Consumer Behaviour On Decline Of Sales Xclusive Perfumes Marketing Essay

This study is prepared to analyze how consumer behavior alterations has led to the diminution in gross revenues volume of ‘Xclusive ‘ aroma trade names across the UK market. For the last two old ages gross revenues has declined systematically across the mark market of upper category consumers in UK.

Xclusive is an premium aroma trade name from Premium Products Ltd, a company based out of UK. Company launched this premium trade name for work forces and adult females in UK market in 2006. By 2007, they had a 1.2 % market portion, describing a entire gross revenues turnover of 7.96 million GBP ( Esprit Magazine, 2007 )

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In 2008 and 2009, the gross revenues declined by 5 % and 6.2 % severally. Preliminary studies show a diminution in popularity of this trade name and lesser motion in shops among the upper category clients.

This study is intended to analyze the grounds which led to the gross revenues diminution over the last two old ages. Report will prove the hypothesis that consumer behavior fluctuations led to the diminution in gross revenues. Other cardinal aim of this study is to come up with suggestions to change by reversal this worsening gross revenues tendency and influence a positive alteration in consumer behavior to increase the gross revenues.

Current Merchandise and Marketing Strategy

‘Xclusive ‘ trade name of premium aroma for work forces and adult females was launched by Premium Product Ltd in 2006. The selling scheme adopted by the company revolved around the 4 P ‘s – a premium aroma in different aromas and manners, premium monetary value, sole mercantile establishments and tie ups with major mercantile establishments and besides a publicity based around athleticss forces.

Target Market: Upper category work forces and adult females in UK with societal class A and B. ( Businessballs, 2008 ) Market size constituted 25 % of the entire UK population.

Merchandise: There were four lines with in this ‘Xclusive ‘ trade name – herb tea, musky, woody and spicy. Musky was the popular most trade names followed by Herbal. They were packaged in sole aureate bottles, which gave exquisiteness to the whole merchandise bundle. Health consciousness was on the rise among the UK consumers in 2006.

That made the company launch this sole herb tea aroma to the upper category consumers. This was launched as portion of their market distinction scheme compared to other premium trade names.

Monetary value: It was premium pricing which was adopted for all merchandises, with herbal being the most expensive as it was made from healthy ingredients.

Topographic point: Target market was clearly the upper category section of both work forces and adult females. So they adopted a selective distribution scheme aiming merely luxury zones and concentrated on dress shops and large promenades like Wesfield and Metrocenter. Distribution scheme was centred around premium promenades and on-line stores like Perfume store.

( Suite101, 2007 )

Promotion: Company did the publicity chiefly through famous person ads in aggregate media like Television and upper category magazines like Glamour and Cosmopolitan. Promotion was around healthy athleticss work forces and adult females utilizing this sole aroma. ( National Readership Survey, 2007 )

Problem Analysis

Problem: In the last two old ages at that place has been a drastic lessening in the gross revenues of aroma merchandises ( aromas ) .

Study was conducted on market and consumer purchasing procedure to understand the grounds behind this diminution in gross revenues. In the market survey, aim was to prove whether external market conditions were favorable to aromatize concern. Market survey was done utilizing the PEST method. While making gross revenues analysis, it was found that diminution in gross revenues really came from adult females section. Hence market and consumer behavior survey was largely attributed to the societal category A and B adult females sections.

