Consumer behavior is “ an analysis of the behavior of persons and families who buy goods and services for personal ingestion ” . ( Elliot, et al 2010 pp. 103 ) Mark Fishbein ‘s Theory of Reasoned Action states that “ a consumer ‘s ingestion behavior is determined by the person ‘s purpose to execute the behavior and that this behavior is a combination of the consumer ‘s attitude and subjective norm. ” ( Abraham and Sheeran, 2003, pp. 271 ) . Adapting this theory demonstrates that a cardinal aspect for sellers is to construe consumer behavior, which can be achieved by understanding and accommodating the basicss of consumers ‘ demands, motives and ends Over the old ages of research, construing consumer behavior has changed from a simple hierarchal procedure to changing theories on societal concepts which yield ingestion behavior. The go oning overplus of research in modern society has determined that ingestion behavior is a complex selling relationship which can be influenced by psychological, biological and societal influences. Recognizing these influences and their effects provides sellers with the chance of lasting and turning in a highlight competitory market as seen through Commonwealth Bank and Apple electronics.
A demand can be classified as a necessary day-to-day demand ( Elliot, et al 2010 ) . The importance of a demand is that it begins the concatenation reaction which consequences in ingestion behavior. Consumption behavior can be captured through stairss within the consumer determination doing theoretical account as stated by Gordon ( 2004 ) . The initial measure of this theoretical account is that of job acknowledgment. This is where a consumer, recognises that a nothingness is present in relation to a personal demand or want whether it be in the coveted province or existent province. Gordon ( 2004 ) demonstrates that a coveted province refers to the mode in which an person anticipates a demand to be achieved, whereas an existent province is a contemplation of the existent attack that has been taken to fulfill the current demand.
Regardless of the industry, each manufacturer aims to fulfill the demands of the consumer. As consumer demands vary between persons, analysts have found it hard to make a nexus between the different demands of a consumer and the consequence it relays on ingestion behavior. An illustration of supplying such a nexus is apparent in Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands as stated in Elliot, et Al ( 2010 ) . This theory postulates that single demands that have yet to be satisfied influence ingestion behavior, whether these demands be “ physical or biological ” . In coherency to Maslow ‘s theory, Cherrier and Murray ( 2004 ) illustrate that regardless of differing cultural and societal values, all consumers attempt to make full these demands as a agency to accomplish ego realization. Green and Burke ( 2007 ) in relation to Maslow ‘s theory, emphasise that ego realization is the highest demand that can be satisfied by an person. This impression is apparent when measuring the service of Commonwealth Bank. Over the old ages of its being, Commonwealth Bank has built up a repute in which the administration classified client service its chief precedence. Establishing a mission statement as such, allows consumers to experience as though their single demands will be attended to and that they will finally make a degree of self realization. The firm committedness and success of Commonwealth Bank in the past supports the consumer ‘s beliefs that these demands will be satisfied.
However, Pepper, et Al ( 2009 ) demonstrates that the method in which persons attempt to fulfill their demands is to a great extent influenced by social values and the categorization of societal norms. Pepper, et Al ( 2009 ) further provinces that the influence of societal norms creates struggle between single involvements and societal involvements. This political orientation can be reflected upon the merchandises of Apple electronics. The Apple revolution is ruling the electronic industry in a mode which reflects the tendencies and societal norms of society. Whilst there have been several proficient jobs reported with each merchandise released by Apple, this tendency entreaty is one that has proven to be to a great extent influential as many consumers are buying the Apple scope, disregarding the fact that there are other merchandises available on the market, which may fulfill single needs a higher degree. Such an analysis demonstrates that trade names which have been classified as the societal norm, have an influential consequence on that of the consumer, and the mode in which they consume a merchandise as a means to fulfill their demands.
Elliot ( 2010 ) identifies motive as the internal drive force that sparks an person to fulfill an unrealized demand. Motivation arises when the strength of fulfilling a demand badly increases coercing the person to rectify this personal disequilibrium. In concurrence, Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands illustrates the mode in which persons attempt to fulfill their pending demands. Green and Burke ( 2007 ) parallel Maslow ‘s construct with the political orientation that one time demands have been satisfied, motive no longer exists. This instantly establishes the direct relationship between the two factors. Motivation occurs as a consequence of a demand and is non longer present one time a demand has been fulfilled.
The direct relationship between consumer demands and motives highlights the importance of manufacturers being cognizant of a consumer ‘s motive. Identifying the primary motive enables the manufacturer to supply the consumer with appropriate information which may beginning their satisfaction in a competitory market place ( Grant, et al 2007 ) . Through referral of Maslow ‘s theory, Pincus ( 2004 ) supports this claim as he demonstrates that persons are motivated in all degrees of Maslow ‘s theory. However, the prevailing motive is dependent upon which lower demand in the hierarchy has been fulfilled ( Pincus 2004 ) . This political orientation is present in the service of the Commonwealth Bank. As the Commonwealth Bank caters for a broad client base, it is imperative for the service to raise a assortment of motives that stem from different civilizations, genders and age as a means to carry and pull clients towards the service ( McEachern and Warnaby, 2008 ) . The high criterion of client service nowadays within the Commonwealth Bank establishes strong relationships between the service and consumer. This in bend triggers the emotions of the consumer as the service understands their demands and hence can foster their motive. A recent article in the Sydney Morning Herald “ Customer Warm to the Big Four ” highlights the addition in client satisfaction on behalf of the Commonwealth Bank which has been brought about through successful motivational entreaty. This service demonstrates the necessity in placing the direct relationship between demands and motives as both factors influence a consumer ‘s ingestion behavior.
