The good administration plan in the researched organisation has been acknowledged to be good implemented. During his one-year revenue enhancement study entry event, the President of Indonesia claimed that the reform at the organisation is a success narrative for other public establishments in Indonesia. However, some challenges are still faced by the organisation in implementing and prolonging good administration, which are discussed in the undermentioned subdivisions.
To Control or to Trust
Bing a member of the researched organisation has provided the research worker with the existent experience of good administration execution. It includes the administration mechanism employed in the instance organisations as a consequence of the bureaucratic reform plan. In this research, administration mechanism is conceptualized as agencies for implementing administration, including the construction, procedure and relationship of administration ( Williamson, 1996 ) .
When discoursing about what administration mechanism an organisation should follow, some refer this to an ongoing argument of control versus trust or collaborative attacks ( Donaldson and Davis, 1994 ; Mayer, Davis, Schoorman, 1995 ; Davis et al. , 1997 ; Grey and Garsten, 2001 ; Sundaramurthy and Lewis, 2003 ; Puranam and Vanneste, 2009 ; Yang, Z. et al. , 2010 ) . The association between these two methods of regulating the establishments can be seen as either contradictive or common.
The work of Sundaramurthy and Lewis ( 2003 ) , juxtaposes these two methods to understand each of their pros and cons. The former construct, control, can be claimed to stem from the traditional Agency theory of administration ( Sundaramurthy and Lewis, 2003 and Shapira, 2000 ) . This theory is based on the premise that chief and the agents do non portion same aims ; hence, the latter required to be controlled ( Shapira, 2000 ) .
An alternate manner of regulating the organisation is to use the attack that based on coaction or trust. One of the chief theories inspires this attack is the Stewardship theory ( Donaldson and Davis, 1994 ) . In contrast with the Agency theory that sees chief and agents ‘ ends are divergent, Stewardship theory place agents as stewards, who aim to back up the principal ‘s, therefore organisational aims ( Davis et al. , 1997 ) . Furthermore, these authors argue that in this type of establishment, control mechanism become irrelevant ; it is the administration by authorization that fits the context. Because the basic premiss of this attack is that the agents are trusted, the organisation should, by design, supply liberty to derive the optimal advantage of a steward ( Ibid ) .
Yang, Z. et Al. ( 2010 ) , elucidate the relationship between formal control and trust in the context of inter-organizational or between companies. This work has categorized some writers as advocates of the negative relationship position of control and trust ( for illustrations: Aiken & A ; Hage, 1966 ; Barkema, 1995 ; Bernheim & A ; Whinston, 1998 ; Das & A ; Teng, 1998 ; Frey, 1993 ; Ghoshal & A ; Moran, 1996 ; Gulati, 1995 ; Wuyts & A ; Geyskens, 2005 ) . These advocators argue that if companies adopt both control and trust as their administration mechanism, in peculiar to protect their colonies, the optimal consequence of either method will be undermined ( in Yang, Z. et al. , 2010 ) . Furthermore, because of their similar aims to minimise timeserving behavior, the acceptance of both administration mechanisms can be overlapping ( Dyer & A ; Singh, 1998 ) and therefore organisations should make up one’s mind on either/or ( Wuyts & A ; Geyskens, 2005 ) . As a effect of this negative correlativity between trust and control, an organisation should choose one of them. One argue that organisations can decrease their dependance on the dearly-won complex administration mechanisms by advancing trust within organisation ( Bradach and Eccles,1989 ) .
In a more in-depth analysis, some empiric surveies have been conducted to look into the control versus trust association in the context of inter-organizational minutess. It is suggested that the acceptance of formal control can potentially diminish trust between organisations because one party may comprehend the formal ordinance as a mark of uncertainty from other group ( Das & A ; Teng, 1998 and Wuyts and Geyskens, 2005, as summarized in Yang Z. , et al. , 2010 ) .
Despite of the convincing stuffs of the reciprocally sole association between control and trust, some see the demand for organisation of the parallel acceptance of both administration mechanisms, peculiarly due to increased uncertainness faced by the organisations presents ( Demb and Neubauer, 1992, in Sundaramurthy and Lewis, 2003 ) .