Buyer responses

Choices of


trade name



monetary value

Buy more, less, remain loyal etc

purchaser ‘s black box

Needs – wants, stimuli

Merchandise, monetary value, topographic point, publicity etc

Environmental ( PEST ) factors

Market Study with PEST Analysis

Political: REACH statute law ( Registration, Evaluation & A ; Authorisation of Chemicals ) , which was introduced in June 2007, included prohibition of many aroma chemicals. This is expected to impact aroma concern as it could impact proving of assorted bing ingredients in doing aromas. Smoking prohibition in enclosed public topographic points which is effectual from July 2007. Unpleasant background environmental smells have become more evident. This leads to a figure of new merchandise chances, such as more refillable bag sprays for speedy re-application of aroma. ( Fragrancefoundation, 2007 )

Economic: 2009 downswing has frequency the purchase of aromas among adult females. Womans on mean bargain 4 aromas a twelvemonth. ( Fragrencefoundation ) , due to the downswing at that place this has decreased to 2-3 aroma a twelvemonth. Still adult females spend adequate on cosmetics. In the UK, every adult female between the ages 25 and 34, on an mean carry ? 71 worth of cosmetics in their pocketbook. ( China decorative wadding, 2010 )

Sociable: Three out of five adult females were more likely to purchase a aroma samples in a magazine ( foil pouch samples preferred ) .Three out of four adult females say that when they find a aroma they truly like, they tell their friends about it. Every 2 in three adult females give aromas as gift to spouses, friends and household. Now adult females prefer holding a ‘wardrobe or aggregation of aromas excessively. ( Fragrancefoundation, 2007 ) They still follow famous person indorsements while taking the aroma. This is apparent from the popularity of ‘M ‘ trade name introduced under the trade name of Mariah Carey ( Entrepreneur, 2007 ) ) . Consumers have revisited authoritative aromas as the displacement in purchasing behavior moves towards quality, genuineness or value. ( Academic Mintell, 2007 )

Technological: Penetration of societal media into the aroma market has led to an addition in client interactions which once more increases credibleness and helps in understanding the demand and penchants of the clients. Internet as an mercantile establishment has increased its incursion by 4 % in the UK market. ( Fragrancefoundation, 2007 )

Buying Procedure Analysis

We looked at the typical purchasing procedure of premium aromas by adult females in UK. Looking at the major participants involved in a typical purchase determination.






Normally, adult females themselves are the instigators to purchase aromas for following grounds:

Long permanent aroma

Brands feel attractive

One that others comment on

Brands feel sexy

Changes or enhances temper

Instigators can be work forces besides who buy gifts for adult females.

It fundamentally depends on the age group of adult females. But by and large speech production, the influencers can be:

Peer group


Referred by magazine ( foil pouch samples preferred )

Ads in media

Women themselves and work forces besides.

Both work forces ( as gifts ) and adult females.

Womans, her friends, relatives etc.

Since adult females play the major function of instigator and decider in this purchasing procedure, we need to understand internal and external factors which can impact the consumer behavior of adult females belonging to societal category A and B.

Consumer behavior features

Consumer behavior refers to the choice, purchase and ingestion of goods and services for the satisfaction of their wants.

( Ezinearticles, 2007 )

There are multiple factors which can act upon the consumer ‘s behavior over a period of clip, which includes both internal and external. Broadly the internal factors could be personal traits like age, income, business, personality, lifestyle etc and psychological factors like motive, perceptual experience, acquisition, beliefs and attitudes.

External factors can be societal 1s like mention groups, societal position and influence of household. It could be cultural factors excessively similar civilization and sub-culture and societal category.

This is really much relevant to the premium perfume merchandise section excessively.

External Factors impacting consumer behavior

Among the external factors, the cardinal one is the age related impact. Even with in the mark section of adult females belonging to societal category A and B, based on their age group their penchant and behavior vary.


It is more an internal factor, which is of class shaped by external influence.

Adolescents: They are more interested in citrous fruit aromas. Normally they prefer a aroma that makes them attractive to others. They do n’t hold any affinity towards a trade name, but they like to seek out different aromas and trade names.

Adults: They are most likely to purchase aromas for most likely to have on a aroma to experience “ sexy ” . Older adult females are more likely to exchange aromas within their aggregation one time a hebdomad or more. As they are more wellness witting, they are more likely to see Home Fragrances, Eau de Perfume, and Essential Oils as portion of the Fragrance class. They are much more branding understanding. They prefer fruity and flowery aromas and follow famous persons to a big extent.

