A thousand Word Critical Analysis Of Two Research Papers


The cardinal characteristic of globalisation is the turning integrating of national economic systems, evidenced by an addition in cross-border flows of trade, investing and fiscal capital ( Porter, et al. , 2006 ) . In other words, non merely are people puting more abroad, but besides houses are runing across national boundary lines. From a concern position, globalisation is the inclination to carry on concern activities on a world-wide graduated table and to incorporate schemes and operations on an international degree. International or planetary companies have existed for many old ages ; hence, globalisation is non a newly-introduced construct. In order to spread out globally, a concern has to do an accommodation in the definition of the organisation. This includes its scheme, aims, and ends. An illustration of such company is Intercontinental Hotels Group PLC ( IHG ) , which is the universe ‘s largest hotel operator in regard of the figure of suites numbering over 650,000. Additionally, this hotel group is positioned in the top three in the largest markets and continuously developing in the emerging markets. On a planetary graduated table, IHG has 4,400 hotels in 100 states and chiefly operates in the UK, the US, Asia Pacific, Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Furthermore, this big hotel operator consists of seven hotel trade names including InterContinental, Crowne Plaza, Hotel Indigo, Holiday Inn, Holiday Inn Express, Staybridge Suites and Candlewood Suites ( Intercontinental Hotels Group, 2010 ) . Intercontinental Hotels Group operates its hotels in three different ways- as a franchisor, an proprietor, and an operator. The biggest portion of the concern is franchising, where there are presently over 3,800 hotels under the franchise section. IHG ‘s focal point lies on driving demands for its trade names. On a planetary graduated table, the hotel operator ‘s system includes planetary advertisement, selling runs, call centres, and local linguistic communication web sites ( Datamonitor, 2009 ) . It besides comprises of reserves systems, wagess strategy, and other elements. Basically, the company utilizes this operating system to drive demands to all of IHG hotels. Its focal point on the biggest markets is to guarantee that the resources on the chances will supply the greatest return. Harmonizing to Perry ( 2009, p.7 ) , “ Entire states do non hold peculiar competitory advantages. Rather, it is specific industries or houses within them that seem able to utilize their national backgrounds to pry first competitory advantages ” . Despite holding a competitory advantage with its strong trade name consciousness and diversified belongingss worldwide, IHG needs to invariably supervise its environment and place both internal and external factors. In this mode, its national and international schemes can stay good suited to the developing environment and capablenesss.

1. Globalization

A simpler definition of globalisation is the procedure in which the universe seems to be meeting economically, politically and culturally ( Porter, et al. , 2006 ) . Even though globalisation can show many chances for organisations, it can besides hold reverberations. Some advantages for economic forces are the addition in incomes, universe trade, and universe competition. Additionally, other characteristics include the rise of the fiscal service industries, the lowering of dealing costs by developments in communications and conveyance, and the increasing importance of planetary economic policy over national sovereignty ( Perry, 2009 ) . In the societal kingdom, positive results can include the transference of instruction and accomplishments and consumerism. However, there are besides negative effects. While industries are seeking to maximise net income and minimise costs, the unemployment rate can increase and the rewards can be lowered. In other words, since cheaper labour will be exploited, there will be a rise of the freshly industrialized states Furthermore, the universe fiscal system is capable to regular clangs since the universe fiscal markets are of course unstable. As a consequence, people of those states affected will see agony. Another issue that could potentially originate is the trouble for authoritiess to raise the revenue enhancements to finance the public disbursement. This is caused by the mere fact that globalisation, workers and concerns become more nomadic ( Porter, et al. , 2006 ) .

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1.1 Global Scheme

A planetary scheme will usually include a planetary trade name name and merchandises in big leagues markets, productive activities to derive maximal advantage, and integrating of scheme and activities throughout the universe. Many successful companies discover that the foreign markets offer chances for growing and profitableness that are non readily available in the domestic markets. However, a concern can non be conducted the same throughout the international sphere. Business methods, imposts, and even people differ vastly from state to state. Even though the planetary strategic direction is a batch more complicated and profound, it plays a critical function when cordial reception endeavors expand their concern across national boundary lines. When strategic direction is applied to an international environment, some basic constituents should be considered: 1.Analysis of the environment is complex in multiple environments with changing features ; 2. Schemes must take into consideration all the stakeholders with a more huge scope of demands ; 3. The figure of alternate schemes is increased ; 4. Execution of schemes is adapted harmonizing to the Torahs, imposts, resources, and concern patterns of a specific state ( Harrison & A ; Enz, 2005 ) . Basically, both planetary concern issues and international competition should be examined when explicating planetary schemes.


