Benchmarking A Tools To Achieve Competitiveness Marketing Essay

Harmonizing to Michael J. Baker ( 2007 ) ‘Marketing is an mystery. At the same clip, it is both simple and complex, straightforward and intricate, a doctrine or province of head and dynamic concern map ; it is new and every bit old as clip itself. ‘

‘Marketing is the direction procedure responsible for placing, expecting and fulfilling client demands productively. ‘

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‘Marketing is the procedure of planning and put to deathing the construct, pricing, publicity and distribution of thoughts, goods and services to make exchange and fulfill single and organizational aims. ‘

( American Marketing Association )

The function of selling has become progressively critical for the touristry industry as the touristry market is maturating and markets are speedy fring their fight. The universe of today has been affected by assorted incompatibilities. The consequence has been due to globalization, internationalization of concern, edification and power of clients. Theodore Levitt ( 1983 ) sees the universe as a individual market.


Nowadays, much accent is placed on the linkage between providers and clients. The purpose is to give the best possible attending, client services and hence construct client trueness. In this modern epoch of ours, it is highly of import for the provider to be connected with the clients as the cost of pulling a new client is five times the cost of retaining them. ( Philip Kotler 1997 )

In Piercy and Cravens ( 1999 ) words ‘ ‘marketing administration has become a cardinal strategic issue concerned with intra-organisational relationships and inter-organisational confederations, and the direction of critical boundary crossing environmental interfaces ‘

Harmonizing to Kotler et Al ( 2006 ) , ‘relationship selling involves making, maintaining, and heightening strong relationships with clients ‘


Gronroos ( 1990 ) cited ‘CRM is a manner to set up, keep, enhance and commercialize client relationships so that the aims of the parties involved are met. This is done by a common exchange and fulfillment of promises ‘ .

It is really of import to hold on the correlativity between assorted touristry stakeholders in a finish so as to savor success in the destination-marketing plans ( Terpstra and Simonin, 1993 ) . When all the stakeholders of touristry industry work together their relationship varies from ‘loosely connected to more formal and incorporate. ‘ ( Bailey and Koney, 2000 ) .


In today ‘s universe, each state, part and metropolis must vie to hold their portion of the universe ‘s political, commercial, societal and cultural benefits in a individual planetary market.

‘Almost cipher has the clip, the forbearance or the expertness to understand the existent differences between the offerings of one state and another, and so people fall back on their cardinal beliefs and biass about those states to assist them to do their determinations ‘ ( Simon Anholt,2009 ) . In these words, Anholt is of sentiment that people tend to be influenced by the selling schemes and they do non hold clip to react with their senses as they react harmonizing to what they see from the selling schemes of the state.

It is really of import to hold finish selling administrations within the state. They are the major stakeholders which tend to hike the touristry sector. The basic function of the selling administrations is to advance, develop and to place the finish in the mentality of the tourers.

Additionally, new schemes are developed so as to confront the ill-mannered competition from other good established and new emerging finishs around the universes. In Mauritius, the primary Destination Marketing Organisation is the Mauritius Tourism Promoting Authority ( MTPA ) . Furthermore, there are other major stakeholders such as Tour Operators, L’AHRIM and selling directors of hotels who promote the state.

Selling Scheme

Selling schemes are used to successfully apportion and organize selling resources and activities in order to accomplish the administration ‘s aims. The selling scheme is a dominant component as it determines the extent of success of the finish. Schemes are chosen paths to accomplish ends and aims.

In Johnson ‘s and Scholes ‘s words, ‘strategy is theA directionA andA scopeA of an administration over theA long-run: A which achieves advantageA for the administration through its constellation ofA resourcesA within a ambitious environment, to run into the demands ofA marketsA and to fulfilA stakeholderA outlooks. ‘

Adcock ( 2001 ) explains that marketing scheme is about ‘product/ market/ exchange country ‘ . Merchandise and market are available, but for the exchange country, there will be competition. As such, the administration with competitory advantage will profit mostly. Schemes are devised so as to place the finish in the head of the tourers.


