Design of Multifunctional Sheet Metal Formability Testing System

Design of multifunctional sheet metal formability proving system


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For assortment natural advantages, sheet metal forming is applied widely to the auto fabrication, tractor fabrication, electronic equipment’s, aircraft industries etc. The belongingss of sheet metal organizing don’t depend on a individual factor, bur decided by the co-effect of all factors. Because these factors are interaction, it is hard to make up one’s mind its fabrication belongingss. In order to mensurate the sheet metal organizing belongingss, the proving machine becomes the best pick. The belongingss of sheet metal forming is the cardinal factor to sheet metal organizing procedure, so it is meaningful to develop the high-ranking multi-function sheet metal organizing proving machine.

This paper gives a brief debut on the construct of sheet metal organizing belongingss, and the advancement in the sheet metal organizing belongingss proving machine. Then, design of the machine and tools, eventually the machine is being tested.

Keywords:Sheet metal organizing belongingss, Material proving machine, Structure design ; Forming bound diagram, formability


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Abstraction… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..a…±

Table of Contentss… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..a…±

Chapter 1… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 1

1.1 Introduction… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 1

1.2 FORMABILITY Trial… … … … … … … … … … … … … … 2

1.3 Testing Machine… … … … … … … … … … … … … … 4

1.3.1 INTERLAKEN TESTING MACHINES… … … … … … … … … .4

1.3.2 ERICHSEN… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .5

1.4 HOT FORMING… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … .6

Chapter 2… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 8

Chapter 3… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 9

3.1 BASIC REQUIREMENTS… … … … … … … … … … … … … .9

Summary… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … ..11

Mentions… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 12

Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction

Before the industrial revolution begun, fabrication was done at a job-shop degree, but with coming of new power beginnings, the ability to fabricate on a larger graduated table came. Innovation steadily increased with a attendant addition in the complexness of merchandises, which shows increasing complexness of merchandises. The rate of industrial production increased, every bit good as metal forming.

Formability can be define as the capableness of sheet metal to undergo fictile distortion to a given form without defects. The defects have to be considered individually for the cardinal sheet metal organizing processs of deep-drawing and stretching. The difference between these types of stamping processs is based on the mechanics of the forming procedure.

Sheet metal forming is a engineering used to change over sheet metal as the merchandise in steel industry into a coveted form without defect. This forming technique is considered as one of the of import technology subject within the country of modern mechanical technology and it besides has played a cardinal function as societies have developed. The general thought of sheet metal forming is the application of force unto the work piece intentionally to modify the geometry of the sheet metal instead than to take any stuff. The procedure may be simple, such as a bending operation, or a sequence of really complex operations such as stomping. In recent old ages, considerable attempt has been dedicated to the numerical methods capable of patterning sheet metal forming processes. The control of these sheet metal forming processes has turned out to be a cardinal factor in the decrease of cost and clip in position of the increasing competition. This processes gives a decisive part to the decrease in “time-to-market” and helps in quality betterment. In fact, it enables the minimisation of experimental type “trial-and-error” procedures. New demands are emerging for complex forms, merchandise quality, structural behaviour and material use. Realistic simulation in metal forming procedures can be performed utilizing the finite component technique. Most metal forming procedures can be characterized by extremely non-linear stuff behaviour, extended contact between the draw piece and the tools and really big plastic strains. Besides, the finding of organizing bound strains/stresses is really of import because sheet metal can be deformed merely to a certain degree before local cutting ( make outing ) and fracture occur [ 1±5 ] . Many complex physical phenomena may happen during sheet metal organizing, such as rupture due to inordinate metal stretching, pursing due to local compaction, and strive taking to locally deficient thickness and hapless mechanical opposition.

In aircraft industry, sheet metal is used for doing the full fuselage wings and organic structure. As in cars, the distortion of sheet metal is brought into the needed signifier to acquire car organic structure pressures. The consequences of the procedure are including a big assortment of sizes and forms. The general illustrations are aircraft panels, drink can, kitchenware, etc.


There will ever be a demand for formability trials. The trial is an of import function in measuring cardinal belongingss of the technology stuffs. If a stuff is to be used as a portion of an technology construction, it is of import to cognize that the stuff is strong and stiff plenty to defy the tonss in some instances that will be experienced while functioning. It is besides normally used for the analysis of field organizing jobs as for the quality confidence.