Harmonizing to Harrison and Enz ( 2005, pg.20 ) , “ Analysis of wide environmental forces such as society, engineering, and political influences must be expanded to each of the countries in which an organisation conducts concern ” . The planetary company should scan the transnational, regional and national environment. This is of cardinal importance when developing and implementing robust planetary schemes. Of all the bing factors in the wide environment, the hardest to analyse, proctor, predict, and incorporate into the scheme preparation is that of the social differences ( Harrison & A ; Enz, 2005 ) . Because society and civilizations vary from topographic point to topographic point, a concern scheme used in one state would non be successful in another. Some cardinal environmental factors for the cordial reception organisation are handiness of touristry support systems, the openness of a state ‘s boundary lines, touristry substructure, and frequence of air hose paths ( Harrison & A ; Enz, 2005 ) . These factors can assist find if a cordial reception organisation will be able to transport out concern operations in a certain state. For illustration, if a state does n’t supply a support system for touristry, a hotel would non be able to advance its concern. This can potentially take to failure. Environmental scanning is indispensable so that an organisation can avoid crisis direction. If a alteration in the external environment should happen, an organisation ‘s resources and chances can be altered. Evaluating external factors involve roll uping informations, measuring the information obtained, placing the tendencies and prediction.

2.1 Macro ( PESTLE ) Analysis

In the book Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning, the writers province that the importance of understanding the macro-environment is double. First, an organisation can acknowledge the impact of alteration in the concern environment and be in a place to react. Second, it should besides be watchful to the fact that the nature of the alteration confronting organisations is besides altering ( Hooley, et al. , 2006 ) . With the changeless changing of the concern environment, this type of analysis can be used in the aid of the alteration and reviewing of the corporate schemes. PESTLE analysis is a model used for environmental scanning in strategic direction and is comprised of political, economical, societal, technological, legal, and environmental.

Political and legal factors can impact facets of the cordial reception industry on a planetary graduated table. Tax ordinances, employment Torahs, environmental ordinances, and industry-specific ordinance can be altered depending on the state. For case, the on-going elections in different states play a critical function in the globalisation of the cordial reception markets. Ultimately, the possible alterations of ordinances and Torahs can either benefit or present a disadvantage for the transnational companies. Another political facet is visa limitations. In the UK and the US, for illustration, in-migration has implemented more rigorous ordinances doing it harder for foreigners to obtain a tourer visa. Specifically after the September 11 terrorist onslaught, the US has become more rigorous on the issue of visas.

Another indispensable constituent in the external environment is the economical factor. The effects of recession have badly impacted the overall public presentation such as hotels ‘ tenancy rates and grosss of the in the broad hotel industry. With the terrible downswing in 2009, there was a crisp diminution in planetary industry gross per available room ( RevPAR ) and engagements. There has been a lag non merely in tenancy rates and grosss, but besides in hotel investing to cut back on enlargement programs. Additionally, with the on-going recession, the fluctuating currencies make it hard for consumers worldwide. The planetary economic crisis besides affected the Gross Domestic Product overall ; hence, disbursement in the leisure sector is likely to demo a slow recovery as consumers are more cautious in their disbursement wonts. Finally, with the intensifying energy costs and the natural catastrophes in the Gulf States, monetary values have increased doing a lessening in personal and corporate budgets.

A 3rd constituent in the PESTLE analysis is the societal factor, which is the most ambitious to analyse. Cultures across the Earth, for illustration, vary from topographic point to topographic point. Cordial reception companies need to make up one’s mind whether to advance a local or foreign image for their merchandises ( Clarke & A ; Chen, 2007 ) . While certain merchandises might be extremely desirable in one state, they might non hold the same consequence in another state. The cultural differences are highly indispensable for cordial reception companies to measure and integrate into their schemes. From consumers ‘ position, changing civilizations can be of involvement to them. They might utilize this factor to desire to go to a specific finish. Additionally, travellers could besides utilize faith as a ground to see a certain state to pattern their religion and beliefs. Last but non least, there has been an addition in the penchant for branded hotels amongst consumers.

