About theories of sociology Essay

Question 1

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a.         There are different economic conditions of production that has paved the way for the revolution of the working class. This can be observed under the different stages of struggle elaborated and pointed out by Marx and Engel’s in their work. With these reasons, the bourgeoisie started to realize the inequalities present within the economic system and tried to make changes possible through revolution.

            One important trend that is happening is the creation of organized production amidst the anarchical environment of manufacturing. Under this stage, society has been undergoing numerous transformations led by innovations which made work easier and standardized production (Marx and Engel, p. 465). However, these developments were taken negatively as class struggles began to emerge and a crisis on overpopulation begins to manifest itself. Under this situation, people had difficulty to buy anything for themselves. Sociology essays – https://artscolumbia.org/category/sociology-essays/

            With these changes, groups started to form political parties that aim to organize and fight for the welfare of the working class. By participating in government policies, they can provide the necessary foundation and framework for improving the status of the working class. This movement eventually led to the creation of communism.

            Similarly, this struggle and class revolution led to the establishment and creation of various ideas vital in the communism practice. Examples of these ideas include: (1) polarization of wealth, (2) class consciousness, (3) the idea on capitalism, (4) seizing of the state and (5) the impact of the revolutionary class – Communism (Marx and Engels, p. 479).

b.        Applying this to the Cuban Revolution, there are various differences in the way class formation was established in Cuba and how the people were successful in attaining their independence. One important difference that can be seen in the process is the consciousness of the atrocities that are happening in Cuba during the reign of Batista. It can be argued that what is being practiced is Imperialism. This varies greatly from the original notion of communism because it refers to the notion of the struggle against capitalists.

            Similarly, the struggle here is not mainly concerned or focused on peasants but on educated revolutionaries who wanted change to happen. The peasants only took part in the process because like the leaders of the revolution, they wanted the violence and rule of Batista to end. Though inequality remains to be another reason for engaging in the revolution, it was never the primary objective.

            Once Castro seizes power, it would be best to look into several forces in production that continues to impede the development of the working class. He should be able to raise the question of production to effectively designate and allocate labor where Cuba needs it the most.

            However, Fidel Castro must take into mind that he should not rule the country because it shall not be a government for the people. Likewise, though he and his comrades were successful in overturning the rule of Batista, he remains to be incapable to lead the country because he is not part of the working class. He was an educated revolutionary, part of the proletariat. Seeing this, if he shall decide to rule, it will just be another cycle of inequality and abuse for the working class. Seeing this, it may be better for Castro to give up his power.

Question 2

a.         Lenin’s idea on the State and Revolution supplements Marx and Engel’s theory of transition to communism by providing specific point and practices of how this can be made. Looking into Lenin’s argument, for communism to prosper under a capitalist framework, proponents must smash the state and allow reorganization to take place. Under this trait, the working group must actively point out atrocities happening in society and government. There must be a realization that there is a false sense of democracy for the working class (Lenin, p.319)

            This transition can only be administered if revolution and violence is initiated. Due to this, there must be an effort from the proletariat to initiating the “violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie” (Marx and Engel, p.482-483). One necessary condition for this is enabling the proletariat total control and suppression of the bourgeoisie (Lenin, p.373).  For Lenin, it is necessary that this be followed so as to have control over the government.

            After a successful revolution, a dictatorship of the proletariat must be established wherein important functions of the government are then allocated. Under this, you put into newly elected officials (socialism spider) under the conditions of instant recall and a working man’s wage. This is vita because these programs and initiatives can create (1) a new form of economy, politics, and new incentives to work.

b.        Applying this to the Cuban revolution, it is also necessary for Fidel Castro to follow several tenets of Lenin’s ideas. Seeing this, one important component that can be extracted and applied involves dictatorship from the proletariat. This is important to further suppress supporters of Batista and effectively propose new plans and alternatives to the state.

            Another idea that can be extracted involves taking part and advising in the country’s economic functions (Lenin, p.373). This is important because it is in here that Castro can actively implement his strategies and plans that can equalize the way workers are treated. Likewise, it is an important avenue where cooperation and effective policy making can take place. That is why; efforts must be concentrated on this level to make ideas effective and dynamic.

            Though there are positive tenets in Lenin’s ideas, Castro must also be aware and deviate Cuba from other tenets. One important thought that must be prevented is the occurrence of multiple revolutions. After taking the state from Batista, Castro must collectively protect it from being taken back by other competing factions who desire control.

            Moreover, Cuba must also take into consideration the efforts to constrain or prevent Socialism to spread. In here, it can be understood that the U.S. supported Batista because it was trying to prevent the spread of Communist ideals in Cuba. Due to this, Castro must be conscious and aware of this and actively take part in promoting the idealism to Cubans

            Lastly, the state must not allow itself to wither away from its original functions and control. Under this tenet, it means that the functions of the state must remain at place rather than become simplified that the public now has the capability to do these things (Lenin, 374). Careful attention must be given to this because it can lead to the creation of organizations that may contribute again to revolution and violence.

