This chapter reviews literature associating to the research inquiries and hypotheses of this survey. First, the chapter begins with a sum-up of the definition, the development of, and different degrees that constitute client relationship and four chief countries researched viz. trust, committedness, trueness and keeping. The following subdivision defines e-commerce in general and on-line shopping in peculiar which is the environment in which to prove the interrelatedness between four countries and depict the current position of UK and Vietnam in relation to e-commerce. The last subdivision compares the difference between UK and VN people ‘s perceptual experiences of the four countries ( trust, committedness, trueness, keeping ) and proposes two chief factors impacting those differences.
2.1 CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT ( CRM )
2.1.1 Concept history
The construct of value maximization existed to explicate how a house maximizes net incomes by consumers maximising their usage of the house and from this emerged the construct of client relationship direction ( CRM ) ( Boulding et al. , 2005 ) .
The footing for the conceptualisation of relationship selling is contributed by Bagozzi ( 1974, 1975, cited by Bruhn, 2003 ) the mid-1970s when he defined selling as an exchange procedure between purchaser and marketer.
Then Evert Gummession and Christian Gronroos show the differences between relationship selling and dealing selling that is one of of import parts in conceptualisation of relationship selling ( Bruhn, 2003 ) .
The construct of relationship selling utilizing in services industry and concern to concern market so alteration to client relationship direction when utilizing theories of relationship selling in consumers market with assorted merchandises and goods ( Fournier et.al, 1998 ) .
At the beginning, CRM was viewed as a technological undertaking and impermanent activity believed, by some, to be equal to package or engineering ( Kumar and Reinartz, 2006 ) . Today, the CRM industry has become a aggressive industry where one million millions of dollars are being spent on CRM applications, consulting, and preparation every twelvemonth ( Kumar and Reinartz, 2006 ) .
Gummesson ( 1999, p1 ) defined relationship selling therefore: ‘Relationship selling is marketing seen as relationships, webs and interaction ‘ . This is an overall definition of relationship selling including assorted relationship among different topics, for illustration, client relationship or provider relationship, and, hence, it is non a complete definition of client relationship direction ( CRM ) .
Payne and Frow ( 2005 ) overviewed different definitions of CRM which are narrow and proficient or wide and strategic and incorporate assorted CRM definitions to bring forth one which define “ CRM is a strategic attack that is concerned with making improved stockholder value through development of appropriate relationships with cardinal clients and client sections. CRM unites the potency of relationship selling schemes and IT to make profitable, long term relationships with clients and other cardinal stakeholders. CRM provides enhanced chances to utilize informations and information to both understand clients and cocreate value with them. This requires a cross-functional integrating of procedures, people, operations and selling capablenesss that is enabled through information, engineering and applications ” ( Payne and Frow, 2005, p.168 ) . This definition is rather complete because it show activities consisted CRM and how CRM bing and running in company.
2.1.2 The development of client relationship direction ( CRM )
Since the construct of CRM emerged in the mid-1990s, CRM has undergone a significant development through three coevalss in the timeline of its development ( Kumar and Reinartz, 2006 ) as following.
The first coevals viz. Functional CRM attack is used as a manner to increase gross revenues and better the services. CRM at that clip are different activities which are in gross revenues force mechanization ( SFA ) or client services and support ( CSS ) ( Kumar and Reinartz, 2006 ) .
Customer-facing front terminal attack is the 2nd coevals of CRM. At that clip, CRM was considered as the manner to make full the spreads in endeavor resource planning ( ERP ) functionality and the company ‘s concern demand viz. customer-facing front terminal ( Kumar and Reinartz, 2006 ) . Making a individual position of all interactions with clients through intent of contact from pre-sales to post-sales services or the agencies of contact such as phone or cyberspace was the end but it was non achieved during the 1990s ( ibid. )
The 3rd coevals viz. strategic attack had started by the terminal of 2002 when companies gain experience from unsuccessful implement with old versions of CRM ( ibid. ) . Then, they non merely focused on customer-facing front-end like in 2nd coevals but besides paid attending to back-end systems which are spouses and providers ( ibid. ) . They even integrate both of them with Internet engineering. As a consequence, CRM at this clip is non the implement of technology-based solution without a way ; it has been done with a scheme of the company ( ibid ) . CRM so play an of import function in turning the gross line in the company.