Another component in the macro-scanning is the technological factor. The rise of the cyberspace has allowed major hotel ironss to put in web sites and direct booking systems leting consumers to book, position, and reappraisal hotels. However, the full optimisation of these operations requires investing for effectual systems and acceptance of new engineering, which is invariably altering. Harmonizing to Yu ( 1999, p.36 ) , “ Computer-based engineering is applied in direction information and determination support systems, such as belongings direction, output direction, data-base selling, and direction accounting systems ” .

Finally, the environmental factor is besides of importance when analysing the environment. Corporate Social Responsibility has easy become integrated in many organisations ‘ concern aims. For a hotel to be socially responsible, it must follow through many policies such as staying by the Energy Consumption Torahs, cut downing C footmark, and prosecuting with the local community ( Keynote, 2009 ) . On the other manus, natural catastrophes have become more and more frequent. Consequently, many finish musca volitanss are to a great extent affected. Sustainable touristry must be practiced in order to continue natural home grounds and resources.

2.2 Micro ( Porter ‘s 5 Forces ) Analysis

The factors in the macro-environment analysis can be used to find how the house ‘s industry environment ( micro audit ) is affected. In a micro environment scanning, competition that a concern faces is evaluated. It consists of the industries and markets in which an organisation conducts concern. On a planetary graduated table, microenvironment is concerned with the planetary industry and market tendencies. Porter ‘s five forces of competition model can be used to analyse the strength of competition and the degree of profitableness ( Grant, 2005 ) . These five forces include competition from entrants, replacements, power of providers, power of purchasers, and established challengers. Since the barriers to entry into a planetary hotel industry are high, the menace of entry involved is low. The barriers included are entree to provide and distribution channels, statute law and authorities action, distinction, high capital demands or entry costs, high fixed costs, and opposition from the bing market. Besides, planetary selling can cut down the menace of entry. Hospitality companies may besides step in and deter possible rivals by set uping trade name trueness and client shift cost. The menace of replacements for Intercontinental Hotels Group is high hazard particularly when there is an addition in the research and development of planetary concerns that use invention as agencies of competition. In the hotel markets, the handiness of replacement merchandises bounds on the monetary values market leaders can bear down ( Clarke & A ; Chen, 2007 ) . When consumers feel that a merchandise is excessively high, they easy switch to the replacements. Furthermore, tourers have a immense choice of vacation finishs and adjustments since transit has been modernized. The power of providers is considered medium-risk for IHG. The provider that would usually keep an huge power in most states is public-service corporation companies such as electricity, H2O, and telecommunication. On a planetary graduated table, the power of providers can be easy bargained depending on the options available in a state. Another component of the five forces is the power of purchaser, which is high in the instance of Intercontinental Hotels Group. The purchasers are sensitive to the monetary values charged by the hotels in the industry. Furthermore, they can easy compare non merely monetary values but besides quality and evaluations via Internet utilizing assorted web sites. As air hose capacity grows and affordability improves, purchasers have the advantage to command where they choose to travel and where to remain. Finally, the competition amongst established rivals is of high hazard. The major rivals of IHG are Hilton Hotels Corporation, Starwood Hotels and Resorts Worldwide, Hyatt Corporation, and Accor. These big hotel ironss offer similar merchandises and services, which means clients are willing to replace. Common client demands make it hard for concerns to distinguish themselves which increases competition.

2.3 Internal Factors

Harmonizing to Porter, et al. , ( 2006, p.393 ) , “ Environmental analysis besides requires an scrutiny of the organisation ‘s internal environment. Internal analysis is concerned with the resources and capablenesss that an organisation must seek to understand before it can prosecute any signifier of scheme ” . An internal audit includes the organisation ‘s homo, fiscal and other resources which contribute to back uping its schemes.

