Different Models of Lesson Planning

Chapter 5

Different Models of Lesson Planning

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Introduction

Planing the word it contains more weightage as compared to any other word. We can merely accomplish any mark frequently a proper planning scheme. In be aftering what is mark to accomplish is our end with the available resources. Planing besides plays an of import function in teaching-learning procedure. While, making a proper planning in learning the category environment got relaxed, teacher enjoys the instruction because the ambiance every bit good the state of affairss are decently arranged. By making an intelligent be aftering a instructor avoids defeats. Classroom minutess are besides got smooth by utilizing the schemes in a proper mode.

Planing for Instructional Process

Need for Planing

Teaching occupies the cardinal nucleus of your life as a instructor. The learning includes direction in schoolroom tutorials, research lab, workshops, and jaunts, etc. Where learning is non merely an activity to reassign the instruction to the pupil but it involves alteration in the behaviour of the pupil. While planning, instructor must maintain in head the accent may be given to equal Weightage to all the content, non that one should given more focal point and other is ignored wholly.

  • Presentation of stuff in a logical, systematic, and effectual manner
  • The planning must cover the equal coverage of capable affair
  • The aim may be achieved in the given clip
  • The clip factor and attempt must be low and relevant
  • The schemes must affect maximal development of kid in minimal resources

Advantages of Planing

Planing agencies systematic organisation of capable affair, better use and proper presentation of the resource:

  • It fosters assurance and pride in our work
  • The AIDSs are decently explained and used by instructor
  • Planing for one topic helps in incorporating with other topics
  • A broad development in believing about instruction is helpful to convey an order of instruction.

Schemes for Planing

Systematic planning of learning work requires systematic organisation of clip in the establishment. This could be done on long term and short term footing.

  1. Long term Planning:Long term planning may be termed as academic work planning that is it for a whole which is to come yet. List of vacations for schools including restricted, gazettes etc. Equally good as the different plan to be organize by the school in the coming twelvemonth that is activities to be organized as per the festivals every bit good as the circuit and trips for the pupils. All instructors are allotted with their concerned topics to be taught by them for the whole twelvemonth, so that instructors may border out their program harmonizing to their demand. Such program give a ordered and fresh expression to learning larning pattern in school as it was organized at the beginning. Teachers besides plan theory classs every bit good as for practical activities, undertakings, and scientific discipline exhibitions etc. Now we can state that a annual program is based on class intent, class constructs, units, lessons, and rating points.
  2. Short term Planning:There are the specific activities which are planned by instructor for doing their instruction effectual which includes bordering the lesson program, usage of learning assistance, in between so that the clip may be utilized decently while presenting the lesson. Deciding the clip bound, appropriate illustrations, existent life incidence, usage of appropriate assistance all are included in it.

Designs of Lesson Planning

Specifying a Lesson

The term lesson is described in many ways by different educationalists or instructors. A instructor takes learning as a occupation to cover course of study in the schoolroom ; every category has 6-7 periods in a twenty-four hours ( in general, a period runs over 35-40 proceedingss ) . A lesson is defined as a design, a usher map, a program for action. Lesson is a sequencing of learning Acts of the Apostless or events or episode in organized mode to bring forth a acquisition environment for our pupils. The lesson contains subjects and sub-topic with necessary contents to be taught to the pupils in the schoolroom.

Definitions

N.L.Bossingin his book “Teaching in Secondary Schools” proposes the undermentioned definition of a lesson program: “Lesson program is the rubric given to a statement of all accomplishments to be realized and specific agencies by which these are to be attained as a consequence of the activities engaged twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours under the counsel of the teacher.”

The Dictionary of Educationdefines a lesson program as a learning lineation of the of import points of a lesson arranged in the order in which they are to be presented ; it may include aims, inquiries to be asked, mentions to stuffs, rating, assignments, etc. Now you must be clear in head that lesson planning is a merchandise of short term or micro degree be aftering affecting:

  1. Designation of definite aims,
  2. Choice of appropriate content and activities,
  3. Choice of processs and methods for presentation of the content,
  4. Choice of rating exercisings and
  5. Choice of follow up activities, etc.

Approachs to Lesson Planning

By and large assorted attacks are used to do a lesson program. These attacks are Herbartian attack, Unit attack, Evaluation attack, and Project attack.

