An adolescent has completed the mmr series Essay

When an adolescent is administered the measles vaccine, two types of immune mechanisms play a role in protecting against measles infection, namely cell-mediated and humoral immunity.  Cell-mediated immunity plays a role in providing long-term immunity against measles and also ensuring recovery from the infection.  Usually, the cell-mediated responses were better sustained and more effective in protecting against the measles virus than the antibody-mediated responses (Ovsyannikova, 2003).  Generally, 15 to 25 year olds who receive at least 2 does of the MMR vaccine during infancy and childhood are well-protected against the infection and develop protective immune responses whenever the virus enters the body (Ovsyannikova, 2003). 

There's a specialist from your university waiting to help you with that essay.
Tell us what you need to have done now!

order now

Individuals that are highly sero-positive develop better lympho-proliferative responses to the virus than those who are less sero-positive (depends on the sero-conversion rates).  The T-cells (mainly the CD-4 and CD-8 memory T-cells lymphocytes) secreted certain substances such as cytokine IFN-gamma and cytokine IL-4 when stimulated antigenically by the measles virus (Ovsyannikova, 2003).  The secretion of IFN-gamma is usually much higher than IL-4.  These cytokines activates the lymphocytes present in the body to protect against measles (Ovsyannikova, 2003).  The ability to recognize the virus antigens was possible through stimulation by vaccination (NHS, 2004).

The occurrence of asymptomatic infection in individuals fully vaccinated against measles is relatively less (less than 10 %).  Individuals who have developed asymptomatic infection have a significant rise in the certain specific antibodies against measles such as immunoglobulin IgG and IgM (Huiss, 1997).  However, the IgM level rise is low compared to the IgG level.  Usually, the IgG-1 subclass of antibodies is significantly raised after asymptomatic infection compared to other subclasses (Huiss, 1997).  This antibody is usually present along with several other proteins including nucleoproteins and hemagglutinin proteins in the blood (Huiss, 1997).  Once the vaccinated individual is exposed to the measles virus, it takes about 30 weeks for the antibody levels to reduce to normal.  A secondary immune response to the virus can only occur if the IgG levels are present below a certain level known as ‘threshold level’ (Huiss, 1997).


Huiss, S., Damien, B., Schneider, F., & Muller, C. P. (1997). “Characteristics of asymptomatic secondary immune responses to measles virus in late convalescent donors.” Clin Exp Immunol, 109(3), 416-420.

NHS (2004). Vaccine development and testing – How does the vaccine work?, Retrieved on May 5, 2007, from NHS Web site:

Ovsyannikova, I. G., Dhiman, N., Jacobson, R. M., Et al (2003). “Frequency of Measles Virus-Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Subjects Seronegative or Highly Seropositive for Measles Vaccine.” Clin Diagn Lab Immunol, 10(3), pp. 411–416.

No Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Free Essays
Bullying and People Essay

Bullying- everyone knows about it, but a lot of people don’t realize why it’s serious. Bullying can be defined as unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involve a real or perceived power imbalance. About 30% of teens in the U.S have been involved in bullying. People should care …

Free Essays
Most difficult aspects of learning English Essay

I studied English language at school and in university, but when I started to work in Russian-American it-company I met several difficulties with my English. I understood that my English wasn’t perfect and I need study more to build my career,, because in this company and generally you have to …

Free Essays
Cell Phone Essay

Many kids these days have cell phones. You often see teenagers talking on their phones, or, just as often, texting. It has become a part of everyday life, and a part of our society. It is encouraged socially, especially among teenagers, to have a phone. Cell phones can be very …


I'm Terry

Would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out