In order for a scheme to be carried out, human resource is required. Harmonizing to Kaplan and Norton, human capital is the handiness of accomplishments, endowment, and know-how required to back up the organisation ‘s scheme ( 2004 ) . Employees are non merely critical to accomplishing sustainable competitory advantage, but besides built-in in an organisation ‘s concern programs. One of IHG ‘s cardinal strategic precedences is to utilize its people to make a more efficient organisation with strong nucleus capablenesss. Intercontinental Hotel Group ‘s focal point lies in developing accomplishments to back up its cardinal ends for responsible concern, invitee experience and fiscal returns by pull offing employee battle. Approximately 335,000 people are employed globally across IHG ‘s trade names including franchised and managed hotels. The concern has been equilibrating cost decrease and restructuring plans while pull offing battle for the people and invitees during 2009. To accomplish Great Hotels Guests Love this organisation has developed a clear articulation of its values and the behaviours expected from all employees, every bit good as making the right environment for employees so that they can present the nucleus intent ( Intercontinental Hotels Group, 2009 ) .

Another type of organisational resource is non-human assets such as engineering and repute. IHG ‘s cardinal reserve system engineering includes the operations of the HolidexPlus reserve system. This system electronically receives reserve petitions entered on terminuss located at most of its reserve centres, every bit good as from planetary distribution systems operated by a figure of major corporations and travel agents ( Datamonitor, 2009 ) . There are presently ten planetary reserve offices available to take hotel engagements from invitees 24 hours a twenty-four hours in 26 different linguistic communications. IHG generates room gross revenues globally through their branded web sites. Kaplan and Norton province that an first-class repute for public presentation along societal dimensions non merely attracts high quality employees, but besides enhances the image with clients and socially witting investors ( 2004 ) . IHG believes that corporate duty ( CR ) is built-in to the manner it conducts concern and besides at the nucleus of its scheme. Furthermore, it assists in constructing competitory advantage. Intercontinental Hotel Group ‘s CR scheme is focused in the environment and its communities in order to drive increased value for IHG, proprietors, employees, and invitees.

Finally, direction of fiscal resources is important in any concern. Harmonizing to Harrison and Enz ( 2005, p.72 ) , “ If fiscal resources are misused, they will non ensue in better human resources or superior physical assets and procedures. Furthermore, strong fiscal resources are an even greater importance in the cordial reception industry where it is a extremely competitory environment and inventions are rapidly imitated. Harmonizing to IHG Annual Report 2009, Intercontinental Hotels Group has an estimated 3 % of the entire market portion in the planetary hotel market. Unfortunately, because of the disputing planetary economic environment, the group RevPAR fell to 14.7 % during the twelvemonth of 2009. Furthermore, one step of the overall IHG group public presentation is the entire gross gross which includes entire room gross from franchised, managed, owned and leased hotels wholly. This besides decreased by 12.0 % from 2008 to 2009.

2.4 SWOT Analysis

Once an audit of external and internal influences has been conducted, a model such as SWOT analysis can be used to associate an organisation ‘s resources and capablenesss. Then, the deductions of schemes can be identified ( Porter, et al. , 2006 ) . SWOT represents strengths, failings, chances, and menaces. It is the most widely used analytical direction technique. Even though Intercontinental Hotels Group ‘s strong market place allows it to hold a competitory advantage, increasing competition in the planetary cordial reception industry could perchance impact the company ‘s market portion.

1. Strengths:

IHG has a broad and diversified geographic presence. The group owns, manages rentals or franchises guest suites in about 100 states worldwide. Consequently, the hazard is reduced since IHG is non peculiarly runing in one part which can be deeply affected by economic or political conditions. Another strength possessed by the group is a strong trade name portfolio. It is one of the largest hotel groups and owns a portfolio of well-known hotel trade names. The diverse portfolio offers quality service to their invitees and its customer-loyalty plan ensures repetition clients.

2. Failings:

The company has experienced a diminution in the net income borders. Even though the operating border and net border were increasing since 2006, there was a crisp diminution in 2009. Because of this lessening, the company ‘s net income was impacted doing turbulency amongst the investors.

3. Opportunities:

With the significance growing of the planetary hotel and motel industry for the last few old ages, IHG can capitalise on this since it has such a strong presence across the Earth. Another chance presented to the company is the possibility for the company to derive market portion in China ‘s cordial reception market. It is already the largest international hotel company in Greater China with approximately 112 hotels. Finally, there has besides been a steady growing in cyberspace reserves for hotel engagements ; hence, the group is likely to profit from the addition of this tendency ( Datamonitor, 2009 ) .