One of the most effectual selling schemes is to place the finish in the head set of the tourers. So as for the merchandise to be the pick of the tourers it has to be positioned into their head. Kotler et Al, ( 1996 ) adds that ‘a merchandise ‘s place is the manner the merchandise occupies in consumer ‘s heads relative to viing merchandises ‘ .

Positioning involves finding how consumers perceive the seller ‘s merchandise, every bit good as developing and implementing selling schemes to accomplish the coveted market place ( Alan Fyall & A ; Brian Garrod, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Heath and Wall ( 1992 ) , a finish positioning scheme could take to do clients comprehend one finish as in some ways unique.

Anholt ( 2009 ) defines positioning ‘ about understanding what your targeted markets think of your finish and guaranting you occupy the most positive place in their perceptual experience compared to your rivals ‘ .

The Destination Marketing Administrations are responsible for efficaciously selling and positioning the finish in the head of the tourers. By positioning itself, Mauritius will utilize its alone properties to distinguish itself from rivals.

Competitive advantage

Teece et al. , 1997 is of sentiment that competitory advantage is about ‘producing quality products/ services at lower costs and presenting the right merchandises and/ or service to its clients in the right topographic point at the right monetary value and clip through the right channels. ‘

Destination fight has been described as ‘destination ‘s ability to make and incorporate value-added merchandises that sustain its resources while keeping market place relative to rivals. ‘ ( Hassen, 2000: p239 ) The advantage comes from the derived function in any finish properties, be it entree, servicescape, quality of service which allows one finish to supply better value added to the tourers than other finish can. ( Hao Ma,1999p3 )

Pearce ( 1997:16 ) describes finish fight as finish rating techniques and methods that can consistently analyze and compare the diverse properties of viing finishs within a planning context. Such an effectual rating and distinction of the touristry constituents with rivals would supply a better grasp of competitory advantage.

Harmonizing to Zairi ( 1996 ) , benchmarking is the method driving organisations towards competitory advantage as it provides an increased consciousness of merchandises, services and markets in a peculiar industry.



This chapter is a literature reappraisal based on explicating how a finish can accomplish fight through benchmarking and what attributes of Mauritius can be benchmarked. Both benchmarking and fight are strongly related. Success in the former brings success in the latter. In every industry and concern, many tourer finishs are in competition with one another to obtain a greater proportion of international touristry by pulling more foreign tourers ( Goodall, 1988 ) .


The touristry industry is one of the most dynamic sectors in the universe. There is ferocious competition and finishs need to benchmark itself from its rivals. Even Mauritius is no exclusion. Mauritius has to go on to offer higher service quality, higher degree of the touristry merchandise and offer much more than its usual vacation bundles.

Benchmarking is the procedure of fiting one ‘s concern public presentation to that of the industry. Harmonizing to Kotler and Armstrong ( 1994: pg 581 ) benchmarking is defined as ‘ comparing the company ‘s merchandises and procedures to those of rivals or prima houses in other industries to happen ways to better quality and public presentation ‘ . One of the most used citations about benchmarking is the hunt of the industry best patterns which will take ‘exceptional public presentation through the execution of those best patterns ‘ ( Camp, 1989 ) .

Additionally, Balm ( 1992 ) defines benchmarking as “ the on-going activity of comparing one ‘s ain procedure, pattern, merchandise, or service against the best known similar activity so that disputing but come-at-able ends can be set and a realistic class of action implemented to expeditiously go and stay best of the best in a sensible clip. ”

Harmonizing to Kotler and Adreasen, ( 1996, P. 41 ) , ‘success will come to that organisation which best determines the perceptual experiences, demands, and wants of mark markets and satisfies them through the design, communicating, pricing and bringing of appropriate and competitively feasible offerings ‘ . To make so, the administration needs to benchmark itself with its close rivals and seek agencies and ways to out go through them.

Harmonizing to Getz and Brown ( 2006 ) benchmarking should imply non merely comparing with the best, but rating of how they manage their concern or finish. Not merely does benchmarking enable good thoughts to be emulated, but leads to more effectual systems being put in topographic point.

