Babylonian, Egyptian and Native American Period

Babylonian, Egyptian and Native American Period ( 3000 BC to 601 BC )

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The ancient period had been of a great involvement to today’s scientists, mathematicians, and even archeologists. What we use or see now: the expressions in scientific disciplines and mathematics, some constructions such as the pyramids, and even the calendar may be the merchandises of the olden clip. To happen the birth of these, allow us follow back clip get downing from 3000 BC:

I. 3000 BC – 2200 BC

Cultural Events ( 3000 BC – 2500 BC )

i‚·First Dynasty of the Ancient Kingdom of Egypt ( 3000 BC )

– Before the first dynasty Egypt was in fact two lands. The unifier of these lands, in common people narratives, was a chap called Menes and known as the first mortal male monarch of Egypt. The Grecian historian Herodotus, records that this male monarch founded the capital, Memphis, by damming the Nile to repossess land for the metropolis. During this clip papyrus was invented and as a effect authorship was used as an administrative tool of authorities. This created the conditions for prosperity, which can be seen in the brilliant artifacts that have been found from this period.

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i‚·The Great Pyramid ( 2800 BC )

A pyramid is built in a life-time of a Pharaoh. It is said to assist the Pharaoh to make immortality. It serves as a entombment of him.

The ways inside the pyramid were built harmonizing to certain configuration of stars because stars will steer the Pharaoh on his manner to immortality.

i‚·Cheops’ Pyramid ( 2580 BC )

Khufu ‘s pyramidis non merely the largest pyramid of all time built, but it besides has the most complicated interior constructions of all pyramids. This posed a particular challenge to the pyramid builders.

– Arranged in the form of the configuration of Orion.

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i‚·Isis and Osiris Cult in Egypt ( 2500 BC )

Isis-She was worshipped as the ideal female parent and married woman every bit good as the patronne of nature and thaumaturgy.

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Osiris-The cult of Osiris persisted throughout Egyptian history. Funeral texts address legion supplications and enchantments in hopes of procuring his blessing upon come ining the hereafter

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Mathematical Events ( 3000 BC – 2200 BC )

i‚·Chinese arithmetic and astronomy under Huang-ti ( 3000 BC )


Early Chinese uranology

-2300 BC edifices for observation occultation predicts the heath and success of the emperor

– Chinese calendar- through careful survey and observation

Math computation

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i‚·Egyptian Scribes use priestly book ( 2900 BC )

Not everyone learned to read and compose in ancient Egypt. Merely one group of people calledScribeswas allowed to hold this cognition. To go a Scribe, you had to go to a particular school for Scribe. At this school you would larn how to read and compose hieroglyphic andpriestly books( Hieratic is an ancient Egyptian book based on hieroglyphic marks. Hieratic was developed so that mundane information could be written down rapidly and easy ) . This was difficult work. These books are complicated, and there were many marks to larn.

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i‚·Egyptian simple grouping system ( 2850 BC )

“The hieroglyphic system of authorship is a image book in which each character represents something: a Pharaoh, a topographic point, or a figure value. In this subdivision we will look at how the Egyptians used hieroglyphics to organize their system of totaling. I might indicate out that the Egyptian hieroglyphs will supply us with an illustration of what is naming an linear enumeration system – what your writers call “ simple grouping ” .”

The Egyptians symbols for Numberss were fundamentally merely powers of 10. This would in consequence make their system, although linear, a denary system. The prefix deci is derived from the Latin decem intending “ 10 ” . The fact that 10 is frequently found by ancient civilizations to be their pick of a numbering base is no uncertainty attributed to the fact that adult male has ten fingers to number upon, which I ‘m certain they did so, since some of us may still make it now.

The figure “ one ” is represented, as it is in many other civilisations totaling systems, by a perpendicular shot, or possibly it is a image of a staff. A image resembling a horseshoe is used to stand for a aggregation of 10 perpendicular shots. Other images were used to stand for each new power of ten up to 10,000,000.