As antecedently discussed, Grant, et Al ( 2007 ) , highlights the differing motives fuelled by consumers. Alternatively of accommodating to all signifiers of motives, Apple electronics has focused on two chief types – trade name and the map of the merchandise. In coherency with the societal norms that affect the demands of consumers, Apple has created a positive emotional connexion with the trade name which in bend forces consumers to subject to the image that they have created. This societal influence sparks the motive of the consumer and provides Apple electronics success in comparing to other rivals in the market place as consumers thrive to accomplish the position associated with the Apple image. In add-on to image, the focal point on merchandise functionality exists for the demographic who are non affiliated with societal norms. These consumers can still profit from buying Apple merchandises although the flicker for their motive may be different than others. As this merchandise ‘s consumer base continues to turn, manufacturers may necessitate to spread out the types of motives that they cater for, in order to continually fulfill both new and current consumers. Such an enlargement will continually enable Apple electronics to last and turn in the market place as factors which influence ingestion behavior continue to be catered for.
Many theoreticians have argued that ends are progressively going the chief influencer in ingestion behavior. A end is a measureable consequence which can incorporate one or more aims, and is achieved within a specific clip frame, dependent on the person. Mitchel and Zhang ( 2005 ) demonstrate that ends are cognitive rules which reflect the interior nature of an person. In bend, it can be identified, that motive must be achieved in order for a end to come on and finally be attained, therefore, showing the direct relationship between the two factors.
A cardinal aspect to indentifying ends is set uping whether or non these ends are witting or non witting ( Bargh 2002 ) . A witting end is one where the consumer is cognizant of what they are accomplishing and what facets in their environment are act uponing their determination. On the other manus, and unconscious end is one that stems from single beliefs and values that have frequently been passed down from coevalss and which influence a consumer ‘s life, though, they may non be full aware of it. Large sums of research have proven the ingestion determinations made by consumers are in fact influenced by factors that are unknown to the persons. In add-on, research workers have found that the ends formed by a consumer contain a mix of both witting and nonconscious facets ( Roberts and Pirog, 2004 ) . Paralleling this theory, Abraham and Sheeran ( 2003 ) emphasises the cardinal cognitive facet encourages ends puting, therefore further showing the direct relationship that exists within motive and end scene and accomplishing. Commonwealth Bank is a clear illustration of a service which has understood the construct of witting and nonconscious ends within a consumer and the cognitive factors that stimulate a consumer. As antecedently discussed, Commonwealth bank successful attend to the motive facet of their consumers through guaranting high criterion of client service, which attends to all signifiers of civilization, genders and ages. Understanding such a broad demographic allows the service to place with the nonconscious facets of consumer ends. These facets include changing beliefs, values, attitudes and demands, all which influence a consumer in some signifier or another. Furthermore, Commonwealth Bank thrives to show their consumers with the best resources and engineering. This is apparent through the being of Commonwealth Bank ‘s big IT base, and execution of smarter sourcing. Suiting consumers with installations such as cyberspace banking and ATM ‘s is indispensable as consumers are now cognizant that the service is equipped with the best engineering or resources required to fulfill their all their ends. Hence coercing consumers to continually utilize this service as opposed to others that may be present in the competitory market.
Abraham and Sheeran ( 2003 ) found the frequently consumers fail to move on their purposes or modify their ends due to their external environment, doing end struggle to happen. This is apparent in the merchandise produced by Apple electronics. Whilst there are many consumers who have made a witting end to buy and Apple merchandise, there are many who have non consciously made this determination, but are forced to due to their nonconscious ends. As antecedently mentioned, this is due to the ruling image that has been created by Apple electronics. The environing environment in modern society is to a great extent influenced by trade names and image which in bend affects consumer values and beliefs. In respects to Apple, many consumers have made a witting end to buy an electronic, nevertheless, research has shown, that such a consumer purchases an Apple merchandise over another electronic, as there are swayed by nonconscious ends which are influenced by current milieus. This demonstrates the direct nexus between motive and ends as the trade name and image motive pursued by Apple, has successfully forced their consumer to buy a green goods and hence, supply Apple with growing and endurance in the competitory market.
Through the varying theories that have been applied and the treatment of merchandises and services, it can be seen that consumer behavior is a complex relationship which is determined by a combination of factors. Fishbein and Maslow ‘s theories form a foundation for sellers to construe and understand the direct and interdependent relationship between consumer demands, ends and motives. Further research in relation to consumer behavior demonstrates the assorted influences that manipulate an person ‘s determination as they impact these three chief factors. The differing societal, biological and physiological influences that have been illustrated highlight the mode in which consumers can run in relation to witting and nonconscious determinations. Ultimately in the modern twenty-four hours society that we live in a consumer ‘s determination to buy a merchandise or utilize a service is to a great extent influenced by marketing. Therefore, duty remainders upon sellers to advance a societal environment and positive image, which will change and carry the ingestion behavior or society.