Types of benchmarking

Internal benchmarking

McNair and Leibfried, 1992 provinces that ‘internal benchmarking is an attack that includes the aggregation of informations on one ‘s ain public presentation and its appraisal on the footing of several standards such as aims and betterments compared with past old ages ‘ . Aims and betterments could be the per centum alteration in figure of tourers ‘ reaching, the tenancy rate or tourers perceptual experiences in contrast with past old ages.

Harmonizing to Kozak ( 2004 ) internal benchmarking refers to supervising the public presentation aims released by the touristry governments ( touristry officers, finish directors and so on ) during the planning phase.

External/ competitory benchmarking

Finishs compare themselves with other finishs as challenger in the same touristry industry. Harmonizing to Cox and Thompson ( 1998 ) , external benchmarking requires a comparing of work with external organisations in order to detect new thoughts, methods, merchandises and services. The aim is continuously to better one ‘s ain public presentation by mensurating how it performs, comparing it with that of others and finding how the others achieve their public presentation degrees.

It is besides of import to retrieve that when one is utilizing competitory benchmarking, the end is to concentrate on one ‘s direct rivals and non the industry as a whole. ( Asrofah and al,2010 ) . For case, a comparing between Mauritius and Seychelles can be used to cognize the public presentation of both islands.

Generic Benchmarking

Evan and Lindsay ( 1993 ) stated that the nucleus thought of benchmarking is to place the best patterns or the best acting concerns in the industry and better 1 ‘s ain public presentation by following good patterns used by others or guidelines established by professional national or international organisations.

Generic benchmarking for case can be the usage of patterns internationally recognised. For illustration, the proper Star quality categorization of hotels in Mauritius would move as external enabler in act uponing the public presentation of the finish.

Designation of what is to be benchmarked

Finish properties can be regarded as procedures since experiences appear as a consequence of contact between service suppliers and tourers. A procedure is an activity or twine of activities which have a definite start and finish. Any procedure within a finish converts input ( merchandises, services and patterns ) to end product, which are accepted either as qualitative steps or as quantitative steps, used for public presentation assessment and ensuing in benchmarking. The qualitative steps can be client experiences and perceptual experiences and quantitative steps can be disbursals by tourers and figure of tourers ‘ reaching. The different properties which have been used to market Mauritius are developed below. These peculiar properties need to be benchmarked with that of our direct rivals, like the Seychelles, the Maldives, Reunion and many other Indian Ocean islands.

Determinants/Attributes for benchmarking

THE Selling MIX

Harmonizing to Kotler ( 2003 ) , selling mix is the pool of selling tools that an administration uses to accomplish its selling aims in a given mark. Cooper et Al. ( 1998 ) identified marketing mix as ‘a set of governable tools that may be manipulated to run into specific aims and attract predefined mark markets ‘

Harmonizing to Philip Kotler and Armstrong ( 1989, p.45 ) selling mix is ‘the set of governable selling variables that the house blends to bring forth the response it wants in the mark market. ‘

The selling scheme used by DMOs is to blend assorted elements and activities that the finish has so as to fit with the demands and wants of the clients. The selling mix is in itself the tool and the proper benchmarking properties for the success of a finish. Mauritius uses its merchandise, monetary value, place/distribution, publicity, people, and procedure to separate itself from its rivals. Through effectual and efficient usage of the selling mix, the finish is marketed and is confronting competitory advantage. So as to do the benchmarking and comparative selling tools more vivid, the Seychelles has been contrasted with Mauritius.

The Seychelles is a direct rival of Mauritius as its chief tourer bring forthing market is same as Mauritius. During the first one-fourth of 2010, it had hotel room tenancy of 58 % compared to Mauritius which had 67 % . The chief properties both finishs are advancing are 3S, service quality, local people civilization and nature.

The 4 classical selling mix ( 4 P ‘s ) was described by McCarthy. These are:


Topographic point


Monetary value

The 4 P ‘s theoretical account has been successfully applied in the fabrication sector. As for the touristry sector, extra P ‘s have been implemented.


Physical grounds



In Kotler, Bowen & A ; Makens ‘ ( 2006 ) words, ‘a merchandise is anything that can be offered to a market for attending, acquisition, usage or ingestion that might fulfill a privation or demand. It includes physical objects, services, topographic points, organisations and thoughts. ‘

J. Paul Peter et Al ( 1998 ) province that a merchandise is ‘the amount of the physical, psychological, and sociological satisfactions the purchaser derives from the purchase, ownership and ingestion ‘ .