( Fragrancefoundation, 2007 )

Influence of Family

In our mark section of upper and higher in-between category adult females in UK, influence of household members is critical in doing purchase determinations. Individual members of households frequently serve different functions in determination devising procedure. Some persons areA information gatherers/holders, who seek out information about merchandises of relevancy. These persons frequently have a great trade of power because they may selectively go through on information that favours their chosen alternatives.A Typically husbands play the function of influencers ; they let their married womans know their wants and suggestions. Husbands normally travel and get to cognize from societal assemblages and even from online or cyberspace agencies. In the instance of premium aroma, the function of each person in the household is critical – be it that of gatherers who may be typically younger batch or societal fans, or that of influencers like hubbies or determination shapers or even buyers. This makes selling more tough as the messages need to make a wider cross subdivision of UK society. Point of gross revenues marketing can assist to convert buyers, but wide selling conveying the characteristics of ‘Xclusive ‘ premium aroma should make others like older ladies, socially respected relations, and hubbies. ( Consumerpsychologist, 2007 )

Mention Groups

Mention groups could besides potentially act upon the purchasing of premium perfume merchandise.

Mention groups can be aspirational or associatory. Celebrities and socially well-thought-of ladies form aspirational mention groups for high category UK adult females. Associative mention groups could be members of a societal nine or coworkers or even members of church and some administration. Friend circle is another major influential mention group as they could be sharing same involvements and penchants. Family could be another mention group, this is nevertheless dealt individually. ( Consumerpsychologist, 2007 )

In the mark section of ‘Xclusive ‘ premium pefume merchandise, mention groups are rather relevant. For illustration, Celebrity brandsA are driving market growing among younger aroma users. Over 30 new famous person aromas were launched in 2007. One in five 16-24 twelvemonth olds claim to have at least one, compared with one in 20 over-45s. Celebrity fragrances provide the entry point for immature people into the whole luxury sector.A ( Fragrancefoundation, 2007 )

( As cyberspace is going a cardinal societal media, mention groups like forums and aroma reappraisal sites is besides going cardinal influencers in the determination devising procedure. Sites like hypertext transfer protocol: // provide reappraisals and give a ranking on best aromas.

You can no longer launch 100s of aromas, as the client is more selective and wants something alone. It ‘s non merely the downswing that has forced this alteration in consumer behavior. Thankss in big portion to the cyberspace, shoppers are much more knowing about fragrances-more than many trade names think. A expression at some of the aroma web logs or web sites, such as Sniffapalooza ( one time derided, but now courted by aroma trade names ) shows that consumers are holding educated treatment and argument about aroma, comparing different merchandises and inquiring why they are all likewise. Fragrance expert Michael Edwards calls this consumer the ‘connoisseur ‘ , and compares such behaviour to the ‘foodie ‘ tendency that emerged several old ages ago.

Impact of culture/sub-culture elements

Each civilization contains “ sub-cultures ” – groups of people with portion values. Sub-cultures can include nationalities, faiths, racial groups, or groups of people sharing the same geographical location. Sometimes a sub-culture will make a significant and typical market section of its ain.


( Beginning: From the Module presentation )

For illustration, the “ youth civilization ” or “ club civilization ” has rather distinguishable values and purchasing features from the much older “ grey coevals ” .

Similarly sub-cultural groups like immigrants from other states and resident subjects belonging to other parts will demo different charactertistics to the UK civilization. For illustration in the instance of Asians, household relationships are much stronger and gifting is normally informal and ritual. However in UK, relationships are more loose, but endowing is done officially. Packaging is more relevant to the UK upper category when compared to other subjects. European communities give batch of importance to quality and elegance. Just similar nationality as the above diagram shows, there are many more factors which shape up the cultural trait of an person.

