction. The degree of client satisfaction possibly influenced by assorted properties from internal and external factors. The chief aim of this survey is to place properties that influence client satisfaction and find their relationship with client satisfaction.

The variables included in this research are place/ambience, nutrient quality and service quality as independent variables and client satisfaction as the dependant variable. A study questionnaire which consisted of three parts to mensurate demographic factors, independent variables and dependent variables was constructed based on points determined by past research 149 respondents from one of the well known hotel in Kuala Lumpur ware selected as a sample. The new findings have been strengthened the old research findings where there are positive important relationship between place/ambience. The place/ambience is presently going the taking factor in finding client satisfaction.

Problem statement

Many nutrient service suppliers have a perceptual experience that people merely go to eating mercantile establishments for the nutrient they want and they will fulfill. However, this perceptual experience possibly non keep true for those full service eating house visitants whose chief intent is to transact concern. Internal client ‘s satisfaction with respects to staff cafeteria in Malaysia has gone virtually untouched. Most of the service suppliers did n’t cognize the quality of staff cafeteria and other factors which will act upon internal client satisfactions. The satisfactions of client are decreased.

Research aim and Research inquiry

Research aim

The chief aim of this survey is to place the relationship between nutrient quality, place/ambience and service quality of the staff cafeteria and the internal client satisfaction.

Research inquiry

This survey is designed to place the replies from the undermentioned inquiries

Does bettering the quality of nutrient service supplier attributes increase client satisfaction?

What the possible factors that may act upon client satisfaction?

How can these properties be improved by the administration to increase the degree of internal client satisfaction?

Significance of research

The information collected will take to a better apprehension of the act uponing degree of the properties on client satisfaction. The consequences of this survey will assist on consciousness of the relationship between the variable and direct directors in country for quality betterment to increase client satisfaction. From the determination, the being of a relationship between qualities properties of a nutrient service suppliers and client satisfaction will be more obvious.

Literature reappraisal

The literature reappraisal is based on researches that have been conducted in other states. Factors analyzed like service quality and merchandise quality ever used as basic factors to find client satisfaction in the eating houses. Although these research used different conceptual model, but they still aligned with Transaction-Specific Model to be adopted into this research.

Transaction-Specific Model

This theoretical account was suggested by Teas ( 1993 ) and expanded by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry ( 1994 ) . This theoretical account posits a client ‘s overall satisfaction with a dealing to be a map of the appraisal of service quality, merchandise quality and monetary values.

Transaction Satisfaction ( TSAT )

Evaluation of Service Quality ( SQ )

Evaluation of Product Quality ( PQ )

Monetary value

Figure 1.1 Transaction-Specific Models

Customer will probably see specific facets of the dealing such as merchandise characteristics, service characteristics every bit good as monetary value to be satisfied with their overall eating house experience. The eating house proprietors should concentrate on three major elements such as service quality, monetary value and nutrient quality.


In this research, non all the five dimensions of SERVQUAL will be used. It is because some of the dimension non suited in finding client satisfaction in the eating house industry. The empathy dimension will non applicable in the eating house industry context. Empathy is a proviso of attention and individualised attending that is displayed to each client. This survey will utilize the transaction-specific theoretical account in a staff cafeteria where the penchant factors related to client satisfaction possibly different. Component of SERVQUAL theoretical account will be considered as other factors have been included in this research.

Model used to measure service quality

The SERVQUAL theoretical account including five dimensions used to mensurate client service quality. These are tangibles, dependability, reactivity, empathy and confidence. Elementss within the tangibles dimension are infinite, cleanliness, atmosphere and location. Measuring of dependability and reactivity are speed, willingness to react, truth and dependableness. The empathy and confidence possibly measured utilizing cognition, trained professional, communications and lovingness.