The touristry merchandise is more than a straightforward set of tangible characteristics ; it is a complex package of benefits that satisfy client demands. The finish has to supply the touristry experience. More frequently, a bundle comprising of touchable benefits is given to the tourers. While taking advantage of the touchable assets like basking a golf class, the tourer will happen his degree of satisfaction rise with an first-class service offered.

Jim Blythe ( 1998 ) says ‘ that merchandise ( finish ) , like populating things has a natural life rhythm get downing with debut, traveling through a growing stage, making adulthood, so traveling into diminution, and eventually going obsolete. ‘

The Mauritanian merchandise.

The Mauritius branding magazine provinces ‘Mauritius is a finish of striking natural beauty and natural and cultural diverseness. Combined with a benign clime, the friendliness of Mauritians and high degrees of safety and security, Mauritius has been placed as one of the universe ‘s most inspirational touristry finishs ‘ .

The Ministry of Tourism and Leisure and the MTPA are seeking agencies and ways to heighten the Mauritanian merchandise. The chief selling tactics used to sell Mauritius is by utilizing its chief properties ; the 3S ; Sun, Sea and Sand. Since some old ages, 3 extra S have been added to the list. The Smile of our multi-ethnic people, the keen Service offered by our epicurean hotels and Safety and Security have become major properties to the selling of the island.

Since some old ages, the authorities has successfully tried to diversify the image of Mauritius. Additionally the new type of tourers wants a complete bundle which should be both recreational and experiential. As such the Mauritanian governments have opted more towards medical, cultural, traditional, Duty free Shopping, Spa and health, Cruise, educational and concern oriented touristry. More diverseness has been of import due to fierce competition from the international market. Mauritius needs to separate itself from its rivals.

The Seychellois merchandise

Harmonizing to the Customer Brochure 2010 the Seychelles is described as islands ‘With the powder-soft sand between your toes, impossibly smooth granite stones surging out of a Co ocean and the Sun a lasting fixture in a cloudless sky, one may be forgiven for tie ining Seychelles with nil more than the universe ‘s most beautiful beaches. But put aside the thought of a pleasurably idle two weeks, for here is the chance to research a fantastic natural Eden, an chance to be jealously seized and ne’er forgotten. ‘

Seychelles can be regarded as a direct rival for Mauritius. Its major markets are France, United Kingdom, Germany and Switzerland. The islands offer over 1.4 million sq. kilometer of marine evidences for the fishing of Marlin, elephantine Barracuda, shark and other choice game fish, Equus caballus equitation, golf, diving, snorkelling, detecting its wild-life, surfing and much more nature based activities. The islands are besides offering cultural, recreational and adventure touristry. The Seychelles is a extremely expensive finish.

Place/ Distribution

Topographic point is about the channels of distribution which are available in the tourer finish. A channel of distribution is the combination of establishments through which a marketer markets merchandises and services to the user or ultimate consumer. ( J.Paul Peter,1998 ) . However the touristry merchandise is more complex. The transportation of ownership does non take topographic point.

A distribution system is the channel used to derive entree, or agencies by which a touristry provider additions entree, to the possible purchasers of the merchandise. ( Chris Cooper et al,1998 ) The channels would dwell largely of circuit operators, travel agents and air hoses companies. The MTPA and major concatenation of hotels help a batch in advancing Mauritius. The Channel connects the providers and manufacturers ( the finish ‘s properties ) with the users of goods and services. An efficient and reliant channel of distribution provides the finish with competitory advantage to other finishs.

Monetary value

The pricing scheme of a finish is really of import in the competitory environment. Pricing is a really of import component in the selling mix. It is really of import factor for the success and failure of a finish. The monetary value scheme is really complex in nature.

Price consists of the fees charged and the value associated with the marketed merchandise and service. The private sector more specifically the hotels and the air hoses have the duty to put proper monetary value to sell Mauritius as an out of ordinary finish. The channels of distribution besides have a major engagement in act uponing the pricing determination. Mauritius is recognised chiefly for its first hotels while the Seychelles is sold chiefly for its breathtaking landscape and beaches.