Social Class

Similarly, differences in societal category can make client groups. In fact, the official six societal categories in the UK are widely used to profile and foretell different client behavior. In the UK ‘s socioeconomic categorization strategy, societal category is non merely determined by income. It is measured as a combination of business, income, instruction, wealth and other variables. ( Tutor2U, 2007 )

Relevant societal category sections for our premium aroma section:

Upper upperA – old, established, socially outstanding households

Lower upperA – new richA

Upper middleA – professional peopleA

Lower middleA – white neckband, salaried workers ( Emailcommerce, 2007 )

Now the features of each of these societal categories vary as they are bound by different cultural and sub cultural elements. In the current selling scheme the merchandise was positioned merely for upper category adult females and we did n’t hold a differentiated placement for each sub cultural or societal category groups with in this wide definition of upper category adult females. Needs and purchasing procedure of upper in-between category adult female is wholly different to a upper upper category adult female. For illustration upper and lower center can acquire influenced by friends and colleagues more and adult females tend to be largely determination shapers and buyers. However in the upper upper and Lower upper, influence of household may be higher. Reference groups like societal nines, charity administrations, and societal get together could be more relevant to act upon the upper category adult females. Hence a metameric selling attack is needed

Suggestions to act upon consumer behavior

Fine grained societal category cleavage: Have more targeted sections by age, by societal category and by sub-cultural group. This is of import as messages may hold to be different and different aroma merchandises needs to be marketed to different societal category and age groups

Celebrity mentions: Continue to utilize mentions from famous persons, but widen your famous person base to act upon different sections. Musicians, movie stars, enterprisers, athleticss personality and so on. For illustration younger batch acquire influenced with enterprisers as they look for assurance image to acquire associated with the aromas they use. Older may prefer music stars and movie personalities.

Educational Promotions across broad cross subdivision: Gross saless staff need selling accomplishments and support in order to rede clients right. Aromas sold in self-selection should transport spines on the outer carton stating the consumer what the cardinal ingredients are. Cusps in boxes could besides incorporate a overplus of information for the consumer on the aroma, its ingredients, on how to have on and tips on aroma layering. This is standard for many prestigiousnesss skincare trade names. Samples can be used to explicate aroma notes. Online sampling has been successfully carried out by niche trade names. Promotional messages should be targeted at instigators, influencers and determination shapers. POS selling is critical for purchases like free samples.

Increasing the range: Target to increase the figure of mercantile establishments to make a wider segmented base of upper and higher in-between category adult females. Use cyberspace as a channel to aim convenience shoppers. Online purchase and disbursement is increasing in the upper category UK consumer sections. More over topographic point reappraisals and client testimonies particularly of mention groups in societal selling sites to act upon the prospective purchasers.

Differentiated merchandises and channels for multiple sections: Therefore there is a demand to turn to the Teenage clients and Adult clients with different merchandises harmonizing to their penchants. There are fundamentally different types of shoppers which are

Convenience Shoppers

Value Shoppers

Image Shoppers

Experience Shoppers

Luxury aromas for adult females come under Image Shoppers and Experience Shoppers were, Teenagers belong to Image Shoppers and Adults belong to Experience shoppers. Understanding clients, their penchants, their demands led to the decision that our house should travel for two merchandise lines, one turn toing the adolescents and the other turn toing the grownups. The aromas should hold a assortment of spirits i.e. , a assortment of citrous fruit spirits for adolescents and flowers and fruity spirits for grownups. Besides advertisement and promotional activities should be based on this cleavage.

Recommended Positioning Strategy for ‘Xclusive ‘ Premium Perfume Brand


This study is prepared to propose a placement scheme for ‘Xclusive ‘ trade name of premium aroma for defined market sections. The aim of this new positioning scheme will be to hold a positive influence on assorted factors which impact consumer behavior and purchase determination of this premium merchandise.

However this study is limited to the placement of the merchandises for one of the mark sections, which is upper category and higher in-between category adult females. We assume that positioning scheme for the section of ‘men ‘ is working all right as gross revenues has shown positive upward tendency so far.