2. 1.3 Reason for CRM
Customer relationship direction ( CRM ) is a popular construct because of its wider in theory research and practical application. Many surveies focus on happening a manner to edifice and bettering CRM in companies and companies themselves pay involvement in CRM because of its benefits. There are many grounds for making CRM in companies.
First, it helps companies earn more net income from current clients. Typically a concern will lose 15-20 per centum of its client base each twelvemonth. But as the company lowers rate of client losing, the mean client life-time additions and net incomes increase even more. For illustration, if a company with an one-year desertion rate of 10 per centum cuts that rate in half, the mean life-time of a client will duplicate from 10 to 20 old ages and net income addition from $ 300 to $ 525 and so on ( Vavra, 1995, p217 ) .
Second, it helps companies better the selling communicating effectivity between companies and its clients. Then companies can plan selling programmes appropriate with its targeted clients ( Kumar and Reinartz, 2006 ) .
2.1.4 Four countries: trust, committedness, trueness and keeping
Trust is one of of import factors for successful selling relationships ( Morgan and Hunt, 1994 ) and they ( 1994, p.23 ) provided a definition of trust as “ the perceptual experience of assurance in the exchange spouse ‘s dependability and unity ” . Mayer et Al ( 1995, p.712 ) besides defined ‘trust as a willingness of a party to be vulnerable to the actions of another party based on the outlook that the other will execute a peculiar action of import to the settlor, irrespective of the ability to supervise or command that other party ” . Over the definition of trust from different early surveies, it can be seen that assurance and dependability are two of import things in the definition of trust ( Garbirino and Johnson, 1999 ) . Although they are from original construct of trust, these definitions did non cover all dimensions of trust which is a so wide construct ( McKnight and Chervany, 2002, p.39 ) .
Because trust is so a wide construct and is defined in so many different ways, a typology of trust constructed from the analysis and comparing of bing trust definitions so assorted definitions is an appropriate desideratum ( Mayer, 1995, McKnight and Chervany, 2002, Lee and Turban, 2001 ) . Different definitions of trust could be categorized into different conceptual types such as attitudes, beliefs, behaviours and temperaments or into different referents such as trust in something, trust in person or trust in a specific feature of person like candidly ( McKnight and Chervany, 2002, p.39 ) .
However, the typology of McKnight and Chervany are rather sophisticated in utilizing as a conceptual and need to be summarized into an overall definition in this research so the definition of Morgan and Hunt ( 1994 ) is used.
Trust is influenced by assorted factors found in different surveies. Two of them viz. e-retailer repute and privateness concern are chosen to set in the theoretical account because it would be in valid for on-line shoppers ‘ features in Vietnam.
E-retailer repute is used with the same significance of the trade name repute which includes name, term, symbol, mark or design to recognize goods and services of one retail merchant with others which provide the same points ( Keller, 1998 ) and Bennett and Gabriel ( 2001 ) added repute is non merely related to the image characteristics but besides ‘involves an foreigners ‘ subjective judgement of an organisation ‘s qualities in footings of its past public presentation ‘ ( p.426 ) .
E-retailer repute is one of of import thing which affect client determination of take parting in e-commerce. Van den Poel and Leunis ( 1999 ) showed the consequence that trade name repute is one of factors cut downing clients hazard concerns when trading online through Internet. Other researches show the relationship between repute and trust in which repute influence positively on client trust ( Bennett and Gabriel, 2001 ; Josang et.al, 2007 ) .
Privacy concern used in this research refer to some primary beginning of consumer concern around personal or single specific informations ( Phelps et al, 2000 ) , for illustration, names, addressers, demographic, features, lifestyle involvements, shopping penchants, purchase histories of persons ( Nowak and Phelps, 1995 ) .
Privacy concern is one of factor influence negatively on trust and this consequence was supported by Eastlick ( 2006 ) in a study of America clients.