Yang J, et Al. ( 2010 ) besides summarizes the advocates, who believe that control and trust are complementary ( for illustrations: Friedberg, 2000 ; Jaworski, Stathakopoulos, & A ; Krishnan, 1993 ; Luo, 2002 ; Poppo & A ; Zenger, 2002 ) . They suggested that although organisations may incur the cost of keeping formal control and trust, they both are non inordinate.
From the work of Mollering ( 2005 ) , it is claimed that alternatively of being treated as a dualism, control and trust really should be seen as holding a Manichaean association. In other words, control and trust does non stand as two opposite poles of the continuum. “ Each assumes the being of the other, refer to each other and create each other, but remain irreducible to each other ” ( Ibid, p. 1 ) .
By admiting the complementarities of control and trust, authors besides note some restrictions of each method if they stand entirely ( Bradach & A ; Eccles, 1989 ; Cannon et al. , 2000 ; Poppo & A ; Zenger, 2002 ) . It is argued that trust may make full the spread leave by formal control mechanism ( Yang Z, et al. , 2010 ) . The latter bestows basic, structural establishments ( Lewicki, McAllister, & A ; Bies, 1998 ; Mollering, 2005 ) , which safeguards the usual organisational minutess. It will, subsequently, reenforce positive outlooks for a stable long-run relationship amongst the related parties, and finally it can promote trust. On the other manus, by advancing trust in the concern relationship, it will protect some minutess that can non be contained by the formal control ( Yang Z, et al. , 2010 ) . By this, Poppo and Zenger ( 2002 ) argue that control mechanism back up the use of trust and frailty versa.
The 3rd stance suggests that control and trust are neither permutation nor complementary. Control and trust are independent ( Bradach and Eccles, 1989 ) . They can be combined depends on organisation ‘s demands. Others argued that there is no correlativity between these two variables ( for illustrations Mellewigt, Madhok, & A ; Webel, 2007, in Puranam and Vaneste, 2009 ) . Skinner and Spira ( 2003 ) suggested that to handle control and trust as antonym can be misdirecting because they are mutualist.
Administration Means Controling
The principal-agent relationship non merely represents the relationship between board and direction but besides direction and employees ( Shapira, 2000 ) . Therefore, the two abovementioned theories can be employed to derive a better apprehension of administration mechanism adopted by the instance organisations in their daily activities.
The Concept of Control
Control can be conceptualized as “ a regulative procedure by which the elements of a system are made more predictable through the constitution of criterions in the chase of some coveted aim or province ” ( Leifer & A ; Mills, 1996, p. 117 as cited in Yang Z. , et al. , 2010 ) . It is suggested that control is indispensable as a administration mechanism to guarantee that the organisational aims are realized ( Mayer, Davis, Schoorman, 1995 ) . The acceptance of such mechanism may impact other organisational elements, including wages systems, organisational constructions, and power distribution ( Sundaramuthy and Lewis, 2003 ) .
As antecedently mentioned in the treatment of the argument of control and trust, the acceptance of control is inspired by the attack of Agency theory, which is rooted in the country of economic sciences and finance ( Sundaramurthy and Lewis, 2003 ) . The justification of the acceptance of control mechanism is the being of possible conflicting involvements between direction and employee. Therefore, Agency theory advises organisations to command the agents to from their self-seeking activities that may impact the accomplishment of principals ‘ ends ( Eisenhardt, 1989 ) .
Some of the characteristics of control mechanism includes tight monitoring ( Anderson & A ; Oliver, 1987 ) , extrinsic wages, laterality of institutional power ( Sundaramurthy and Lewis, 2003 ) , and detailed contract outlining ( Wuyts & A ; Geyskens, 2005 ) . By using the theoretical account used in the plants of Sundaramurthy and Lewis ( 2003 ) and Davis et al. , ( 1997 ) , the administration mechanism in the researched organisations will be analyzed based on its characteristics, viz. organisational construction, internal procedure, wages and penalty, power distribution. These will be utilized to analyse some factors that constitute good administration execution in the researched organisation, as antecedently explained in chapter five.