Key Gaps with the Current Positioning Strategy

Broad and inappropriate mark cleavage: As per the current selling scheme the mark section was defined as upper category work forces and adult females. Positioning message or current tagline ‘Exclusive aroma for merely you ‘ was used to pull upper category work forces and adult females to experience that they own it and fall in a elect group of premium aroma proprietors. The mark section of upper category adult females was broader as consumer behavior features tend to differ with in the mark section of upper category adult females by age and societal category. Hence the selling messages failed to affect all the prospective purchasers among the mark section of upper category adult females.

Earlier, the cleavage was based on merely income and position as rather apparent from the placement message. But it failed to affect all the cross subdivisions of the prospective purchasers.

Lack of differentiated merchandises and placement: Tagline and placement creates a perceptual experience map in the heads of consumers. ‘Exclusive aroma merely for you ‘ suggests following features – it is expensive, it is entirely for upper category merely, it is alone from other merchandises. However in existent sense merchandise was non differentiated from the rival merchandises. Hence there was a different between client perceptual experience and experience which led to client dissatisfaction and diminution in repeat purchase.

Adolescents Vs Adults with in the upper category mark adult females

Pure herb tea


how to derive their credibleness

retain client

the nucleus section to be targeted..


Personal organic structure chemical science

Brand image


Low monetary value ( comparatively )

Stress more on atmosphere

Addition of famous persons

Increase of societal media usage particularly in teenage networking sites

Personal organic structure chemical science

Brand image

As you can see above, adolescents are demoing more affinity towards man-made aroma while grownups are interested in herbal merchandises. This itself calls for a rift in penchants and perceptual experience about the same ‘fragrance ‘ merchandise. Marketer need to turn to this with a differentiated merchandise scheme. This sort of differences in perceptual experience function of the same merchandise by two subdivisions of the mark section was non considered while make up one’s minding the merchandise and placement scheme.

Lack of proper famous person mentions: Celebrities used for advancing ‘Xclusive ‘ trade name were largely modern-day stars from the field of athleticss and movies. But this is once more non in line with the tagline, the company had. Ideally the company should hold tried to convey in an image of ‘a authoritative trade name ‘ and they could hold chosen person from old authoritative movies like ‘Lawrence of Arabia ‘ or actresses like Julie Andrews ( Authoritative Movies, 2008 )

UK Consumers, particularly the adult females in the age group of 30 to 60 were revisiting the authoritative trade names and this could hold been a better scheme.

Could n’t make all influencers: In the instance of upper category adult females, a typical purchase procedure is influenced by friends, household members like hubby, societal nines, societal selling forums and so ofcourse the aspirational groups like successful businesswomen or famous persons. Xclusive as a trade name did n’t hold any such associations with these influencers. They were largely aiming the determination shapers and purchases with ads being targeted in magazines like Glamour.

Redefine the mark sections among the Womans

Xlusive trade name has suffered a diminution in gross revenues over the last two old ages among the adult females aim section. From the market analysis and consumer behavior survey we can happen that current selling scheme was non good plenty to pull all prospective consumers among the mark section of upper category adult females. Initial market scheme was merely built around the income category, but it was non taking into history the consumer behavior alterations as per different factors like societal category, age, cultural difference and so on.

Shift in mark cleavage from “ Upper category adult females ” to multiple mark sections of

section 1: upper upper category and upper in-between category ( employed ) adult female

section 2: teenage adult females in upper in-between category and upper category ( with a high disposable income )

Differentiated Merchandises and Positioning

Me excessively merchandises or generic merchandise line with one positioning message will non work in this changed environment. UK consumers are more traveling towards value shopping and they are likely to do more informed determinations instead than traveling by speedy stimulations.




Upper category and upper in-between category adult females

Xclusive Classic – scope of aroma in herbal mix

“ Health and Class Exclusively ”

Teenage upper category and upper center category

Xclusive Style – Man-made aromas with citrous fruit spirits

“ Style and Assurance ”

Proposing following the Key Brand method to look at what factors would act upon adult females in the above mark sections choose a aroma in the premium section.

