Employee Motivation Theory And Practice Management Essay

One of the major challenges of any organisation has ever been the motive of its staff so as to increase its capableness to supply a better service to its clients. In a quickly altering environment and with the economic system going more competitory, it is of paramount importance to understand employersi?? demands and to develop an effectual motive programmes.

Workers differ in their parts to an organisation because of the differences in their cognition and accomplishments and besides because of the sum of attempt they apply to their occupation. It is this attempt that is cardinal to the construct of human motive.

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There are different attacks to motivation based on the impression that people act to maximise their single personal additions in some signifier or other. It is deserving observing that this wide position may non be universally applicable. The Nipponese worker, for illustration, is sometimes seen as sing corporate motive, in that they place more value on trueness and service to the organisation than on satisfaction of personal demands or ends. But the Western theoretical accounts of motive emphasize single addition and self-respect. This depend on the national cultutre of persons, topic which has been extensively researched by Hofstede ( 1980 )

Scientific direction is based on the given that workers are motivated by economic factors, peculiarly money. However, the human relation motion stresses the importance of economic and non-economic factors in workers productiveness. Factors such as group norms and direction attitude are shown to act upon the motive of workers. In other words, both intrinsic ( wage, congratulations, publicity, leave, conditions ) and extrinsic wagess ( occupation satisfaction, sense of accomplishment, feeling of pride in work ) contribute toward sustained additions in productiveness.

1.2 Problem Statement

With the debut of the Program Based Budgeting, there has been an increasing demand for quality and effectivity of services provided by the finance division in all Ministries/Depatments. The new system requires staff in the Finance Division to carry on a greater degree of analysis on the input, end product and result of the assorted programmes in a Ministry/Department and to subject the relevant information to assorted governments such as the Ministry of finance. It has been reported that at times the Finance Division has been unable to run into their deadline and inauspicious study has been received on the quality of their work. Although there are both exogenic and endogenous variables that are responsible for this state of affairs, survey aimed to associate the public presentation of the staff in relation to their grade of motive

1.3 Purposes and Aims

The purpose of the survey is to measure and measure the degree of motive of staff, to analyse the work patterns so as to highlight motivational issues and later to find which countries require attending.

The survey would supply an penetration into the different factors that have an impact on motives and finally on the overall satisfaction degree of employees. Furthermore, the survey would besides assist to run into the demands of the employees in a more scientific mode.As such the research aims are to

i?? Evaluate and measuring the degree of motive among employees

i?? Assess the bing direction patterns and their impact on motive among employees

i?? Identify the factors that contribute towards employees motive and to

i?? Make recommendations for raising employees motive in the Finance Division of the Police section

1.4 Research Questions

The research inquiries refering to the survey are:

i??

i?? Does publicity prospect contribute towards motive to work?

i?? Does the communicating system advance motive?

i?? Does direction manner or political intervention prevent staffs from being motivated?

i?? Which type of wagess has a greater impact on the motive of workers?

1.5 Structure of the Study

This survey is structured into five chapters:

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 1 gives an overview of the map of the Finance Division at the Police section. It besides introduces the survey and sets the focal point and way to be taken for the survey by puting out the research aims and the research inquiries

Chapter 2: Literature reappraisal

The 2nd chapter examines the literature on motive.

Chapter3: Methodology

Chapter 3 refers to the stairss taken to transport out the study. The chapter presents the research attack that has been adopted for the survey in term of the sampling design and sampling frame. A elaborate treatment follows on the design and development of questionnaires, informations aggregation and analysis. In add-on, concerns for moralss every bit good as restrictions of the research are besides presented in this chapter

Chapter4: Analysis and Statement of Findingss

Chapter 4 trades with the findings of the survey

Chapter 5: Decision and Recommendations

This chapter conclude the survey and provides relevant information to better motive among the staff of Finance Division

1.6 Decision

This chapter has introduced the purposes and aims of the survey in a given organisational context i.e the grade that motive can impact public presentation. The following chapter cover the literature reappraisal on motive

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

This chapter set out the literature reappraisal that has been carried out on the capable country of motive

2.2 What is Motivation?

.Locke ( 1997 ) define motive as procedure of end directedness, human will or free will, and perceived demands and desires and which prolonging the actions of persons in relation to themselves and to their environment

Harmonizing to Janssen et Al, work motive is defined as i??i??the grade to which a individual wants to work good in his or her occupation, in order to accomplish intrinsic satisfaction

Bartol and Martin ( 1998 ) define motive as a force that energizes behaviour, gives way to behavior, and underlies the inclination to prevail. This definition recognizes that in order to accomplish ends, persons must be sufficiently stimulated and energetic, must hold a clear focal point on what is to be achieved, and must be willing to perpetrate their energy for a long adequate period of clip to recognize their purpose.