4. Menaces:

The growing rate of international touristry has been undergoing a important lag which finally can negatively impact the cordial reception concern and put force per unit areas on the company. Additionally, many big hotel ironss similar to IHG besides with a world-wide presence pose a important menace.

2.5 Complexities in External Factors Analysis

Harmonizing to Harrison and Enz ( 2005, p.56 ) , “ Roll uping information on the wide environment in an international scene can be a important challenge. Although most industrialised states have similar beginnings of tendency informations, developing states will non ” . For case, if a major hotel concatenation wanted to carry on an external analysis in Europe, the information needed for environmental scanning is readily available. However, it might non be as easy in a state such as Belize which is a 3rd universe state. In many instances, international organisations depend on a local house to supply general environmental penetrations needed for an effectual strategic determination devising. In other state of affairss, these organisations may besides fall back to the World Tourism Organization, which provides statistics and market studies for a broad scope of states and parts of the universe. Besides, houses like Hospitality Valuation Services offer a assortment of articles sing all facets of cordial reception including hotel investings, loaning, operations, gross revenues and selling, and public dealingss.


In order for an organisation to vie within a peculiar industry, it must derive a competitory advantage over its rivals by set uping a concern scheme ( Grant, 2005 ) . The chief aim of a scheme is to associate an organisation ‘s internal capablenesss and the external environment. An international scheme is formulated from internationalisation drivers, market choice, beginnings of competitory advantage, and manner of entry. Harmonizing to Kim and Mauborgne ( 2009, p.73 ) , “ When executives develop a corporate scheme, they about ever get down by analysing the industry or environmental conditions in which they operate ” . IHG non merely continuously monitors the environment, but besides ensures that the scheme remains aligned with external factors. It continues to analyse cardinal tendencies and concern basicss such as RevPAR to guarantee the scheme remains good suited to the developing environment. The nucleus focal point of Intercontinental Hotels Group is to make Great Hotels Guests Love. In 2009, despite economic adversities, IHG analyzed its operations and capablenesss to concentrate on how to present Great Hotels Guests Love. Since there has been an increasing tendency towards branded suites, IHG ‘s end is to turn by doing its trade names the first pick for non lone invitees but besides hotel proprietors. Its scheme is to construct the hotel industry ‘s strongest operating system focused on the biggest markets and sections where graduated table truly counts. This operating system is comprised of all the drive demands for its trade names including trade name portfolio, reserve systems, market coverage, web presence, trueness plan, and other drive facets. This major hotel concatenation ‘s scheme concentrates on two cardinal facets: where it chooses to vie and how it will win in the viing market. The Group ‘s underlying ‘Where ‘ scheme is to turn a portfolio of differentiated trade names in choice strategic states and planetary key metropoliss to maximise its scale advantage. Using its worldwide graduated table and experience, this company can change over more hotels to its trade names. On the other manus, the ‘How ‘ facet of the scheme stems from its nucleus intent and what makes a difference for the invitees. There are five cardinal precedences in support of IHG ‘s overall scheme. Some of these precedences include fiscal returns, its people, responsible concern, and guest experience. Financially, IHG aims to bring forth first-class returns from its hotels by promoting guest visits to better hotel gross, efficiency and operating procedures. In respects to its people, this hotel concatenation wants to beef up the organisation by non merely puting in its employees, but besides constructing strong partnerships with proprietors across the universe ( Intercontinental Hotels Group, 2009 ) .


Continuous betterment involves the continual betterment and analysis of organisational procedures to guarantee continued betterment in public presentation and quality ( Perry, 2009 ) . By supervising the execution of schemes and ends, organisations will be able to measure accomplishments and advancement. Then, they would compare their public presentation with their rivals. Porter, et Al. ( 2006, p.407 ) states, “ Performance can be judged in both quantitative and qualitative footings, possibly by utilizing quality steps ” . Most significantly, scheme is a uninterrupted procedure in which organisations are invariably accommodating and seting to the alterations. New information, after monitoring and reviewing, is fed back into the reformulation of an organisation ‘s scheme.