Control as Governance Mechanism in the Researched Organization
From the research worker ‘s experience of being a member of the organisation during the field work, it can be understood that by presenting and implementing good administration within the organisation, the ministry effort to command every individual activity of its members. The old mentioned narrative of the mundane life of an AR and Customs officer demonstrated this control system, from the finger-print presence system to the door entree system. One of the grounds of following this manner of making concern in the organisation might be due to direction demands for the confidence of the accomplishment of the organisation end without any abuse organisation ‘s assets ( Hagel and Brown, 2002 ) .
As a portion of bureaucratism, the researched organisations still follow a hierarchal organisation construction. There are, at least, five beds of determination doing procedure in the organisations. The undermentioned organisation construction illustrates these beds:
Head of Division
Head of Sub Division
Head of Section
In the researched organisations, people are regarded as timeserving ; therefore they have to be tightly controlled and monitored. It is argued that organisations that adopt command mechanism to hold higher hierarchy in their construction. This is a logical effect of the implicit in position that agents have to be tightly monitored in order to relieve their personal docket. By planing such a long hierarchal construction, control and monitoring procedure are better ensured ( Grey and Garsten, 2001 ) .
Besides its characteristic of long hierarchal construction, the control following organisations besides guarantee the segregation of different maps. Harmonizing to Lawler ( 1992 ) , by following a control-oriented mechanism, the organisation must make a clear boundary between the thought and commanding maps of the work with the implementing portion of the work.
The separations of map and responsibility in the researched organisations, which was resulted from bureaucratic reform, may verify the abovementioned features of a control-based organisation. As discussed in chapter five, the new construction of the ministry divide the policy devising, implementing, and monitoring maps. The segregation of responsibility is besides another characteristic of the control mechanism both in the revenue enhancement and imposts offices.
It has been acknowledged by the researched organisation that the coevals of SOP ( Standard Operating Procedures ) marked the freshly modernized office.
We brought our 8,000s SOPs in the printed signifier to the house of parliament. We used two super-market streetcars to convey those monolithic tonss of paperss. This was to show to the populace that the ministry has been undergoing a serious betterment on the concern procedure. That the populace will happen unvarying and standardised services throughout our offices ; hence such divergence can be reported.[ 1 ]
The pattern of set uping standardisation is argued as one of the characteristics of control-based organisation, which is similar with the traditional bureaucratic organisation ( Grey and Garsten, 2001 ) . Standardization is of import for the control-oriented organisation since it provides uniformity of making concern and hence making more predictability. Such position is besides applied in the researched organisation, that SOP could supply certainty both for internal stakeholders ( employees ) and external stakeholders ( the populace as service users ) .
Another properties of a control-based administration mechanism is to advance formalisation. Poppo and Zenger ( 2002 ) provide illustrations of this formalisation, which is the usage of formal contracts within or between organisations. This contract symbolizes promises or duties of one party to present peculiar actions in the hereafter ( Macneil, 1978 in Poppo and Zenger, 2002 ) . In add-on, these writers emphasise that in the control-oriented organisation, the formalization of understanding between chief and agents depends on the complexness of the relationship that want to be built through the creative activity of the contract. It may include, for illustration, list of functions and duties, inside informations of processs for rating and penalty, in instance of non-performance of the occupations, and evidently, presentments on terminal merchandises required from the undertakings ( Popo and Zenger, 2002 ) .
In the researched organisation, the creative activity of RKO may stand for the acceptance of this item formalisation. Besides making daily activities, each employee has to subscribe a signifier of willingness to execute the written undertakings consequently. This one-page paper is an built-in portion of the remainders pages of RKO. As the caput of office, who introduced RKO, suggested that:
By making and subscribing their ain RKO, each employee has a binding contract with the revenue enhancement office.[ 2 ]
Reward and Punishment
In the control-based organisation, the certain degree of control as required by the establishment to regulate the relationship between directors and agent can be maintained by set uping relevant wages and penalty system ( Sundaramurthy and Lewis, 2003 ) . One suggestion on how to bring forth appropriate inducement and countenance strategy in the organisation is by utilizing the position on how to carry through employees ‘ motive as the footing of it.