In drumhead, , motive can hence be thought of as the grade to which an person wants and chooses to prosecute in certain behaviours. Indeed, single behaviour is at the bosom of human motive. However, motive is the force that makes one to make things: This is a consequence of the single demands that have to be satisfied These demands vary from individual to individual as everybody has their single demands Depending on how motivated one is, this determine the attempt one put to accomplish a his/her demand

2.3 The Importance of Motivation

Motivation can hold an consequence on the efficiency and effectivity of an organisation. In instance. , employees lack the motive, this will finally has an impact on the efficiency and effectiveness an organisation All literature point out that the employees are the greatest plus for an organisation and no affair how efficient the engineering and equipment may be, it is no lucifer for a committed and a motivated work force

Harmonizing to Klein Wesson, Hollenbeck and Alge ( 1999 ) , a motivated worker performed his work at a higher degree than a demotivated worker. In their positions, a motivated worker will be more committed towards the end of his organisation, he will remain with the company and he will more satisfied with his occupation.

As such, it is really of import to understand the topic of motive for bettering the public presentation of an organisation.It is the occupation of directors duty to make a status where workers could utilize their full potency. Research has shown that failure to make the right status make workers alienated with their organisations and this lowers productiveness and organisational public presentation As such Lord ( 2002 ) pointed out retaining workers and bettering productiveness is a map of the grade that a worker is motivated

2.4 Employee Motivation: Theory and pattern

The occupation of a director in the workplace is to acquire things done through employees. To make this the director should be able to actuate employees

Human nature can be really simple and yet, it can be really complex excessively. An understanding and grasp of this is a requirement to effectual employee motive in the workplace and hence to an effectual direction and leading manner.

There are different attacks to motivation based on the impression that people act to maximise their single personal additions in some signifier or other. It is deserving observing that this wide position may non be universally applicable. The Nipponese worker, for illustration, is sometimes seen as sing corporate motive, in that they place more value on trueness and service to the organisation than on satisfaction of personal demands or ends. But the Western theoretical accounts of motive emphasize single addition and dignity.

Scientific direction is based on the premise that workers are motivated by economic factors, peculiarly money. However, the human relation motion stresses the importance of economic and non-economic factors in workers productiveness. Factors such as group norms and direction attitude are shown to act upon the motive of workers. In other words, both intrinsic ( wage, congratulations, publicity, leave, conditions ) and extrinsic wagess ( occupation satisfaction, sense of accomplishment, feeling of pride in work ) contribute to sustained additions in productiveness.

2.5 Motivational Theory

Motivation is critical if the company wants to accomplish sustained high degrees of public presentation through its staff. This means giving close attending to how persons can best be motivated through agencies such as inducements, wagess, leading and, significantly, the work they do and the organisation context within which they carry out that work. ( Armstrong 2003 ) . When one negotiations of i??motivationi?? , one refers to the forces within an single that account for the manner in which they behave. It is concerned with why persons choose a peculiar class of action in penchant to others. Mitchell ( 1982 ) identifies four common features, which underlie the definition of motive. These are as follows.

? Motivation is typified as an single phenomenon. Every individual is alone and all the major theories of motive allow for this singularity to be demonstrated in one manner or another.

? ? Motivation is described normally as knowing. Motivation is assumed to be under the workeri??s control and behaviors are influenced by motive in term of the attempt expended and this is are in the pick of action.

? Motivation is multifaceted. The two factors of greatest importance are what gets people activated and the forces of an person to prosecute in a coveted behaviour (

? The intent of motivational theories is to foretell behavior. Motivation is non the behavior itself, and it is non public presentation. Motivation concerns action and the internal and external forces, which influence a personi??s pick of action.

2.6 Authoritative theories of motive

2.6.1 Herzberg and Job satisfaction

Herzberg, Maunser, and Synderman ( 1959 ) proposed that an employeei??s motive to work is best understood when the several attitude of that employee is understood. That is, the internal construct of attitude which originates from a province of head, when probed, should uncover the most matter-of-fact information for directors with respect to the motive of workers. In his attack to analyzing the feelings of people toward their work, or their attitudes, Herzberg et Al. ( 1959 ) set out to reply three inquiries:

i?? Can one stipulate the attitude of any single toward his or her occupation?

i?? What causes these attitudes?

i?? What are the effects of these attitudes?