Committedness is defined as ‘an digesting desire to keep a valued relationship ‘ ( Morgan and Hunt, 1994, p23 ) . However, there is non merely one general signifier of committedness as in the definition of Morgan and Hunt but besides many signifiers of committedness that create different actions. There are three signifiers viz. Personal committedness, Moral committedness and Structural committedness ( Johnson, 1991 cited by Peelen, 2005 ) . Allen and Meyer ( 1990 ) stated that committedness is a multi-dimension construct and demand to supply component theoretical accounts of committedness with the three-component theoretical account of committedness including Affective committedness, Normative committedness and Continuance committedness. But it is a theoretical account of committedness in organisations and do non concentrate on client committedness. Thus Bansal and Taylor ( 2004 ) based on that to carry on a trial for client committedness to service suppliers, start to utilize three-component theoretical account of committedness to explicate the relationship between exchanging drivers and exchanging purposes that help company happen different tactics to develop committedness among their client.
This research behavior a trial of an interrelatedness among four countries so the research will be complicated if each countries divided into three constituents. Thus the definition of committedness of Morgan and Hunt ( 1994 ) will be used in combination with three bonds ( fiscal bond, societal bond and structural bond ) affected committed online client that conducted by Hsieh et Al. ( 2005 ) in Taiwan.
Three chief factors chose to prove the influence of them on committedness in research theoretical account are alternate attraction, exchanging cost and client satisfaction.
Alternate attraction refer to client ‘s estimation of the likely satisfaction available in an alternate relationship with others ( Pinging, 1993 ) , in this research, between the offers of one e-retailer such as returns and warrant policy with offers from other e-retailers which supply the same points.
Switch overing cost
Porter ( 1980 ) defined exchanging costs as the costs of exchanging from one provider ‘s merchandise to another provider ‘s merchandise. Fornell ( 1992 ) included hunt costs, dealing costs, larning costs, clients ‘ wonts, emotional costs and cognitive attempt in the shift costs construct. Therefore exchanging costs include both economic and psychological values ( Methlie and Nyseen, 1999 ) .
Early surveies conceptualized client satisfaction as client perceptual experience of merchandise public presentation ( cited by Methlie and Nyseen, 1999 ) . Then client satisfaction is a map of client perceptual experience of merchandise public presentation.
Three variables above ( alternate attraction, exchanging cost, client satisfaction ) are tested in a relationship with committedness in old surveies. Meyer and Allen ( 1991 ) who provided ‘a-three compon Garbirino and Johnson ent theoretical account of client committedness ‘ tested the consequence of three variables on client committedness in Canada and the consequence is merely exchanging cost is factor influence client committedness in that research, two other variables do non impact significantly. However, in the research in Australia, all of them act upon client committedness ( Sharma and Patterson, 2000 ) .
There is a uncertainty in the difference between two construct committedness and trueness ( Peelen, 2005 ) and the definition of Oliver ( 1999, p34 ) removed that uncertainty when trueness was defined as ‘deeply held committedness to rebuy or repatronize a preferable product/service systematically in the hereafter, thereby doing insistent same-brand or same brand-set buying, despite situational influences and selling attempts holding the possible to do exchanging behavior ‘ . Although this definition can do clearly the difference between committedness and trueness, there is non much differ from keeping construct. In this research, the relationship between trueness and keeping will be tested so it is necessary to demo the difference between these two constructs. Therefore, the research will utilize the theories of Homburg and Bruhn, 2005, cited by Mohlenbruch ) which determine the determiners and peculiar focal point of each phrases trueness and keeping. Harmonizing to that, Loyalty has three determiners viz. assurance, credence and construct up of enthusiasm while Retention has determiners of redemption, cross-buying, recommendation and reduced monetary value medium.
“ Customer keeping is keeping the concern relationship established between a provider and a client ” ( Gerpott, 2001, p.253 ) . However, as mentioned above when specifying the construct trueness. The difference between trueness and keeping demand to be make clear in this survey so the definition of Gerpott is rather general and do non do strong difference with the content of trueness in the concatenation of client keeping direction. As a consequence, in this research, the construct of keeping merely is understood as a phrase of three phrase doing a concatenation of client keeping direction viz. satisfaction, trueness and keeping ( Homburg and Bruhn, 2005, cited by Mohlenbruch ) . Thus keeping construct includes determiners which are repurchase, cross-buying, recommendation and reduced monetary value sensitiveness.