The SERVPERF theoretical account evaluates service quality by perceptual experience merely, without outlook and importance weights. In the QUALITOMETRO theoretical account, client outlooks and perceptual experiences are evaluated in two distinguishable minutes. In the DINESERVE theoretical account, outlooks were be the measurement instrument. Quality rating will be the comparing between quality outlooks and perceptual experiences profiles utilizing MCDA. This theoretical account is more suited to mensurate public presentation. This theoretical account been used to carry on a research sing importance-performance analysis for bettering quality of campus nutrient service.

Properties of quality service to mensurate client satisfaction

Harmonizing research done by Soriano 2002, offering good nutrient and service is non plenty to pull and retain consumers. In order to derive competitory advantages in the market, eating house should offer a favorable atmosphere topographic point for consumer to bask their nutrients.

Kivela, Inbakaran and Reece ( 2000 ) analysed client satisfaction factors based on five dimensions which are service excellence, atmosphere excellence, nutrient excellence, experiencing comfy and reserves and parking. Pun and Ho ( 2001 ) mentioned that the competitory location, monetary value, nutrient quality and client service were among the chief determiners of people sing the eating house services.

Question 2

Proposed Title of the Research Project Proposal

Survey on the ground contributed to the client satisfaction and trueness in after gross revenues service of Cargotec CHS Asia Pacific Pte Ltd.

The Introduction to the Research Project Proposal


Background of survey

This survey aims to mensurate the rating of client satisfaction and trueness in after gross revenues service of Cargotec CHS Asia Pacific Pte Ltd. Long clip ago, the thought of associating service value with client service has existed. This survey will bespeak that the relationship between client satisfaction, client trueness and profitableness. Many surveies related to client satisfaction and client trueness have conducted in the consumer market during the 1990 ‘s. Most of research concentre on subject related to selling, but merely few researches related on concern market. By and large, the research related to after gross revenues service merely given partial attending in those surveies.

Customer satisfaction plays of import functions in after gross revenues services particularly Cargotec CHS Asia Pacific Pte Ltd concern environmental. Cargotec is the universe ‘ prima supplier of lading managing solutions and the merchandises can used in different phases of stuff flow in ships, ports, terminus, distribution Centres and local transit. Cargotec Corporation ‘s trade names, Hiab, Kalmar and Macgregor are the market leaders in their single field and well-known among clients all over the universe. As a market leader, it is expected that the of import of well-managed services in after gross revenues stage.

In the high-technology markets, rapid alteration of the market and short life rhythm of merchandises are the feature of this industry. The merchandise supports of Cargotec are important as a concern chance. Technology is a cardinal component of the Cargotec concern. As a leader in the lading managing engineering market, Cargotec is work on close co-operation with the clients to guarantee the uninterrupted, dependable and sustainable public presentation of equipment. Cargotec provide engineering which will assist the clients to maintain planetary lading flows running and guarantee that planetary conveyance ironss maintain moving.

Turning of Cargotec service concern is an of import tool for beef uping client satisfaction in the market. Cargotec broaden and place the merchandise offering to run into client ‘s demands particularly in Asia Pacific part. Cargotec provides its client with support service that cover the merchandise ‘s life rhythm. Developing new engineering in coordination with satisfied client, a provider can better their merchandise and maintain rival off in the market portion. The buying of high engineering merchandise will make high hazard as clients invest batch money on that merchandise ( Riggs,1993 ) . Technical job are able to get the better of through first-class distribution, service and support. Customers are willing to pay a premium for dependable service suppliers ( Davidow, 1986 ) .

Statement of job

In the planetary and extremely competitory market, client satisfaction and trueness become an indispensable for the endurance of administration involved in the service industry. Harmonizing Barsky ( 1992 ) , client satisfaction is determined the client perceptual experience of quality and outlooks. To increase the client satisfaction, the service suppliers non merely necessitate to extinguish the causes for direct ailments but need to better their merchandise and service with first-class and attractive quality.

After gross revenues service are a portion of client service and a cardinal determiner of client satisfaction peculiarly in service industry. Many research provinces that most of the new growing industry attempt to benchmarks after gross revenues service of cars, air hose and hotels which these industries have supplying excellent after gross revenues service to bring forth repetition gross revenues, increase client keeping and client trueness.