Monetary values for the touristry merchandises have to take into history the complexness created by seasonality of demand, the demographic factors, and the sections from which the tourers are generated, the motivational factors of the tourers and the sensitiveness of the touristry towards outgo.

Since some months, many hotels have had to cut down their work force so as to get by with the international crisis, some auto leases had and are still confronting liquidness job. The impact of the fiscal convulsion has been felt besides in the state. The indicants are tourers are seeking value for money across-the-board trades and a autumn in their outgo. Noting that Mauritius is a comparatively expensive finish, the market may exchange to cheaper finishs. As a consequence more promotional runs need to be done.


Harmonizing to Chris Cooper et Al ( 1998 ) ‘promotion is the descriptive term for the mix of the communicating activities that the touristry administration, or tourer boards, carry out in order to act upon those populaces on whom their gross revenues depend. ‘

Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong ( 1980 ) province ‘modern selling calls for more than merely developing a good merchandise, pricing it beautifully, and doing it available to aim clients. Companies besides must pass on with their clients, and what they communicated should non be left to opportunity. ‘

The Seychelles has used information and communicating engineerings to market its finish. The e-brochure of the STMA ( Seychelles Tourism Marketing Authority ) is adequate to do the targeted tourers amazed. Additionally, the usage of colorful images of the islands would surely do the tourers carved to travel at that place. The STMA has used astonishing historical background and glorious images to advance the islands. For illustration a citation from the e-brochure can be used to demo the strength of the publicity ‘unique is an overused word. It has appeared in the pages of so many vacation brochures that it has lost any existent significance. ‘

The usage of suited promotional schemes has helped Mauritius to increase its growing in tourer reaching and its high output per tourer in the first one-fourth of 2010. The private sector has played a major function in advancing Mauritius. The state is recognised for its first hotels and watering place. Additionally, late, the MTPA has branded Mauritius as ‘It ‘s a pleasance ‘ . The MTPA is aiming the Spain and the Russian market so as to increase off-peak reachings. A changeless flexible tactical selling run chiefly through the usage of the ICT has helped a batch in advancing Mauritius. The usage of colorful images in the MTPA and hotels web sites has helped a batch in selling Mauritius. Mauritius has to benchmark the promotional schemes used by the Seychelles so as to pull more tourers. It can be observed from both Mauritius and the Seychelles booklets ; the latter is more orientated towards colorss, natural sceneries and most significantly towards its historical background.



To believe of the service sector is to believe of people. In each and every service delivered, emotion is attached. The human factor is highly of import in the cordial reception sector. So as for a state to hold a sustainable touristry industry, its population must be ready to face and accept tourers. The population should be emotionally attached with the tourers. As such, the population should expose certain facial and bodily expose as to do the tourers feel welcome. ( Hochschild, 1983 ) . For illustration Mauritius is reputed for its true smile and warm welcome of its local population. Our People is our chief competitory advantage as Mauritians are ever ready to host tourers and there is no large communicating spread between tourers and locals.

Harmonizing to the Consumer booklet 2010, the Seychelles Tourism Marketing Authority ( STMA ) is besides seeking agencies and ways to market its people. Harmonizing to the STMA ‘the Seychellois state is that rarest of success narratives: a colourful and harmonious merger of cultural diverseness. A topographic point where the people have come from all over the universe and brought their rich civilizations and imposts with them: a familial and artistic thaw pot that is in grounds everyplace. For illustration, the people mix can be a proper benchmarking tool while analysing the competitory border Mauritius has over other finishs.

Employee committedness

The hotel sector besides must hold a human resource that is warm. The hotel sector needs to hold an emotional labor force. Harmonizing to Hochschild ( 1983, p.7 ) , emotional labor ‘requires one to bring on or stamp down feeling in order to prolong the outward visage that produces the proper province of head in others ‘ . As such, a worker should expose a temper which is appealing to the tourer and must stamp down his true temper in order to do the tourer happy.

Additionally, employees should experience motivated to work in the service industry. In Hao Ma ‘s words, ‘skilled and experienced labour forces who are loyal and dedicated frequently provide sustainable competitory advantages in footings of accrued rational capital and enhanced productiveness ‘ .