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More illustrated:

i‚·Mathematical tablets of Nippur: illustration of a charming square ( 2200 BC )

Types of tablets found.

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II. 2000 BC – 1650 BC

Cultural Events

i‚·Epic of Gilgamesh ( 1900 BC )

The Epic of Gilgamesh is, possibly, the oldest written narrative on Earth. It comes to us from Ancient Sumeria, and was originally written on 12 clay tablets in cunieform book. It is about the escapades of the historical King of Uruk. The Epic of Gilgamesh is practically about the people who lived in the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the 2nd and 3rd millenaries BCE. They celebrated a male monarch named Gilgamesh and believed in many Gods. They were besides self conscious of their ain cultivation of the natural universe.

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Mathematical Events

i‚·Moscow Papyrus: 25 Mathematical jobs ( 1850 BC )

One of the most of import objects kept in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts is the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus. This papyrus was purchased by Vladimir Golenishchev in 1893 from one of the brothers who found the Pharaoh’s grave in Deir al-Bahri. The text is written in priestly and it’s supposed to be compiled around 1850 BC. It measures 5 metres long and 8 centimeters broad and incorporating 25 mathematical jobs. Unfortunately, non all the jobs are clear so we merely have information about some of its subdivisions. The 25 jobs are:

1. Damaged and indecipherable.

2. Damaged and indecipherable.

3. A stick steps 1/3 and 1/5 [ =1/3 + 1/5 ] of 30 = 16.

4. Area of a trigon: 1/2 of 4 ten 10 = 20.

5. Pesus of loaves and staff of life.

6. Rectangle of country = 12 and establish = 1/2 and 1/4 of the tallness. Find the base and the tallness.

7. Triangle of country = 20 and height = 2 and 1/2 of base. Find the base and the tallness.

8. Pesus of loaves and staff of life.

9. Pesus of loaves and staff of life.

10. Area of a curving surface of a cylinder or a hemisphere.

11. Loaf of breads and basket. Unclear.

12. Pesus of beer.

13. Pesus of loaves and beer.

14. Volume of a abbreviated pyramid.

15. Pesu of beer.

16. Pesu of beer.

17. Triangle of country = 20 and establish = 1/3 and 1/15 of tallness. Find the base and the tallness.

18. Measuring fabric in cubits and thenars.

19. Solve the equation ( 1 and 1/2 )ten+ 4 = 10.

20. Pesu of 1.000 loaves. Oudjat.

21. Mix of sacrificial staff of life.

22. Pesus of loaves and beer.

23. Calculating the work of a shoemaker.

24. Exchange of loaves and beer.

25. Solve the equation 2ten + ten= 9

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i‚·Early Babylonian tablet ( Plimpton 322 ) ( 1650 BC )

• Plimpton 322 is a Babylonian clay tablet, noteworthy as incorporating an illustration of Babylonian mathematics.

• This tabular array lists what are now called Pythagorean threes.

The Babylonian figure system. The Babylonians `wrote ‘ on moistures clay by pressing a stylus or cuneus into it in one of a little figure of ways. The Babylonian figure system, already from a really early epoch, was unusually sophisticated. The figure 1 was `written ‘ with a individual `stroke ‘ and the Numberss 2 through 9 were written by uniting multiples of a individual shot:

The figure 10 was written in a individual character and the Numberss 20 to 50 were written with multiples of this character:

The Numberss up to 59 were obtained by uniting these much as we do. For illustration, 11 was written as. But the system was non really based on 10, but instead on 60 – and it was a true drifting point system so that 1 and 60 ( every bit good as, say, 3600 ) were indistiguishable. All Numberss could be obtained by uniting these in order, composing from left to right as we do. Thus 70 was written as.