As antecedently mentioned in chapter five, subdivision 2.4, the new wages and penalty system has been introduced in the researched organisation, including the betterment of salary system and enforcement of countenances on undiscipline. It is documented that the mean wage of the ministry of finance employees has increased four to five times compared to it is anterior to the execution of bureaucratic reform ( Ministry of Finance, 2009 ; Ministry of Administrative Reform, 2009 ; Kompas, 2010 ) . One of the justifications of the addition was the importance responsibility and commenced by the ministry and its hazards load.
Prior to the [ bureaucratic ] reform, a staff like me could non pay for my basic necessities. Do n’t inquire me to execute my occupation good.[ 3 ]
Davis et al. , ( 1997 ) accentuate the different, even beliing, positions of human motive, viz. extrinsic versus intrinsic motive. They argue that the former is normally adopted by control-oriented entities, as motivated by the Agency theory. The latter, be given to be employed by trust-based organisation, following Stewardship theory. Extrinsic motives can be fulfilled by supplying extrinsic wagess, which are characterised as touchable and exchangeable ( Davis et al. , 1997 ) . The normally used extrinsic wages is pecuniary wage strategy, for illustration high employee wage.
From the above statement of a imposts office employee, it can be implied that the researched organisation still concentrate on the fulfillment of employee ‘s premier demands. This has been argued as one of the feature of the control-oriented organisation, which concentrates to set up wages system that can fulfill the lower order demands of Maslow ‘s hierarchy ( Sundaramurthy and Lewi, 2003 ) .
On the punishment side, the instance organisation can be classified as a control-oriented, even excessively tight, establishment. One of the most conspicuous illustrations of this current tight control system is the attending system. As antecedently mentioned in chapter five of the day-to-day activities of Mr. A as an AR in the revenue enhancement office, an employee ‘s wage is automatically deducted as a consequence of any late approach or early traveling from the office. Despite holding a tolerance for a force majeure ground of absence, this new system can be seen as a excessively tight control system in the organisation.
When analysing an organisation ‘s administration mechanism, one should size up the nature of the principal-agent relationship. To make so, one focal construct demands to be involved, which is the usage of power. By look intoing the types of power exercised in the organisation, one can deduce which administration mechanism employed in that organisation, whether control or trust-based attack. The seminal work of Gallic and Raven ( 1959 ) on types of power can be used to lucubrate in more item of the difference of control and trust-based administration.
It is argued that control oriented organisation dominantly utilize institutional power whilst the trust-based organisation tend to exert personal power ( Sundaramurthy and Lewis, 2003 ) . The former refers to the power that exists because of person ‘s place in the organisation ; the latter is power which is embedded in person, irrespective of his/her position to the organisation ( Gibson, Ivancevich, & A ; Donnelly, 1991 ) . Using different categorization of power from old work of Gallic and Raven ( 1959 ) , institutional power encompasses coercive, legitimate and many facets of wages power.
In the instance organisation, institutional power is seemed to rule the manager-employees relationship. The long hierarchal construction of organisation can be one of the ancestors of this status. One following event may exemplify the exercising of institutional power in the instance organisation.
I [ the Director General of Tax ] , with my authorization, will non be hesitating to reassign you [ caputs of offices ] if you still let errors that you or your subsidiaries created.[ 4 ]
Since relationship between superior and subordinated are seemed as transactional in nature in the control-oriented organisation, institutional power is arguably relevant ( Sundaramurthy and Lewis, 2003 ) .
Impact of Control as a Governance Mechanism
From the above treatment it can be inferred that the researched organisation tends to use a control-oriented method. The undermentioned treatment will lucubrate on the positive and negative impacts of the selected attack of administration mechanism.
As one of its premier services offered to the populace, the ministry promised to present their service on clip, on specification, and on budget ( Ministry of Finance, 2008 ) . This has given certainty to the service users, something that was extinct. The acceptance of control-based mechanism, peculiarly the standardisation has provided predictability and certainty. This may fulfill the intent of the control, itself, which is to make predictability ( Grey and Garsten, 2001 ) .