The advancement of IHG strategic precedences is measured to guarantee the accomplishment of Great Hotels Guests Love. It will utilize a aggregation of specific Key Performance Indicators ( KPI ‘s ) aimed at presenting its nucleus intent to see where it stands in the competitory environment. For the ‘Where ‘ constituent of the scheme, the organisation trades sign languages focused in graduated table markets and cardinal gateway metropoliss. Up to this twenty-four hours, IHG has successfully managed to open 439 hotels globally and subscribe 90 % of its trades in graduated table markets and cardinal gateway metropoliss. In 2010, Intercontinental Hotels Group hopes to go on to leverage graduated table and construct improved strategic place during the economic downswing.

In respects to ‘How ‘ IHG can win, several factors such as fiscal returns, people, guest experience, and responsible concern take portion in this scheme. The hotel group measures the success of each one of these constituents by utilizing the KPI ‘s. Financially, the entire gross gross is used to find the fiscal returns. The figure is obtained from the IHG planetary operation systems. Even though the organisation experienced a lessening in the entire gross gross from 19.8 % in 2008 to 16.8 in 2009, it enhanced its engineering substructure to back up proprietor direction and trueness selling. IHG plans to increase planetary gross revenues force effectivity and follow a next-generation gross direction IT systems for 2010. One of the strategic precedences is to make a more efficient organisation. This is measured utilizing employee battle tonss. There was an addition from 68 % in 2008 to 69 % in 2009. The addition is an indicant that IHG is expeditiously concentrating on pulling and retaining endowment to inculcate Great Hotels Guests Love in hotels. Furthermore, Intercontinental Hotels Group evaluates its invitee experience by utilizing both planetary RevPAR and its growing in front of the market. Although the planetary RevPAR had a steep diminution of negative 14.7 % from 2008 to 2009, IHG ‘s addition in growing compared to its rivals indicate a positive invitee experience. For 2010, it aims to go on to better proprietor returns without giving guest experience. Finally, in respects to responsible concern, the organisation implemented new systems to maintain path of the ingestion of energy and H2O. Accomplishments in 2009 include the development of the Green Engage sustainability direction system. It will go on to turn over out this system to 100 % of its owned and managed hotels in 2010. Above all, IGH developed Winning Ways, a set of behaviours that defines how IHG interacts with invitees, co-workers, and hotel proprietors ( Intercontinental Hotels Group, 2010 ) .


Even though Intercontinental Hotels Group continuously scans and analyzes the external environment to reconstitute its schemes, there is still room to improvize the manner it conducts concern operations. In order to better IHG ‘s competitory placement in a planetary scheme, it can reassign the technological know-how through joint ventures. Joint ventures may supply chances to larn new engineerings that can take to important cost decreases ( Harrison & A ; Enz, 2005 ) . This will besides diminish operational costs to make a positive impact on IHG ‘s balance sheet. While the organisation is invariably researching on how to distinguish its merchandises, the hotel concatenation still needs to happen higher quality and alone merchandises to enable higher fiscal returns and increase guest satisfaction on a planetary graduated table. Furthermore, the balanced scorecard should be implemented in the monitoring of quality control. Porter, et Al. ( 2006, p.127 ) explains, “ A scorecard should hold a balance between public presentation drivers and slowdown steps, which are divided into four elements of organisational public presentation: fiscal direction, client service, internal concern procedure efficiency and learning/personal growing ” . In other words, it combines fiscal steps with operational steps on client satisfaction, internal procedures, and the company ‘s invention and betterment activities. Last but non least, Intercontinental Hotels Group should plan its ain value concatenation analysis, which is a technique to supply a deep apprehension of the manner in which resources are optimized to accomplish competitory advantage. Each activity of the hotel concatenation must be examined. Porter devised a mechanism to cipher the value added of a merchandise by single phases to the activities of an organisation as a whole ( Porter, et al. , 2006 ) .

In decision, Intercontinental Hotels Group emphasizes the importance of placing external factors which will so be implemented into the schemes. This strategic direction is an on-going procedure associated with assorted degrees and maps within the organisation ( Reichel, 1983 ) . IHG basically has become a taking planetary hotel concatenation, non merely because of the changeless environmental scanning, but besides because it uses the newly-collected information for the alteration of its planetary schemes.

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