( Brandkeys, 2010 )

Therefore the differentiated merchandises and placement should be made around the undermentioned properties selected from the above matrix





Chemical reactions

Authoritative scope of aroma in herbal mix







Natural Ingredients







Hence placement messages are created around these merchandise attributes for the two merchandise lines. Packaging is besides made consistent with these properties to make that whole merchandise image.

Authoritative merchandise line needs to be packaged in premium glass bottles with a aureate plating. Style merchandise line for adolescents will be in colorful glass bottles which are cut on sides to give it a manner and powerful cuvy form.


Creative Campaigns around Positioning Messages


One of the jobs with aroma is that the incursion rates are non that high. However, a batch could be done to convey more consumers into the aroma market. Critics say that sellers focus excessively much on young person, and that the aromas and sometimes lively advertisement runs aimed

at this group have turned off older consumers. Appealing to adult females in their 30s, 40s and 50s and those who have lost touch with aroma with an appropriate offer and selling run could convey in much extra gross.

So holding nostalgic and ex post facto runs would be a good manner to aim the section of in-between aged upper category and upper in-between category adult females. Celebrities can be actresses like Elizabeth Taylor and Julia Andrews. They can advance the ‘Xclusive Classic ‘ trade name around making images of “ authoritative and vintage material ne’er ceases ” or utilize ageless movies like ‘Lawrence of Arabia ‘ . Traveling off from contemprory stars to more stars from the classical age would be good to convert and act upon altering UK consumers particularly among the aged upper category sections.

( The Freelibrary, 2007 )

Julie Andres, an actress from yester old ages still a life fable to be a trade name embassador of the Authoritative merchandise line


Similarly for the teenage section, famous persons from field like political relations, concern, athleticss could be chosen who can give an image of manner and assurance.

A survey conducted among immature UK adult females chose a set of function theoretical accounts like Margaret Thatcher, Marilyn Monroe, Kylie Minogue, Jamie Ogata ( Confident Japanese UN functionary ) . ( Cranfield University, 2009 )

We can likely utilize them as famous persons to force our manner and assurance image in the head of adolescents. Unlike grownups adolescents, adolescents are more image shoppers. They can be triggered for an instant purchase by an instant stimulation. ( Telegraph, 2008 )


Re-inventing Shopping Experience

Shoping for aromas demands to be made easier, and shops better adapted to how consumers browse and buy. Research by Paris-based JMG Research shows that the consumer is looking for new retail formats. She is looking for a new experience and is really reactive to new propositions. When something is out of the ordinary she will purchase, ” says JMG Research pull offing manager Jerome Goldberg.


New retail shop formats have to be tried out like extinguishing counters in section shops, selling by aroma household or making countries for refilling for the consumer who is merely looking for that service. In a recent study, bulk of those questioned did desire to see aromas organized by trade name, but 40 % besides said that they would wish to see aromas organized by the manner they smell. Many UK adult females middle elderly consumers now go in for a aroma aggregation. This fundamentally tends them to be more trade name loyal.


“ Aroma is emotional and the industry needs to pay more attending to this instead speaking about proficient information. There needs to be beauty helpers who are helpful and knowing and non merely force the latest launch, ” says John Ayres, manager of UK-based aroma consultancy Pandora. Gross saless people should be making a batch more educational merchandising instead than aggressive as consumers have more options to take from.

( Articles base, 2007 ) Leaflets in boxes should besides incorporate a overplus of information for the consumer on the aroma, its ingredients, on how to have on and tips on aroma layering. This is standard for many prestigiousnesss skincare trade names. Samples can be used to explicate aroma notes. Online sampling has been successfully carried out by niche trade names.

Another tendency is the traveling off from category to mass channels for purchase. UK consumers now prefer Tesco to specialized categories like section shops.

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