Another constructive impact of the use of control is the constitution of clearer answerability. This has resulted, among other things, from the organisational separation, which is in topographic point to extinguish struggle of involvement and enable cheque and balance mechanism.
However, some critical effects may happen as the effect of the acceptance of the control-oriented attack. The debut of the RKO ( Rencana Kerja Operational or Operational Work Plan ) gives illustration of how control can impact people ‘s motive. As antecedently discussed in the chapter five on the subdivision of the demand of quantifiability, RKO was adopted as a tool of measuring in order to heighten the good administration execution at the Gambir 4 revenue enhancement office.
In bring forthing RKO, some employees felt of being closely watched by the office. Furthermore is with the fact that by the RKO, each employee has to enter every activity. This has created a general feeling among the employees that the organisation does non swear them. This has resulted vacillation from people in get downing their responsibilities. One expresses:
I feel like I were a kindergarten child being watched by the instructor in every second of my presence.[ 5 ]
It is argued that employees tend to swear their directors less when they have feel that the higher-ups ‘ monitoring is intended to command their behavior ( Etchegaray & A ; Jones, 2001, in Costa and Bijlsma-Frankema, 2007 ) . The control and monitoring mechanism will be effectual when employees comprehend the process as a medium for the directors to show their attention, grasp, encouragement, and way ( Bijlsma-Frankema & A ; Van de Bunt, 2003 ) .
There seemed to be a tradeoff of commanding the member and their behavior. Although commanding may minimise the employee ‘s most timeserving actions, the determination to command significantly decreases the subsidiary ‘s motive to conform the higher-up ‘s involvement ( Armin and Kosfeld, 2005 ) .
The success of standardisation to convey certainty and predictability besides give possible job of impacting employee ‘s creativeness. With stiff uniformity and formal standardisation, people tend to merely follow the system. As the effect, the organisation will lose its ability to accommodate with the dynamic concern environment. Harmonizing to one of the members of the reform plan at the revenue enhancement office:
Good administration has no significance in people ‘s bosom ; people now tend to follow with SOP without any creativeness to modify the regulations to follow its context.[ 6 ]
Trust-Based Collaboration as an Alternate Administration Mechanism
From the old treatment, it is implied that despite of its advantages of set uping predictability and answerability, some built-in restrictions of control-based administration mechanism, adopted in the researched organisation, still persist. Therefore, the undermentioned subdivision will lucubrate on the alternate manner of administration mechanism perchance employed by the instance organisation.
Goold and Quinn ( 1990 ) argue that the failure of the construct of control systems is due to the hazard that it could sabotage the common trust intra-organization and subsequently take to unexpected and damaging negative impacts. Therefore, organisation demands to happen an alternate manner of government, which paved the manner of the debut of trust. Previously, the focal point of administration mechanism was on control but soon the alternate manner of regulating the organisation, utilizing trust, has been more apprehended and progressively discussed ( Costa and Bijlsma-Frankema, 2007 ) .
The seminal work of Argyris ( 1952 in Davis et al. , 1997 ) challenged the dominant control mechanism scheme because it has made the directors to concentrate merely on the touchable end product standards ; they have lost the large image of the corporation. By exerting a control attack, it creates emphasis in the organisation and it, subsequently, may damage the common trust within the organisation. Argyris claims that the direction doctrines, which condition the principals to mistrust their agents, could ask for defensive behavior and prevent openness ( Ibid ) .
Concept of Trust
Trust can be defined as “ a willingness to be vulnerable in the context of a relationship ” Mayer, Davis, and Schoorman ( 1995, p. ) or as “ the outlook that an exchange spouse will non act opportunistically, even when such behaviors can non be detected by the victim ” ( Puranam and Vanneste, 2009, p. 11 ) .
As antecedently discussed on the argument of trust and control link, the acceptance of trust as the administration mechanism is motivated by Stewardship theory. Trust is the Centre variable in the Stewardship theory since it is built on the basic premiss that agents can be trusted to “ act in ways that are consistent with organisational aims ” ( Davis et al. , 1997, p. 25 ) .