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III. 1500 BC – 753 BC

Cultural Events ( 1500 BC –1200 BC )

i‚·First alphabets created ( 1500BC )

Proto-Sinaiticis a Middle Bronze Age book attested in a really little aggregation of letterings at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula. Due to the utmost scarceness of Proto-Sinaitic marks, really small is known with certainty about the nature of the book. Because the book co-existed with Egyptian hieroglyphs, it is likely that it represented true authorship, but this is by no agencies certain. It has been argued that Proto-Sinaitic was an alphabet and the ascendant of the Phoenician alphabet, from which about all modern alphabets descend.

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i‚·The Obelisk of Theodosius was erected ( 1495BC )

The obelisk was foremost set up by Tutmoses III ( 1479–1425 BC ) to the South of the 7th pylon of the great temple of Karnak. The Roman emperor Constantius II ( 337-361 AD ) had it and another obelisk transported along the river Nile to Alexandria to mark hisventennaliaor 20 old ages on the throne in 357. The other obelisk was erected on thespinaof the Circus Maximus in Rome in the fall of that twelvemonth, and is today known as the Lateran obelisk, whilst the obelisk that would go the obelisk of Theodosius remained in Alexandria until 390, when Theodosius I ( 378-392 AD ) had it transported to Constantinople and put up on thespinaof the Hippodrome at that place.

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i‚·Iron Age ( 1300BC )

The early period of the age is characterized by the widespread usage of Fe or steel. The acceptance of such stuff coincided with other alterations in society, including differing agricultural patterns, spiritual beliefs and artistic manners. TheIron Ageas an archeological term indicates the status as to civilisation and civilization of a people utilizing Fe as the stuff for their film editing tools and arms.

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i‚·Moses leads hegira from Egypt ( 1250 BC )

At this point, Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt the hegira from Egypt is the subject of the Judaic festival of Passover. The Hebrew name for this, “ Passover ” , refers to God ‘s direction to the Israelites to fix unraised staff of life as they would be go forthing in

hastiness, and to tag their doors with the blood of slaughtered sheep so that the “ Angel ” or “ the destroyer ” tasked with killing the first-born of Egypt would “ go through over ” them. ( Despite the Exodus narrative, bookmans believe that the Passover festival originated non in the scriptural narrative but as a charming ritual to turn away devils from the family by painting the door frame with the blood of a slaughtered sheep. )

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i‚·Trojan War ( 1200BC )

The war originated from a wrangle between the goddesses Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite, after Eris, the goddess of discord and strife, gave them a aureate apple, sometimes known as the Apple of Discord, marked “ for the fairest ” . Zeus sent the goddesses to Paris, who judged that Aphrodite, as the “ fairest ” , should have the apple. In exchange, Aphrodite made Helen, the most beautiful of all adult females and married woman of Menelaus, autumn in love with Paris, who took her to Troy. Agamemnon, male monarch of Mycenae and the brother of Helen ‘s hubby Menelaus, led an expedition of Achaean military personnels to Troy and besieged the metropolis for 10 old ages because of Paris ‘ abuse. After the deceases of many heroes, including the Achaeans Achilles and Ajax, and the Trojans Hector and Paris, the metropolis fell to the artifice of the Trojan Horse. The Achaeans slaughtered the Trojans ( except for some of the adult females and kids whom they kept or sold as slaves ) and desecrated the temples, therefore gaining the Gods ‘ wrath. Few of the Achaeans returned safely to their places and many founded settlements in distant shores. The Romans subsequently traced their beginning to Aeneas, one of the Trojans, who was said to hold led the lasting Dardans to contemporary Italy.