Numerous ailment have been received by the gross revenues and selling section on quality of after gross revenues service. Most of the tendencies have non been place the causes of the job. Companies have recognized that the new planetary economic system has changed thing forever. Determining the degree of satisfaction and trueness is the initial measure to derive in the competitory market. More executive and direction squads are interested in client satisfaction and trueness prosodies than of all time before. Customer satisfaction is really different from client where the satisfaction is required to make concern while trueness is the basic for sustained profitableness and growing.

In the competitory market, companies are aroused to hike client satisfaction and maintain the loyal of current clients. Customer satisfaction is a key for a company to thrive in the new planetary economic system.

Objective of Research Project Proposal

Research Question

Q1: What is the current degree of client ‘s satisfaction at Cargotec?

Q2: Determine the relationship between client satisfaction and trueness in after gross revenues service of Cargotec CHS Asia Pacific Pte Ltd.

Q3: What are critical factors in service quality that contribute most to the satisfaction of clients?

Q4: What is the consequence of client satisfaction on client ‘s trueness at Cargotec?

Objective of research

The aim of this survey is to find the relationship between client satisfaction and trueness among client in Cargotec CHS Asia Pacific Pte Ltd. There were specific aims which included:

To analyze the relationship between client satisfaction and client trueness

To analyze critical factor that contributes most to satisfaction client.

To mensurate the current degree of client satisfaction of Cargotec clients.

To find to what extent client satisfaction has influenced Cargotec client ‘s trueness.

Significant of research

Research Problem

Literature Review

Customer satisfaction

Customer satisfaction is a experiencing ensuing from comparing of a merchandise ‘s perceptual experience public presentation with client ‘s outlook ( Kotler, 1997 ) . Harmonizing Brown ( 1992 ) , client satisfaction is the province which client demands and outlook throughout the merchandise or service ‘s life are met or exceeded ensuing repeat purchase and trueness. Four basic elements including basic component of merchandise and service, basic support service, recovery procedure for antagonizing bad experience and extraordinary service will impact client satisfaction degrees.

Most of definitions have favoured client satisfaction as a response to an rating procedure. Harmonizing Fornell ( 1992 ) , client satisfaction is overall rating. Some of researches represent client satisfaction as either a cognitive response ( Tse and Wilton 1988 ) or an affectional response ( Westbrook and Reilly, 1983 ) . In operation definition, behaviour dimension will be including to mensurate satisfaction ( Halstead, Hartman and Schmidt, 1994 ) .

When sing the quality of merchandise and service, merchandise quality is lead to be related to client dissatisfaction and service quality is more related to the client satisfaction ( Oliver, 1993 ) . Whiners must develop a elaborate apprehension of client ‘s outlook in each phase of concern procedure and implement rating and inducement system in order to fulfill clients ( Finkelman and Goland, 1990 ) . Harmonizing Wellington ( 1995 ) , the satisfaction elements of after gross revenues service include maintained involvement and ailment handling. When ailment are antiphonal and maintain client advised through the procedure, a client will experience apprehended. The reiterating order from that client should be easy made.

Harmonizing Deming ( 1986 ) , the significance of merchandise and service characteristics to client is classs into merchandise properties, satisfiers and delectations. The BASIC of the merchandise map will be the merchandise attributes. Satisfiers are high degrees of properties and have potential for farther satisfaction when basic map of merchandise provided. A client will be sing as delectation when the service that is delivered exceeds the client ‘s outlook ( Friday and Cotts, 1995 ) . Customer outlook can be exceeded in two degrees, foremost the merchandise was better than expected, or 2nd, it was surprisingly public presentation.