Therefore, organisation has to be designed to let trust to bloom in the organisation. This enterprise could include the level organisation, authorization of employees, and unfastened communicating ( Sundaramurthy and Lewis, 2003 ) .
Evidence of the Use of Trust in the Researched Organization
Despite the office usage of the formal control mechanism, trust is utilized in term of intra-organizational trust or trust within organisation ( Grey and Garsten, 2001 ) . The undermentioned instance may exemplify this pattern:
Even though all of the good administration tools have been in topographic point, I could non trust on them. Alternatively, I need to swear my ARs. By this, they will, in return, swear me and give regard to me.[ 7 ]
This can be implied that trust fulfils the cringle hole in the control system ( Mayer, Davis, Schoorman, 1995 ) .
In the researched organisation, trust is besides used in the inter-organizational relationship. In the instance of the revenue enhancement office, some employees are face by the ambiguity, whether to command or to swear their taxpayers. In fact, related to good administration execution, some ARs argue that one of the most effectual ways to make the revenue enhancement gross mark is by utilizing personal attack alternatively of being leery to them. The taxpayers are treated as household, so they can 100 % trust the officers. As the effects, the taxpayers will be loath to avoid paying their revenue enhancement or give manipulated fiscal information:
We try to give our best and [ accordingly ] they [ taxpayers ] will pay their revenue enhancements right and describe on clip.[ 8 ]
Another functionary from claim subdivision portions similar ideas that the most effectual attack to inquire revenue enhancement remunerator to pay his/her revenue enhancement debt is the usage of persuasive attack. By this, the taxpayer is felt to be given room for solution. The subdivision caput explained that since the ultimate end of this subdivision is to derive gross from revenue enhancement debt payment, this office could offer negotiable attacks for the payment. One of the attacks is to offer partial/instalment payment. This pattern is non against the regulation. By this, the revenue enhancement remunerator besides shows he/her good purpose to finalise their duty.
In fact, the current revenue enhancement disposal system adopts the self assessment study, by which taxpayers determine the sum of their revenue enhancement duty by themselves. This policy is based on the basic premise that taxpayers are honest ( similar to McGregor ‘s Y Theory ) . Previously, it is the revenue enhancement office which decided of how much to pay. This has shifted the attack from the revenue enhancement office to its taxpayers to trust on common trust.
This new attack practicing by the revenue enhancement office requests the member organisation to seldom talk about offenses or misdemeanors. The accent is on persuasive attack, giving inducements and making trust and co-operation with the taxpayers ( Larsson, 2007 ) .
The antecedently mentioned patterns of trust in the instance administration have demonstrated the possibility of the acceptance of trust as an alternate administration mechanism. The undermentioned sub-sections will lucubrate more on the patterns of trust-based procedure in the instance organisations, in footings of its unfastened communicating, intrinsic motive, and usage of personal power ( Sundaramurthy and Lewis, 2003 ) .
An unfastened communicating within organisation is one of the cardinal property that characterizes trust-oriented organisation. This is enabled because of minimal stress degree in the organisation as a consequence of a comparatively more relaxed monitoring procedure compared to it is in the control-oriented establishments ( Frey, 1997 ) .
In the revenue enhancement office, it can still be found the contributing clime for unfastened communicating albeit its tight control system. One of the illustrations is practiced by one of the managers at the revenue enhancement office. The manager establishes an informal duologue with his subsidiary. I had to wait for sometimes to interview him because some of his employees were line uping to run into him. From the interview he explained that people ‘s Black Marias have to be touched with humanly direct attack to halt or forestall them from any illegal patterns. Dialogues have to be established to alter people ‘s behavior. He subsequently emphasized:
First, I must be convinced that my employees are good people. Then, I need to affect them in a duologue, from bosom to bosom, to do them swear me. Finally, one time I gain their trust, they will follow what the organisation requires.[ 9 ]
In next to the fulfillment of extrinsic motive, I could happen some patterns of the give away of intrinsic wages in the instance organisation. In the Customs office, an grasp, as one of the signifier of intrinsic wages to carry through self-esteem demand, was given to an employee who demonstrates high dedication to the office undertaking. In the instance of the bar of illegal export, an analyst was appreciated in a ceremonial event. The analyst was given a item of grasp, handed straight by the office caput in forepart of all employees. Even though the grasp was non in signifier of pecuniary wagess, by this, an employee felt more apprehended and confident that his action is right and supported by the office.