The maximal values of the principal strains?1 and?2 can be determined by mensurating the strains at failure ( necking, break, pursing etc. ) . The research in this field was pioneered by Keeler, based on the observations of Gensamer that alternatively of utilizing planetary indices the local distortions have to be considered ( Fig. 3.10 ) . During organizing the initial circles of the grid become eclipsiss. Keeler plotted the major strains against the minor strains obtained from such eclipsiss at break of parts after biaxal stretching (?1& A ; gt ;0 ;?2& A ; gt ;0 ) . For legion stuffs the critical country between the spheres has been detected both by agencies of research lab trials and by organizing of industrial constituents. These measurings were conducted for assorted stuffs. The first-class correlativity of the consequences was a cogent evidence that the organizing bounds in sheet metal forming can be evaluated really good by finding the Forming Limit Curve ( FLC ) . The Forming Limit Curve ( FLC ) is by and large used in the country as the break standard. The rating of the organizing bound of sheet metal can be done by finding the FLC. It fundamentally shows the sum of distortion or strain that can be resisted by a sheet stuff as map of the distortion manner. The Forming Limit Diagram ( FLD ) which is used to plot the FLC, is a graph of the major strain ( =1 ) at the oncoming of localised gorgerin for all values of the minor strain ( =2 ) . Experimental trials to find Forming Limit Diagram ( FLD ) have been performed in the last few old ages by the applied scientists.

Forming Limit Diagrams for Necking and Fracture

FDL can be determined through some experimental trial. FLDs must cover every bit much as possible the strain sphere which occurs in industrial sheet metal forming procedures.

One of the used experimental trial isUniaxial tensile trial. This trial allows finding a subdivision of the FLD in the scope?2& A ; lt ;0. For obtaining different strain waies, specimens with different forms and sizes with and without notches are used. The advantages of the tensile trial for finding FLDs are that the specimens are easy to fabricate and a general intent proving machine can be used ; moreover the specimens remain plane during the trial which facilitates measuring. However, merely the negative subdivision of the forming bound diagram (?2& A ; lt ;0 ) can be determined.

Thehydraulic bump trialis besides to change the strain way egg-shaped dies of different form can be used. The most of import advantage of the trial is the absence of clash. The disadvantage is that merely the subdivision of the forming bound diagram for positive values of?2 can be obtained.

Dwelling the usage of clouts,Keelar trialis used to hold different radii in order to change the emphasis province. Disadvantages of the trial are the big sum of experimental work, merely the positive subdivision of the forming bound diagram is obtained, and the form and place of the forming bound is influenced by the clout radii.

Punchs used in the Keeler trial

InHydrogenecker trial, merely one type and size of clout and specimen is needed whereby the clash government is varied by changing the lubricator for obtaining different strain waies. A disadvantage is that merely the positive part of the forming bound diagram is determined.

TheNakazima trialconsists of pulling rectangular specimens holding different breadths utilizing a hemispherical clout and a round dice. The FLD’s positive and negative sphere is obtained by changing the breadth of the specimen and the. The recommended length is longer than 25 % of punch diameter. For the clout diameter and the dice diameter are recommended the values 100 and 105 millimeter, severally. The simpleness of the tools, the simple form of the specimens and the possibility of covering the full sphere of the FLDs are the advantages of the trial. The possibility of pursing and mistakes of measuring caused by the curvature can be the disadvantages.

Shape of the specimens used in the Nakazima trial

In order to avoid wrinkling of the specimens,Hasek trialproposed the usage of round specimens with deferrals of different radii. This requires an increased sum of work for fabricating the specimens.

The FLD is besides established utilizing different proving methods.

1—Hasek ; 2—Nakazima ; 3—uniaxial tenseness ; 4—Keeler ; 5—hydraulic bump trial

1.3 TESTING Machines

The formability proving machines have been produced all around the universe in this modern epoch. They are known to developed information on the stuffs and to keep the quality of the stuffs. Companies are viing to make advanced proving machines with more efficiency, higher quality and the truth of proving installations or the equipment. Properties of the stuffs tested by these machines are the of import steps of merchandise quality.

1.3.1 Interlaken Testing Machines

One of the corporation working in this field is ITC, or besides known as Interlaken Technology. Metal formability proving systems are designed in the research lab.

Most of the testing machine are utilizing UniTest Computer Control System. It uses a Windowss based graphical operator interface to put up, run, and supervise the trials. Procedure parametric quantities can be saved to harrow and remember later for more quotable trial apparatus. The UniTest application incorporates automated modus operandis for observing burden beads and uses a Wizard to steer the operator through standard trial processs. The optional UniTest TestBuilder provides an intuitive, easy to utilize graphical agencies for specifying a customized sequence of imperativeness operations.