Customer satisfaction Procedure

The aim of selling is to understand the client ‘s purchasing behavior. “ Information processing position ” is one of chief perceptive of client ‘s behaviour research analyses ( Holbrook and Hirschman, 1982 ) . Harmonizing to this theoretical account, there is changing act uponing factors and need satisfy behaviors which are comprise the client decision-making procedure. The determination devising procedure depicted in the undermentioned stairss ( Engel, Blackwell et Al. 1995 ) :

The penchant and perceived merchandise distinction will determine the fond regard of client ‘s feeling about the merchandise and services. Attachment will go stronger when client has clearly differentiates from competitory merchandises and higher penchant for a merchandise or service. A strong penchant combined with high perceived distinction lead to highest fond regard, with repeat purchase more frequent in future.

For those first clip client, they are basically to seek out the merchandise and service. If they do non fulfill with first purchased, there will likely non be 2nd. Customer perceptual experience will put from the purchasing experience. If meet or transcend their perceptual experience, there is great likeliness that the clients will buy back. Each interaction should be seen as an chance to add value for the merchandise and service. It will assist to deep the client relationship. When client in bend responds with more information, it will go progressively loyal and continues to drive up the gross revenues and net incomes. These interactions will alter the repetition client ‘s position of a concern to a signifier of relationship.

Loyalty and net income

In order to transform current client into trueness client, the provider must able to analyze and understanding the behavior of the client. A barrier in signifier of economic, physical or psychological possibly usage to exchange the client to loyalty client. Besides the service suppliers can actuate or increase employee ‘s satisfaction to make trueness of clients ( Griffin, 1995 ) .

Loyalty programme should be targeted and choice as a concern scheme for after gross revenues services procedure. The programme will assist to honor long-standing client instead than purchasing client trueness ( Wellington, 1995 ) . If the programme traveling success, it will assist to make client trueness, turning gross, worsening costs, increased employee keeping and increase net incomes. Most of successful companies have revamping their nucleus value to client trueness. Companies have established an history specializer to manage all client concern in order to rapport with client. Harmonizing to Glanz ( 1994 ) , many ways can be implement to better the client keeping in the competitory market. The ways included service warrants, regular communicating, individualized service, client instruction and extraordinary service which will assist to acquire an chance from client to present a merchandise.

After gross revenues service

When gross revenues closing, it will automatic bring forth a new chance for the productive squads to present better services and merchandises for the possible client. After gross revenues services are include care, fix and upgrading. Most of the service suppliers will give client a guaranteed rate for the merchandise which delivered act as competitory advantages in the market. Customers become more dependent on efficient equipment operation and selective in term of money value.

The product-service bundle become popular concern scheme to pull the possible client to go on gets the after gross revenues service from the same service suppliers during gross revenues. The product-service bundles maintain cost at acceptable to the market. After gross revenues service may non profitable, but as a cardinal determiner in the merchandise gross revenues itself. Product support dramas of import function to develop a stopping point relationship between provider and its clients.

Harmonizing to Mathe and Shapiro ( 1993 ) , the aim of selling program is to bind merchandise and service as a bundle. Human resource, physical plus program ( stock lists and installations ) , and capital resources will go importance aspect which needs to see when design the procedure for bring forthing and presenting effectual service. Ineffective after gross revenues service may be unprofitable which lead to dissatisfaction among clients.

Free Essays
Bullying and People Essay

Bullying- everyone knows about it, but a lot of people don’t realize why it’s serious. Bullying can be defined as unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involve a real or perceived power imbalance. About 30% of teens in the U.S have been involved in bullying. People should care …

Free Essays
Most difficult aspects of learning English Essay

I studied English language at school and in university, but when I started to work in Russian-American it-company I met several difficulties with my English. I understood that my English wasn’t perfect and I need study more to build my career,, because in this company and generally you have to …

Free Essays
Cell Phone Essay

Many kids these days have cell phones. You often see teenagers talking on their phones, or, just as often, texting. It has become a part of everyday life, and a part of our society. It is encouraged socially, especially among teenagers, to have a phone. Cell phones can be very …


I'm Terry

Would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out