Harmonizing to old surveies proving different relationship between variables which are same to variables in this research ; nine chief hypotheses are developed in this research to be tested as followers.
H1: E-retailer repute affect positively to client trust
H2: Privacy concern affect negatively to client trust
H3: Alternate attraction affect negatively to client committedness
H4: Switch overing cost affect positively to client committedness
H5: Customer satisfaction affect positively to client committedness
H6: Increasing client trust leads to higher client trueness
H7: Increasing client trust leads to higher client keeping
H8: Increasing client committedness leads to higher client trueness
H9: Increasing client committedness leads to higher client keeping
2.1.5 CRM constitute
Harmonizing to Kotler et.al, 2009, there are five degrees of relationship selling ( Marketing direction in China, p.109 )
– Basic Selling: merely selling the merchandise.
– Reactive selling: Selling the merchandise and encouraging clients to offer inquiries, remark or ailments.
– Accountable selling: Following up after the sale to see whether the merchandise meets outlooks and to inquire for betterment suggestions and any specific letdowns.
– Proactive selling: Reaching client sporadically with suggestions about new merchandise uses or new merchandises.
– Partnership selling: Working continuously with client to happen ways to execute better.
With five degrees there are a broad scope of different activities in concern environment today belong to CRM of companies such as Clubcard of Tesco.
2.2 E-COMMERCE ( EC )
Kalakota and Whinston ( 1997 ) define EC from four positions viz. communication positions, concern procedure position, service position, on-line position. Turban and King ( 2003 ) added two more positions that are coactions perspective and community position. So the definition of e-commerce is “ Electronic commercialism describes the procedure of purchasing, merchandising, or interchanging merchandises, services, and information via computing machine webs, including the Internet ” ( Turban and King, 2003, p3 )
There are many types of E-commerce ( Turban and King, 2003 ) as followers:
– Business to concern ( B2B )
– Business to consumer ( B2C )
– Business to concern to consumer ( B2B2C )
– Consumer to concern ( C2B )
– Consumer to consumer ( C2C )
– Mobile commercialism
– Intrabusiness ( organisational ) EC
– Business to employees ( B2E )
– Collaborative commercialism
– Nonbusiness EC
– E-government: Government to citizens ( G2C ) and to others
– Exchange to interchange ( E2E )
E-commerce consist assorted types which are rather big for one research so this research focuses on Business to consumer ( B2C ) . The respondents are people shopping online and aim is find out how trust and committedness act uponing client trueness and client keeping so propose how to pull and maintain consumers shopping on-line on a regular basis.
2.2.2 Development and current position
E-commerce is acquiring popular with the development of Internet but in history there were some appliers proved the visual aspect of e-commerce. The procedure of e-commerce development has been summarized by Turban and King ( 2003 ) as following.
In 1970, fund transferred electronically in fiscal establishments is one of the first appliers of e-commerce by the inventions of electronic financess transportations ( EFT ) in 1970 ( Turban and King, 2003 ) . Then paperss of trading such as purchases order, bills and electronic payments besides could be transferred electronically by the inventions of electronic informations interchange ( EDI ) and that new inventions were non merely applied in fiscal establishments but besides in others like makers or retail merchants ( ibid. ) .
In early 1990s, the construct of electronic commercialism or e-commerce with its application in making concern was paid attending by endeavors with the development of Internet and the addition of figure of people accessing web sites all over the universe ( ibid. ) . E-commerce at that clip besides was the solution for companies viing with higher competition in market ( ibid. ) .
In 1999, concern to client ( B2C ) where clients shopping online through Internet, for illustration, purchasing apparels from assorted of manner companies websites like Topshop, Mango or Newlook and concern to concern ( B2B ) were focused in assorted types of e-commerce ( ibid. ) .