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Mathematical Events ( 1350 BC –1105 BC )


-a signifier of paper made from a reed that grows along the Bankss of the Nile River

i‚·Rollin’s Papyrus

-shows elaborate mathematical histories on staff of life

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Chou Pei Suan Ching (Arithmetical Classic of the Gnomon and the Circular Paths of Heaven )

It is an anon. aggregation of 246 jobs encountered by the Duke of Zhou and his uranologist and mathematician, Shang Gao

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Cultural Events ( 1000 BC –753 BC )


Phoenicians invented their alphabet

-it is believed that its beginnings came from Egyptian Hieroglyphs


Homer-the writer of theIliadand theOdyssey, and is revered as the greatest of ancient Grecian poets

Iliad( Song of Ilium )

Set during the Trojan War, the ten-year besieging of the metropolis of Troy ( Ilium ) by a alliance of Greek provinces, it tells of the conflicts and events during the hebdomads of a wrangle between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles. The Iliad is set three millenary ago, during the concluding twelvemonth of the Trojan War, a struggle in which Grecian warriors sailed the Aegean to what is now Turkey and besieged the bastion of Troy for ten old ages. In the first few pages the Grecian hero Achilles wrangles with the main male monarch, Agamemnon, over a female slave whom the Grecian soldiers had awarded to Achilles as a award of award in acknowledgment of his feats. Agamemnon seizes the adult female. Achilles withdraws from contending in a fury, and remains withdrawn for the majority of the verse form, during which clip the Trojans, led by Hector — Trojan King Priam ‘s boy — about burn the beached Greek ships and drive the encroachers into the sea. Hector kills Achilles ‘ stopping point friend, Patroclus, motivating Achilles to restart contending. The Greeks drive the Trojans back to their bastion. Achilles kills Hector. He abuses the cadaver but, in the concluding pages of the verse form, returns it to Priam for funeral awards. The Iliad ends at that place, before Achilles dies from an pointer shooting into his heel, before the Greeks enter Troy by agencies of a hollow wooden Equus caballus and destruct the bastion.

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-a subsequence to theIliad

-focuses on the Grecian hero Odysseus and his journey place after the autumn of Troy

Odyssey was war hero who conquered Trojan, utilizing large wood Equus caballus gift, so when he return place, Poseidon gets angry at him because he kills his boy, and do return hard, travel takes 10 old ages because of Poseidon and they get poke of air currents from Aiolos, which one of crew wonder opens and it blows them terminals of the Earth, he and crew see Cyclops, Seirens, Kirke and he visit besides in underworld seeing his female parent, after several escapades he returns to

Ithaka and see his married woman Penelope, who was weave fabric ( she promised to other suers that when she gets it ready he take person, althought she level it all darks, but when she acquire it ready, she make one competition, he who can tuned Oddyseys the bow gets her ) , and so demoing foreign Odyssey comes and make it, and Penelope recognize who he is.

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The great metropolis of Rome was founded by Aeneas’ line of descent

The subsisters from the fallen metropolis of Troy banded together under Aeneas, underwent a series of escapades around the Mediterranean Sea, including a halt at freshly foundedCarthage under the regulation of Queen Dido, and finally reached the Italian seashore. The Trojans were thought to hold landed in an country between modern Anzio and Fiumicino, sou’-west of Rome: likely at Laurentum, or in other versions, at Lavinium, a topographic point named for Lavinia, the girl of King Latinus, whom Aeneas married.

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Romulus and Remus

Romulus and Remus were fated to decease in the Tiber River because their female parent, a Vestal priestess got impregnated by the God Mars. The river divinity Tiberinus makes the basket gimmick in the roots of a fig tree that grows in the Velabrum swamp at the base of the Palatine Hill. The twins are found and suckled by a she-wolf (Lupa) and fed by a peckerwood ( Picus ) .

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IV. Mayan Civilization

Eras of Mesoamerican CivilizationArchaic

Prior to 1800 B.C.

Hunter-gatherers begin settled agribusiness and ceramics-making in about 2000 B.C.

Early on Pre-classic

1800-900 B.C.

Olmecs create the first city-civilization, centered on San Lorenzo ( Veracruz )

Middle Pre-classic

900-300 B.C.

La Venta takes over every bit chief Olmec metropolis. First settled Mayan communities on the Pacific seashore, in the Guatamelan highlands, the Peten and in Belize.

Late Pre-classic

300B.C.-A.D. 250

The first epoch of typical Mayan civilisation. Mayan composing system and long count calendar

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