While a control-oriented tends to exert more institutional power, the trust-based organisation rely on personal power, an built-in portion of the person in the context of the interpersonal association, irrespective of his/her place in the organisation ( Robbins, 2003 ) . This type of power is the foundation of the principal-steward relationship.
In the Customs office, personal power was applied by some directors. For illustration, the old Mr. P, the intelligence officer, has become the of import capable affair expert in the instance of illegal export or import. When, he was transferred to other imposts office, people still contacted him to inquire for advice and suggestions sing the modus of malevolent importers/exporters. This has demonstrated that despite the dominant usage of institutional power in the instance organisation, personal power can besides complement.
The Effect of Culture on Trust
The creative activity and execution of trust is argued to be influenced by situational factor, such as civilization, hence when analysing trust one has to border it in its cultural context ( Sundaramurthy and Lewis, 2003 ) . In footings of the function of civilization in the life of organisation, the researched organisation, in general, portions similar portrayal with other Indonesian bureaucratism. As antecedently mentioned in chapter four, one of the dominating factors that shape the Indonesian bureaucratism is the impact of native civilization, particularly Javanese civilization. This civilization has a strong characteristic of paternalistic and hierarchal bond among people ( Vatikiotis, 1998 ) .
The seminal anthropological work of Geertz ( 1961 ) , who plunged himself to populate in the Javanese community in the late fiftiess, supply some features of Javanese civilization. One of the prevailing characteristics of Javanese civilization is the construct of ‘rukun ‘ or the care of societal harmoniousness ( Useno, 1999 ) .This construct implies harmonious societal integrating in the sense of obeisance to superior ( ‘manut ‘ ) , kindness, turning away of struggle, apprehension of others, and empathy ( Geertz, 1961 ; Koentjaraningrat, 1985 ) . Geertz ( 1961, p. 114 ) describes ‘rukun ‘ as “ basic societal belongingss of ego control and turning away of disapproval. ” These embedded norms make people tend to experience awkward toward their higher-up or person whom they respect. Feeling of ‘pekewuh ‘ ( abashed fear ) that is considered as the basic elements of human virtuousness grows within this sort of circumstance.
To associate to old usage of trust in the researched organisation, people believe that by giving trust, others will be loath to damage this trusty relationship. In instance of intra-organizational trust, the relationship built by a subdivision caput and his staffs illustrate the cultural consequence on trust:
Since I trust my ARs, they feel awkward to rehearse aberrant behaviors. But this ideal status requires a necessary stipulation, which is the consistence of me as their superior. Once this prerequisite status is fulfilled, I can be regarded as person who is respectful.[ 10 ]
The influence of civilization on trust is besides found in footings of inter-organizational trust, as expressed by one of the ARs:
Since I already give my trust to them, the taxpayers will experience ‘pekewuh ‘ ( loath ) to act malevolently, such as non to pay their revenue enhancement or non to subject their revenue enhancement studies.[ 11 ]
From the old discussed stuffs, it can be implied that both control and trust are required as the administration mechanism in the instance organisations. The control-oriented nicety is dominant in the organisation in footings of current administration patterns. However, trust-based mechanism seemed to work and can work as the complement of the control-based attack.
This determination echoes the complementary position of the relationship between trust and control ( Friedberg, 2000 ; Jaworski, Stathakopoulos, & A ; Krishnan, 1993 ; Luo, 2002 ; Poppo & A ; Zenger, 2002 ) . The pick whether to command or to swear the members of the organisation should be understood as a contextual determination.
It is advised that in stable environments, the control-oriented attack is best, whilst unstable, unsure environments the trust-oriented attack is more effectual ( Eddlstone, et al. , 2010 ) . The challenge of the organisation is to happen the appropriate balance in complementing both attacks.