2.2.3 Online shopping and current position in UK and VN
Online shopping means client purposes to shop on the Internet ( Mosuwe, 2004 ) . Harmonizing to list of types of e-commerce, on-line shopping in this research can be considered as concern to consumer ( B2C ) of e-commerce where clients shop online in companies ‘ web site and in web sites like amazon.com or client to client ( C2C ) where people can purchase something from person else posting advertisement in a trading websites like ebay.com. However, this research will restrict the construct of online shopping is concern to consumer ( B2C ) .
In Vietnam, there are many web sites which has same map with amazon.com such as azshop.vn, megabuy.vn, and more and more companies start to execute their web sites to spread out the concern on the Internet. This type of B2C e-commerce aid companies such as Manner companies, Supermarkets or Airlines sell merchandises through another channel viz. Internet.
It is predicted that the value of goods and services traded through Internet would lift significantly and net income from on-line shopping may travel up three-fold over 5 old ages harmonizing to research surveies ( Chang et.al, 2005 ) . It is caused from the benefits of shopping on-line including convenience of clip, better information, competitory pricing and customization ( Chan et al. , 2001 ) .
In 2008, about 10 % of gross revenues and purchase dealing in UK market set up through Internet ( UK National statistics, 2009 )
Online shopping in UK still go up well in malice of crisis in the economic system by 35 % to ?14.7bn last twelvemonth ( BBC, 2010 ) which is the fastest growing rate over six old ages. It is predicted that the online shopping disbursement would make ?44.9bn by 2012, approximately 13.8 % of entire disbursement.
Figure aˆZ2. UK entire online shopping disbursement 2002 – 2007
The entire value of on-line retail outgo
( Verdict Research, Cited by BBC News, hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7432643.stm ) .
In contrast, Vietnam which is a underdeveloped state has non got many consideration figure of e-commerce development.
In 2003 the rate of Vietnamese people shopping online is merely over 0.1 % ( Nguyen, 2003 ) . It is the fact that non much people know about on-line shopping method or electronic payment through Internet at that clip. However, from 2003 to 2009, e-commerce has high potency to develop in Vietnam because the figure of people utilizing Internet in Vietnam has increased significantly from under 1 million in 2003 to about 3 million in 2005 ( AFACT, 2006 ) and to over 20 million of 80 million people in population in 2009. The figure of people utilizing Internet increased 20 times in the period of 2003 – 2009 means that Internet are acquiring popular and the applications of Internet like trading online besides will popular with clients in Vietnam. Harmonizing to E-commerce Vietnam study 2009, the authorities of Vietnam besides is interested in developing e-commerce with many programs and even established E-commerce development Centre ( EcomViet ) in Ministry of Industry and Trade to pull off this activity in systematic and update e-commerce state of affairs by one-year studies and researches which supply the figure of companies utilizing Internet as a method of making concern, the tendency of e-commerce application in Vietnam presently or anticipation of the tendencies in people ‘s ingestion.
Harmonizing to a study of 2000 endeavors of Ministry of Industry and Trade, twelve per cent of endeavors studied in Vietnam have its e-business and about half of them satisfied with its concern ( VBN, 2010 ) .
“ More and more endeavors and clients are paying attending to e-commerce and I believe in the close hereafter, e-commerce will accomplish large consequences, and will be extremely profitable, ” said Nguyen Ngoc Lam, the director of web site www.123mua.com ( cited by VBN, 2010 ) .
E-commerce late has become a common tendency in trading in Vietnam. Vietnamese consumers have been familiar with online-trading since 2008 when several e-payment companies were set up including Payoo, VinaPay, Mobivi, PayNet and VnPay ( VietNamNet Bridge, 2009 ) . With an purpose to advance e-commerce activities, the Industry and Trade Department of Ho Chi Minh metropolis so organized a plan titled “ Selection of outstanding e-commerce concerns, ” aimed at hiking e-commerce activities ; measuring e-commerce efficiency ; and leting the metropolis ‘s concern community to derive experience in the field of e-commerce ( ibid. ) . In order to present e-commerce to 100 per centum of city-based concerns and have 20 per centum of families utilizing on-line trading systems, the E-commerce section developed an official channel at www.vnex.com.vn which connects the industry and trade sections of 63 states and metropoliss, and 60 commercial offices of Vietnamese consulates around the universe ( ibid. ) . Since e-commerce has been strongly promoted by the authorities, a roar in the increasing engagement of Vietnamese concerns in utilizing e-commerce has been occurred.