Herzberg et Al ( 1959 ) suggested a two-step attack to understanding employee motive and satisfaction:

Figure 1: Hygiene Factors

2.7.1.1 Hygiene Factors

Hygiene factors are based on the demand to for a concern to avoid unpleasantness at work. If these factors are considered unequal by employees, so they can do dissatisfaction with work. Hygiene factors include: company policy and disposal, rewards, wages and other fiscal wage, quality of supervising, quality of inter-personal dealingss, working conditions and feelings of occupation security ( Herzberg et al, 1959 )

2.6.2 Motivator Factors

Incentive factors are based on an person ‘s demand for personal growing. When they exist, incentive factors actively create occupation satisfaction. If they are effectual, so they can actuate an person to accomplish above-average public presentation and attempt. Motivator factors include: position, chance for promotion, deriving acknowledgment, duty, disputing / stimulating work and sense of personal accomplishment & A ; personal growing in a occupation ( Herzberg et al 1959 )

2.6.3 Applying Herzberg ‘s theoretical account to de-motivated workers

The grounds of de-motivated employees may be due to: low productiveness ; hapless production or service quality ; work stoppages, industrial differences, dislocations in employee communicating and relationships and ailments about wage and working conditions

Harmonizing to Herzberg et Al ( 1959 ) , direction should concentrate on rearranging work so that incentive factors can take consequence. He suggested three ways in which this could be done:

– Occupation expansion

– Occupation rotary motion

– Occupation enrichment

Herzberg et Al ( 1959 ) believed that all factors fell into one of these classs and hence had separate effects. His research concluded that some factors fell into both classs although they held a stronger place in one of them.

2.6.4 Criticism of Herzberg Theory

Harmonizing to the theory, if direction wants to increase satisfaction on the occupation, it should be concerned with the nature of the work itself i.e the chances it presents for deriving position, presuming duty, and for accomplishing self-fulfillment. If, on the other manus, direction wants to cut down dissatisfaction, so it must concentrate on the occupation environment such as policies, processs, supervising, and working conditions.

The chief critics of this theoretical account is that satisfaction and motive as interchangeable. Furthermore there is an embedded premise that increased satisfaction leads to increased motive.

But in pattern, direction is every bit concerned with both. As such, it can be considered that it is a theoretical theoretical account and it is out of stage with the work of directors

2.7 Motivation in Theory – Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow theoretical account of demand and motive autumn under the societal theoretical account. Harmonizing to Maslow ‘s theory ( Maslow:1954 ) consisted of two parts:

( 1 ) The categorization of human demands, and

( 2 ) Consideration of how the categories are related to each other

The categories of demands were summarized by Maslow as follows:

Figure 2: Maslow Hierarchy of Needs

2.7.1 How does the Hierarchy of demand Work?

A individual starts at the underside of the hierarchy ( pyramid ) and will ab initio seek to fulfill basic demands ( e.g. nutrient, shelter ) . Once these physiological demands have been satisfied, they are no longer a incentive. The person moves up to the following level-.Safety demands at work could include physical safety ( e.g. protective vesture ) every bit good as protection against unemployment, loss of income through sickness etc ) . Social needs recognise that most people want to belong to a group. These would include the demand for love and belonging ( e.g. working with co-workers who support each other at work, teamwork and communicating ) . Esteem demands are about being given acknowledgment for a occupation good done. They reflect the fact that many people seek the regard and regard of others. Self-actualization is about how people think about themselves – this is frequently measured by the extent of success and/or challenge at work

As such, Peoples at work are motivated chiefly by societal demands, such as the demand for friendly relationship and credence, and their sense of individuality is formed through relationships with other people Furthermore, people are more antiphonal to the force per unit areas of their equal groups at work than to direction controls and incentives.People respond when direction meets their demands for belonging, credence and sense of individuality.

Maslow ‘s theoretical account has great possible entreaty in the concern universe. The message is clear – if direction can happen out which level each employee has reached, so they can make up one’s mind on suited wagess.

2.7.2 Maslow ‘s Theory – Restrictions and Criticism

Though Maslow ‘s hierarchy makes sense intuitively, small grounds supports its rigorous hierarchy. Actually, recent research challenges the order that the demands are imposed by Maslow ‘s pyramid.

There are several jobs with the Maslow theoretical account when real-life working pattern is considered: single behavior seems to react to several demands – non merely one. The same demand ( e.g. the demand to interact socially at work ) may do rather different behavior in different persons. There is besides a job in make up one’s minding when a degree has really been “ satisfied ” ; the theoretical account ignores the often-observed behavior of persons who tolerate low-pay for the promise of future benefits. Additionally, small grounds suggests that people satisfy entirely one actuating demand at a clip, other than state of affairss where demands conflict

2.8 Motivation in theory – Taylor -Scientific Management

F.W.Taylor is the male parent of scientific direction. Taylor made three cardinal premises about human behavior at work:

( 1 ) Man is a rational economic animate being concerned with maximising his economic addition ;

( 2 ) Peoples respond as persons, non as groups

( 3 ) Peoples can be treated in a standardised manner, like machines

Taylor had a simple position about what motivated people at work – money. He felt that workers should acquire a just twenty-four hours ‘s wage for a just twenty-four hours ‘s work, and that wage should be linked to the sum produced ( e.g. piece-rates ) . Workers who did non present a just twenty-four hours ‘s work would be paid less ( or nil ) . Workers who did more than a just twenty-four hours ‘s work ( e.g. exceeded the mark ) would be paid more.