A brief description is provided: –

  1. Herbartian Approachis based on apperceptive mass theory of larning. All the cognition and information is to be given from outside by the instructor because the pupil is considered similar to a clean slate. For the pupils, if an old cognition makes a base for new cognition ( his old cognition or experiences ) , it may be acquired easy and retained for a longer period.

Herbart has given five stairss: – Introduction, Presentation, Organistation, Comparison, and rating. The chief focal point is on content presentation.

  1. Unit Approach of Morrisonis based on unit dealing and planning. The Morrison’s lesson program of instruction is cyclic ; Morrison has given five stairss for his ‘cyclephase’ of instruction: – Exploration, Presentation, Assimilation, Organisation, and Recitation.
  2. Evaluation Approach of B.S. Bloomingin rating attack, instruction is nonsubjective centered non content centered. The focal point in this attack is on aim based instruction and testing. It takes into consideration the acquisition aims and learning methods on the footing of the aims and to measure larning results. Then, a determination can be taken about aims of larning are achieved or need to supply the alteration.
  3. Project attack originated by Dewey and W.H.Kilpatrickemphasiss on group activity, societal activity, ego activity, and related to existent life experiences. It is a pre-planned work completed by a individual or group in societal status. Due to many grounds, it is non necessary that a lesson program made by a instructor will be successful at every topographic point and clip. Many factors influence lesson planning such as
  • Handiness of learning AIDSs,
  • Strength of pupils in the Class.
  • Composition of the Class ( Age wise ) .
  • School Location ( Area wise )
  • The nature of the subject ( Medium wise ) etc.

The list is non plenty, few other factors from ain experiences can be added.

Writing a lesson Plan:Many written lesson programs are used by practising instructors. A instructor needs some information about the category, pupils and their background before to try the lesson program. In general, a Macro Lesson program is divided into many stages/steps. We had introduced the attacks of lesson planning. Now, one can compose a macro lesson program based on different attacks.

  1. HERBARTIAN APPROACH

The stairss are given below:

  1. General information:sing the subject, sub-topic, capable, clip, category, and age degree of kids.
  2. Instructional Aims ( General Objectives and Specific Objectives ) :We know that at different class degrees, all topics have general aims, and specific aims are written in behavioral footings. Specific Objectives focal points on the expected results of instruction and the subject in a given clip period. These specific aims besides known as instructional aims, which are discernible and mensurable. It is required to place the behavioral aims and province these aims in a clear and simple linguistic communication.
  3. Instructional Aidss:The development of a new lesson program is based on the criterion and cognition of pupils. Instructional are used by the instructor to do understand the chapter or subject easy. One image delivers the message of 1000 words. Teacher assumes that the old cognition of pupils related to the content can prove and learning will go easy through AIDSs.
  4. Introduction:in this measure subject is introduced chiefly through introductory inquiries or by making the appropriate state of affairss. New cognition or information of pupils is linked with their old cognition by presuming and proving.
  5. Presentation:In presentation the ways of relevant content is presented. A instructor develops the lesson Plan by inquiring many inquiries and having responses presented by the students’ . Students’ response helps the instructor for farther presentation of the content. The presentation phase is synergistic in the existent schoolroom state of affairs. It depends on teachers’ communicating and learning accomplishments like oppugning, explicating, giving presentation and supplying support on desirable pupil behavior.
  6. Palingenesis:This measure helps the instructor to happen out the extent of larning that occurs during direction. The instructor does this by inquiring several inquiries. This phase provides feedback to the instructor about the learning acquisition procedure.
  7. Blackboard sum-up:In the schoolroom during the direction, the board is used by the instructor to compose the instruction points, drumhead and accounts. Board is used at the same time when lesson is being delivered in the schoolroom.
  8. Home Assignment:At last, in the terminal of the instruction session, thought provoking, suited inquiries or activities must be planned and given to the pupils. It gives a opportunity of alteration or pattern to the pupils. Home assignment besides gives an chance to pupils to absorb, whatever they have learned.