Harmonizing to the Vision 2001-2010 by the STMA, there is a current deficit of qualified and decently trained staff in many countries of the touristry industry. Additionally, there is a adversity in recruiting, actuating and retaining Seychellois staff in the touristry sector. Much accent has being placed on the betterment of the quality of service delivered by the Seychellois and even foreign labor has been used to make so.

Physical grounds

Harmonizing to Booms, B.H. and Bitner, M.J. ( 1981 ) , physical grounds refers to the environment in which the ‘service is delivered and any goods that facilitate the public presentation and communicating of the service. ‘ The physical environment itself is instrumental in clients ‘ appraisal of the quality and degree of service they can anticipate.

It should be added the environment in which the service is delivered is indispensable. The environment in which the service has been delivered is of import as it makes the tourers boost their satisfaction and attracts the tourers for more frequent visits. The service environment is more frequently called servicescape in the touristry slang. It is the ‘style and visual aspect of the physical milieus and other experiential elements encountered by the clients at the service bringing sites ‘ . ( Lovelock, 2001 )

The experiential elements are the particular status created by music, colors, aromas, visible radiations of the island, the hotels ‘ and eating houses ‘ architecture, their add-on characteristics and many design variables which tend to hold a particular consequence on the senses of the tourers ‘ head. The particular effects tend to hike the degree of satisfaction of the tourers.

Even if Seychelles does non hold the assortment of attractive forces and services offered by Mauritius peculiarly, it already possesses a few attractive forces and services that caters to demands. It should non be ignored that islands have a good established marine-related attractive forces and activities, including organized jaunts to marine Parkss, snorkeling, scuba diving and athleticss fishing and the World Heritage sites of Vallee de Mai on Praslin and the Aldabra Atoll are alone attractive forces of international fame.


Process takes a distinguishable function within the selling mix, as process direction involves the processs, undertaking agendas, mechanisms, activities and modus operandis by which a merchandise or service is delivered to the client.


Service Quality

Lovelock ( 1994 ) , ‘Hotel houses offer merchandises which comprise touchable and intangible elements that combine into a alone combination of production and service ‘ . Service bringing and benefits derived differ mostly from hotels to hotels. Harmonizing to Teare ( 1991 ) , high quality service is frequently delivered by self-generated and sincere Acts of the Apostless by hotel staff which can non easy be rehearsed or scripted, but are however an of import agencies of client satisfaction ‘ .

Harmonizing to Olsen ( 2002 ) quality and client satisfaction have long been recognized as playing a cardinal function for success and endurance in today ‘s competitory market.

Systems for pull offing service failures

Whenever the service is non delivered as wished by the clients, there are some kinds of service failures. ‘Service failures are inevitable and occur in both the procedure and the result of the service delivery’. ( Michel,2001 ) . These service failures tend to deter the tourers and make dissatisfaction. If there is service failure, service betterment and shuting the spread would be an of import beginning of competitory advantage as this action would make more repetition clients. ( Hadyn Ingram,1996 ) .

Once service failure has happened, it is of import to hold a service recovery system. ‘Service recovery involves those actions designed to decide jobs, alter negative attitudes of disgruntled clients and to finally retain those clients ‘ ( Miller and al,1999, pg 38 ) .

Harmonizing to Lewis and McCann ( 2004 ) , clients evaluate service recovery attempts through the ‘Justice Theory ‘ . There are 3 dimensions of the Justice Theory ; foremost the Distributive Theory in which the ‘perceived equity of the result from the failure ‘ would be compensations, fixs or replacing. Second, the Interactional Theory in which there is a superficial ‘fairness in the mode in which the client is treated ‘ for illustration, apology is sought, courtesy is shown or attempts are shown in deciding the failure. The 3rd dimension is the Procedural Justice. It is the ‘perceived equity of the procedure used to rectify service failure ‘ . Taking for case the velocity to which the job is tackled or the handiness of the authorization to pull off the job.

The proper service recovery system would heighten the clients ‘ satisfaction and would heighten the service quality. A better service quality is one time more a competitory advantage tool which can be used to pull more and more clients and to construct a more concrete relationship with the bing 1s.