Question 3

a.         In understanding Gramsci’s point of view, there must be careful planning and analysis before engaging in violent and revolutionary acts. There must be equal understanding that to conduct this process, a consensus among the important actors must be in place so as to create a hegemonic control over things and processes that matter. In here he argues that groups cannot attack the states right away because civil society can retaliate and rebuild the state.

            Seeing this, leaders must understand the two faces of hegemony under Gramsci’s notebook. The first tenet involves that the dominant class presents interests as all and the impact of force and consent serves as the foundation of institutions of state and that of civil society. Operating under this precept, can help people decipher important models that can b adapted and pursued.

            In responding to these things, Gramsci points out three important agendas that must be considered. The first one tackles that the State compromises and gets the consent of civil society. The second one deals with the importance of the dominant class in pursuing the needs of all. Lastly, is civil society’s function as an extension of the state influences its policy building and implementation (Gramsci, p.239).

            In comprehending the war of position, it revolves around the idea that the transformation of civil society is essential before claiming power. People must have the capacity to move the cause towards the interests of the civil society. On the other hand, the war of movement involves actively taking part in the revolution without taking into consideration the impact of civil society. Seeing this, War of movement worked in the East because government was disorganized and civil society was discontented (Gramsci, p.56).

b.        Applying this in the Cuban Revolution, it can be deciphered based from the reading that the initiative was possible. However, Castro must take into account the U.S. and how civil society is connected to the mentioned state. In addressing the war of position, Fidel must also garner the support of the public and earn societal victories by turning the working class in support of the peasantry.

At the same time, Gramsci would see the revolution closer to what the East did—war of movement, but it’s not going to go far unless you have popular support with the masses. Castro must together work with his comrades to create a strategy that is aimed towards revitalizing war of position and war of movement. During this process, he has to initiate concessions among the peasantry and the working class. This can be accomplished by providing (1) healthcare, (2) educating the masses, (3) publications, and (4) spreading of ideologies (Gramsci, p.258).

Moreover, Castro must seek to revitalize his goal of regulating the society (Gramsci, p. 263). The idea of promoting and spreading communism must be his end-goal. He must organize a communist party to provide the organization and re-education of the working class with the overall aim of dispersing the ideology and promoting future concessions.

The final stage of hegemony involves Fidel presenting his interest for the interest of all. In here, there must be a widespread motive to expand ideology and practice to address the needs of the people. Castro also needs the support of the masses to make any hegemonic movement to work.

Question 4

a.         In Wretched Earth by Frantz Fanon, he elaborates on the difference in perspectives that the National Bourgeoisie and National Liberation Movement differed in the way it sought for rebuilding and decolonization made by the two parties.

Understanding the first framework, it focused on urbanizing the state and making policies and programs that are aligned to such understanding. It sought to develop an authentic national culture because there are no sufficient economic foundations that can build a large scale proletariat (Fanon, p.175). Due to the inability to build hegemony, its society tends to shift and create a dictatorship like approach. Seeing this, it focused on addressing the needs of the intellectuals and working class.

            On the other hand, the latter involves taking into consideration the promotion of traditional leaders in establishing a framework of change. It sought to revitalize the needs of the peasants as it structured the state to be supportive of their needs and interests. Similarly, the struggle here becomes one that is in the interest of the peasants which can be addressed by a change in traditional leaders. By doing this they have established a state that is hegemonic and not dictatorship in nature.

In addition, the article of Fanon advances the theory of Gramsci because of its ability to say that the war of position must happen simultaneously (Fanon, p.73). Thisis contrary to the notion of Gramsci that such could only happen separately. Moreover, Fanon sees this possibility because it is through this that war of movement against colonizers and war of position against national bourgeoisie and national liberation can be successful and encompassing in nature.

b.        For Fanon, the Cuban revolution is a good sign for Castro to follow the National Liberation Road’s footsteps. In here, it can be argued that intellectuals must educate and engage the peasants in revolution. By aligning their view together, better outcomes for change can be introduced and the idea of revolution can be addressed for the benefit of all.

            Also, if ever the revolution becomes successful, Fanon will advice Castro not to resort to dictatorship. He has to remember that the metropolis is still connected to Cuba. He must not follow the pathway and strategies of the National Bourgeoisie because it can only lead to a leadership that is dictatorial in nature. If he wishes to change the national structure, it would be best to follow the National Liberation example.

            Similarly, communication shall serve as a vital component in pursuing state interests. This means that Castro should involve people in explaining the ideas and its decision making process. This is important because there shall be transparency in letting people know what they’re doing and will participate in (Fanon, p. 193).

            Lastly, Castro must address the threat of Capitalism in the West. This should be done because it continues to threaten the system that he is building and would cause trouble and violence in the future. Since Cuba has underdeveloped forces of production, careful consideration must be established to make this effective and adaptable to changes.

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