3. EVALUATION APPROACH

The design of lesson program harmonizing to this attack consists of three facets:

  1. Input,
  2. Procedure and
  3. End product.
  1. Input signal:It contains the designation of aims in behavioural footings. These are known as Expected Behavioural Outcomes ( EBOs ) . During this the come ining behaviour of the scholars is besides identified. With the aid of instructional aims, the sequence of instructional process is determined. These aims are classified into four classs: Knowledge, Understanding, Application and Creativity. These aims can be transformed in behavioral footings.
  2. Procedure:This is an synergistic phase when instructor really pass oning with pupils in the schoolroom. For effectual presentation of the content, instructor has to take different instruction schemes, audio-visual, and all support stuffs.
  3. End product:This facet of instructional process refers to existent learning results ( RLOs ) . This is tantamount to terminal behavior which is measured by utilizing unwritten and written inquiries. This facet is considered for measurement of the desirable alteration in behavior of pupils.

Illustration of Lesson Plan

Format of Presentation:Effective instruction demands proper planning, dealing in the schoolroom and feedback. Practically there are three phases of a planned lesson:Pre-active, Interactive, and Post- Active.

  1. Pre-active phaseis a phase of be aftering before traveling to the schoolroom.
  2. The Interactive phaseis a phase of interaction between instructor and pupils in the existent schoolroom state of affairs.
  3. Post active phaseis a phase of self rating of our learning work.

There is non be a individual format for composing a lesson program because it varies from instructor to teacher and subject to subject, the lone thing which can be suggested is that it should be a well-organised construction, it follows basic cardinal parts of a lesson. Some of the formats based on different attacks to lesson planning. Teachers’ are free to do alterations harmonizing to the aims you plan to accomplish and the nature of the topic etc.

( I ) Herbartian Lesson Plan Format

Capable: Date:

Unit of measurement: School:

Subject: Class:

Duration: Time period:

  1. General Aims:
  2. Specific Aims:
  3. Teaching Aidss:
  4. Method:
  5. Previous Knowledge:
  6. Introduction:
  7. Statement of the Topic/Aim:
  8. Presentation or Development of the Lesson:

Teaching Points

Teacher ‘s Activity

Students ‘ Activity

OR

Content

Aim

Teaching-Learning Activities

Evaluation

  1. Palingenesis:
  2. Black Board Summary:
  3. Home Assignment:
  4. Mention:

Note:

  1. Order of S. No. 1 to5may be changed harmonizing to your demands.
  2. In presentation/development aims, teaching-learning activities and rating are in relation to particular learning point/content.
  3. If rating of pupils larning is done for each instruction act/episode, so you may disregard palingenesis at the fag terminal of the lesson.
  4. Black board sum-up should be developed as the lesson progresses.

two ) Bloom ‘s or Evaluation Lesson Plan Format

Capable: Date:

Unit of measurement: School:

Lesson: Class:

Duration:

  1. Specific Aims:
  2. Previous Knowledge:
  3. Introduction:
  4. Statement of the Topic/Aim:
  5. Presentation:

Aim

Teaching Method & A ; Aidss

Teacher ‘s Activities

Students ‘ Activities

6 ) Evaluation:

7 ) Home Work:

8 ) Mentions:

Note

  1. The aims are to be written in behavioral footings.
  2. The instruction activities are to be related to the acquisition constructions.
  3. Black Board Summary should be developed as the lesson progresses.

three ) RCEM Lesson Plan Format

Date:

Capable: School:

Unit of measurement: Class:

Topic/Lesson: Duration:

  1. Concepts:
  2. Teaching Aidss:
  3. Previous Knowledge:
  4. Introduction:
  5. Statement of the Aim/Topic:
  6. Presentation:

Expected Behavioral

Outcomes ( EBOs )

Consecutive Learning Experiences/Activities ( LEs )

Real Learning

Outcomes ( RLOs )

  1. Black Board Summary:
  2. Home Assignment:
  3. Mentions:

Note

  1. RCEM is Regional College of Education, Mysore.
  2. Concepts are to be identified through content analysis.
  3. Black Board Summary to be developed as the lesson progresses.

Features of Lesson Plan

You may be after your lesson based on any format discussed above, but a good lesson program must hold following features:

  1. It must be flexible ;
  2. Its contents are organized in the visible radiation of come-at-able aims ;
  3. It is rich with regard to pupils activities and rating exercisings ;
  4. It has link with the old and future lesson ;
  5. It includes relevant place assignment and activities for pupils.

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