Four of the their most known proving machine merchandises are ServoPress, 90 Degree Bend Tester, Dent Tester and Universal Testing Machine.

  • The ServoPress is Interlaken ‘s flagship. This computer-controlled system machine is a dual moving servo-controlled hydraulic imperativeness designed for research lab usage that can run a assortment of metal formability and lubricant ranking trials. These systems control, proctor, and record forming procedure parametric quantities such as the clinch force, clamp place, punch force, and punch place. It is capable of imitating mechanical imperativeness velocities and speed profiles.
  • The crook examiner pulls a piece of metal over an interchangable draw bead radius. The drawbeads can be free turn overing or fixed and can be heated to 400° F ( 205° C ) . The crook examiner is able to run samples up to 2 ” broad and has a travel of 10 ” at forces up to 11,000lbs ( 50 KN ) .
  • The Dent Tester’s primary map is proving for dent opposition. A clout applies forces up to 1,100lbs ( 5 KN ) speeds up to 100 inches/s econd and a punch travel of 2 ” .
  • The Universal provides standard tensile belongingss on sample sizes up to 2 ” broad by 1 ” midst and can be run at forces up to 55,000lbs ( 245 KN ) .

ServoPress 90 Degree Bend Tester

Dent Tester Universal Testing Machine

1.3.2 Erichsen

Erichsen proving machines are utilizing cupping trial and deep-drawing cup trial that provide merely some penetration into broad assortment of trial that can be conducted with the trial machines.


Hot forming processes is a developed system specifically for the forming of high temperature Ti metal, aluminum metal, etc. It is similar to the regular cold forming procedures but involves heating the tool and constituent. The temperatures range from 600a„? to 980a„? , depend on specification from the clients and the stuff used. The thought is fundamentally conveying hot sheet metal into contact with the hot dice whilst the hot clout descends into the dice and starts determining the portion. After that, the portion is held under forming force per unit area for a period of clip.

The aim of this undertaking is to plan a multifunctional formability trial machine that can run at high temperature. The parametric quantities of the machine are 800KN force for the clout hole and 400KN for the clean holder. It is expected to be working at 900a„? .

There are Numberss of advantage that ares considered by planing a hot forming machine.

Accurate forming: The possibility of making a high definition of signifier with tooling and portion both heated to temperature a superior truth of signifier which makes it easier to avoid springback.

Complex forms: Enabling more complex form and/or tight radii to be formed by utilizing the governable gripping force around the dice without dividing or local cutting.

Higher surface profile tolerances: It is proved ideal for the forming of Ti and other high-temperature metals as it inhibits checking and signifiers to much higher surface profile tolerances than cold draw forming

Consistent thickness: The cutting or gorgerin of the sheet can be avoided by pulling the border of the sheet inwards swimmingly instead than thinning.

Resistance to snap: The Hot formed Ti is more immune to checking and this reduces waste and creates a portion which conforms to drawings and performs more safely and efficaciously.

Strength: The finished constituent strength is every bit good as a bad constituent.

Lower cost: It provides a lower cost alternate to superplastic forming ( SPF ) . A dilutant get downing sheet thickness is possible, forming times are much shorter. There is no alpha instance formation and no chemical milling hence required to take alpha instance and no degassing required to take H.

Chapter 2

Chapter 3




  1. Dorel Banabic, Sheet Metal Forming Processes, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2010
  2. Interlaken Technology, Metal Formability Sheet Metal for Interlaken Technology
  3. Erichsen, Testing Equipment for Quality Management
  4. J. Jeswiet, M. Geiger, U. Engel, M. Kleiner, M. Schikorra, J. Duflou, R. Neugebauer, P. Bariani, S. Bruschi, Metal Forming Process Since 2000, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology 1 ( 2–17 ) , 2008
  5. Z. Zimniak, Application of a system for sheet metal organizing design, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 106, 2000
  6. Stefan Holmberg, Bertil Enquist, Per Thilderkvist, Evaluation of sheet metal formability by tensile trial, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 145 ( 72–83 ) , 2004
  7. MetalsMiklos Tisza, Zoltan Peter Kovacs, New Methods for Predicting the Formability of Sheet, Production Processes and Systems, Volume 5. No. 1. pp. 45-54, 2012
  8. Taylor B, Formability Testing of Sheet Metals, Metals Handbook, ASM.


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