Branding is one of the chief competitory advantage tools the Ministry of Tourism and Leisure along with the MTPA are utilizing to market the finish. The construct of finish stigmatization has become really of import. Many finishs are selling their national image. In Simon Anholt ‘s words “ for the travel and touristry industry, national image is basically of import. The tourer board ( the Ministry of Tourism and Leisure and the MTPA ) needs to ‘ sell the state ‘ to a huge international audience of ordinary consumers every bit good as a extremely informed professional cell of circuit operators and other influences, and the background repute of the state finally determines whether that ‘ selling ‘ procedure is easy or hard, expensive or inexpensive, simple or complex ‘ .

The World Tourism Organisation ( 2008 ) refers ‘ state trade name to the perceptual experience of a state in other states, by authoritiess, investors, possible consumers or travellers. A national trade name helps others understand what a state is, doing it more apprehensible for diverse audiences. It provides a field of mention for bordering intelligence studies and making narrations, and affects all sectors of the national economic system. There is widespread consensus that for a state trade name to work it needs to match to the intrinsic world of the state and involve emotional elements that makes it receptive to aim audience ‘ .

The Mauritius Branding Organisation which branded Mauritius as ‘ Mauritius, C’est United Nations plaisir ‘ provinces that ‘ a trade name is the whole experience of life in a state. Mauritius state trade name is a set of values and beliefs, a whole doctrine that lies at the bosom of our state. It is the result of peculiar set of fortunes that have shaped our island state and made us who and what we are- the combination of the spirit of the people, the topographic point and history ‘ .

Categorization of Hotels

Harmonizing to Ingram ( 1996:31 ) , ‘since 1962, the World Tourism Organization ( WTO ) has sought to develop a universally recognized hotel evaluation system, but in 1995 there were over 100 categorization systems in operation ‘ . It should non be neglected that during the 1980s and 1990s many developments refering the categorization and quality scaling of hotels have taken topographic point.

Categorization and scaling is the grouping of different types of adjustment differentiated by standards of physical installations and service quality. Sing the fact that, hotels provide a wide spectrum of installations, they are frequently classified into five, six or even seven classs. Other types of serviced adjustment such as invitee houses have a more limited scope of installations and may, hence, have fewer classs ; normally two or three. ( Callan, 1994, p.1 )


In Ottenbacher ‘s words [ aˆ¦ . ] ‘hospitality operates harmonizing to the different client sections that they target and serve. For illustration, hotels are classified from one star/diamond to five stars/diamonds and foodservice is, typically, classified utilizing commercially developed ushers for consumers, such as Michelin or Gault Millau ‘ .

The categorization of hotels has been one of the chief selling schemes of finish. The trade name image of hotels and resorts help a batch in the selling of the finish. Many finishs are made known through their prima hotels and resorts of the universe.

Officially, harmonizing to the Ministry of Tourism and Leisure, Mauritius does non hold any ‘Star ‘ categorization for its hotels and ‘Etoile Michelin ‘ for its eating houses. Hoteliers tend to sort their hotels harmonizing to the quality of service they are offering and to what their rivals are offering.

The Mauritanian hotels need to cognize that their clients have high outlooks. Any service failure would stain the state ‘s image. So as to avoid a service spread, a good service bringing and an efficient service recovery are highly of import. Hotels such as the Royal Palm and Le Saint Geran have distinguished themselves as 5 Star hotels through their first-class service bringing and through many international awards won.

However, the Seychelles has a proper categorization system of hotels. Harmonizing to the ‘Tourism Development Vision 2010 ‘ each accredited constitution would undergo an initial review, and would be graded suitably harmonizing to the agreed standards. Thereafter, annual reviews would be undertaken to see whether or non criterions had been maintained. Depending on the result, an constitution may retain the evaluation, or it may be upgraded or downgraded. ‘The islands have adjustment, which ranges from secluded island hideouts and 5-star resorts to little hotels, quaint guesthouses and self-catering chalets, is wide, modern and inviting. Far from being intrusive, each one blends seamlessly with its environment – an aesthetic and environmental indispensable. ‘

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