2.3 COMPARE UK AND VN IN PERCEPTION OF FOUR AREAS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP
2.3.1 The comparing
The relationship among them has been researched in client relationship in general and in e-commerce client relationship in peculiar. The affect of trust and committedness to client relationship in general was mentioned by Morgan and Hunt ( 1994 ) and in on-line service market by Eastlick ( 2006 ) .
Gefen et Al ( 2003 ) tested the influences of Trust and engineering credence theoretical account ( TAM ) on the purchaser determination in on-line shopping. Social presence of e-Trust affects purchase purposes and the relationship between trust and keeping in online-shopping was tested ( Gefen and Straub, 2004 ) . The relationship between Trust and Customer Loyalty was showed by Gefen ( 2002 ) when he determined factors of client trueness in e-commerce viz. Trust, Perceived Risk with Vendor and Cost to exchange Vendor. Gerpott ( 2001 ) tested the influence of client trueness on client keeping in telecommunication market and Verhoef ( 2003 ) found affectional committedness and trueness plans affect positively both of client keeping and client portion development. As can been seen from theories reappraisal, some relationships which has been researched for e-commerce market, but besides have some relationship which has non been mentioned for on-line client in bing theories. Therefore, this research will prove and happen the relationship between them in e-commerce.
Harmonizing to the research of Uncles et Al. ( 2003 ) , the conceptualisation of trueness in client in some Western people ‘s head merely non merely the attitude but besides include budget effects and clip force per unit area. Thus the relationship between committedness and trueness for those people is non strong plenty for buy backing. Therefore, some trueness activities will non roll up the effectivity because consumer rebuy merchandise because of some other selling tools or convenient services alternatively of belief and emotions ( Uncles et al. , 2003 ) .
There is rarely surveies in Vietnam research this field but the potency of difference between UK and VN consumer is available. This is why this research will happen out that difference in VN.
2.3.2 The ground for differences
The difference between UK and VN e-consumer attitude can be explained by two chief factors viz. societal factors and economic sciences factors based on some old surveies.
The first factor impacting the difference of e-consumer in UK and Vietnam is societal factors. The research of Teo T.S.H and Liu ( 2007 ) conducted a research of consumer trust in e-commerce in United States, Singapore and China. The consequences showed that the features of the legal guardians and features of settlors are of import determiner of trust across state ( Teo and Liu 2007 ) . The survey shows that US and Singapore consumer by and large pay online when they shopping online from Web seller whereas the rate of Chinese people utilizing that tools is rather low. This factors besides has been researched by Dennis et Al. ( 2009 ) and he concluded that e-consumer attitude towards an e-retailer will be positively influenced by societal factors.
The 2nd factors can be economics factors. Harmonizing to VN e-commerce study in 2009, the ground why clients do non shopping online because of engineering substructure, for illustration, the velocity of dealing, the cyberspace banking system. Then it can be led to the difference of the manner UK and VN people shop on-line and pay online.
Customer relationship direction which has been studied for a long clip prove that it plays an importance function in doing net income for companies and companies making concern online are non exception. Therefore, to cognize how to get and maintain clients shopping online is necessary to accomplish success. The relationship between four countries viz. client trust, client committedness, client trueness and client keeping that are familiar construct in client relationship direction in e-commerce have been tested and reference in assorted old surveies. However, different states with different features such as civilization, economic development or engineering development lead to different relationships among those above four countries. This research will prove those relationships once more but in a different state of affairs which is for clients shopping online in Vietnam. As a consequence, recommendations would be expected to give in the treatments and decisions about the relationships to reply the inquiry of how to retain on-line client more efficaciously in Vietnam presently.
So in this chapter, we look at many theories related to this research, foremost, theories and the conceptualisation procedure of client relationship direction such as client relationship, four chief countries viz. trust, committedness, client trueness and client keeping and how they has been surveies in old researches, so determine and explicate e-commerce and its different types. This chapter finished with the e-commerce features between UK and Vietnam and account predicted for those differences.