The deductions of Taylor ‘s theory for pull offing behaviour at work were the chief signifier of motive is high rewards and which is linked to end product. Second, a manageri??s occupation is to state employees what to make and eventually, a worker ‘s occupation is to make what they are told and acquire paid consequently.

In the literature reappraisal, Taylor Model is classified under rational and economic sciences theoretical account of work forces

2.8.1 Failings in Taylor ‘s Approach

The most obvious failing in Taylor ‘s attack is that it ignores the many differences between people. There is no warrant that a “ best manner ” will accommodate everyone.

Second, whilst money is an of import motive at work for many people, it is n’t for everyone. Taylor overlooked the fact that people work for grounds other than fiscal wages

2.9 Motivation in theory – McGregor – Theory Ten and Theory Y

McGregor developed two theories of human behaviour at work: Theory and X and Theory Y. He did non connote that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes – with a whole spectrum of possible behaviours in between.

Theory X workers could be described as those persons who dislike work and avoid it where possible. There are persons who lack aspiration disfavor duty and prefer to be led. Furthermore, there are persons who desire security. The direction deductions for Theory X workers were that, to accomplish organisational aims, a concern would necessitate to enforce a direction system of coercion, control and penalty.

Theory Y workers were characterized by McGregor considered attempt at work every bit merely like remainder or drama. – Ordinary people do non dislike work. Depending on the on the job conditions, work could be considered a beginning of satisfaction or penalty. Persons seek duty ( if they are motivated0

The direction deductions for Theory X workers are that, to accomplish organizational aims, wagess of changing sorts are likely to be the most popular incentive. The challenge for direction with Theory Y workers is to make a on the job environment ( or civilization ) where workers can demo and develop their creativeness.

2.9.1 Criticism of Theory X / Theory Y

Nowadays McGregor ‘s theory is seen as out-of-date, stand foring two extremes. Theory X is possibly seeable in low paid or humble work but employees in those state of affairss will travel on in hunt of places with Theory Y conditions if they are motivated. Personal development, direction preparation and even general perceptual experiences of behaviour are against a Theory X mentality towards work.

There is no uncertainty that this mentality would hold been more prevailing in the sixtiess when McGregor created his theory. Before he died, McGregor started working on a new Theory that he called Theory Z to turn to these unfavorable judgments. They were, nevertheless, landmark thoughts at their clip and now form an of import portion of the historical survey of direction theory

.

2.10 Factors of Motivation

2.10.1 Extrinsic and Intrinsic

Porter and Lawler ( 1968 ) proposed a theoretical account of intrinsic and extrinsic work motive. Intrinsic motive is about a individual making a thing because he/she find they found it to be disputing and interesting. On successful completion of the undertaking the individual derive personal satisfaction Extrinsic motive is about when a individual is induced by such external things and events. In this regard, satisfaction does non comes non from making the activity itself but from the effects to which the activity leads. In their positions, structuring the work environment would take effectual public presentation.This would affect both intrinsic and extrinsic wagess as. This could be accomplished by enlarging occupations to do them more interesting, . In this manner, worker can deduce both intrinsic and extrinsic motive from making their

This position is supported by Naylor ( 2004: 370-371 ) who stated that i?? extrinsic motive could be in footings of addition in wage, occupation security, publicity, benefits, and duties and so on. They define.intrinsic motive as psychological wagess such as the chance to utilize onei??s ability, a sense of challenge, accomplishment, being appreciated and deriving acknowledgment. These psychological wagess become evident in the actions and behaviour of people

2.10.2 Self-efficacy Factor of Motivation

Harmonizing to Bandura ( 1997 ) . , perceived self-efficacy is a individual ‘s belief in his or her ain capacity to i??organize and put to death the classs of action required to bring forth a given attainmenti?? As such, belief in one ‘s self-efficacy is viewed as an built-in constituent to behavioural province motive. Locke ( 1997 ) is of the position that. self-efficacy affects one ‘s attempt, continuity, and undertaking schemes related to goal-setting and end attainment at work

There are four beginnings of sensed self-efficacy cited by Bandura ( 1997 ) . These are

( a ) Enactive command i??people learn by making. As such, they start from simple undertaking and so travel to complex undertaking

( B ) Vicarious experience- people compare their public presentation on a undertaking with their equal

i?? Verbal persuasion i?? this is when people believe in the accomplishment of another individual and they are promote to make so

( vitamin D ) Physiological and affectional provinces are that lower emphasis degrees and enhanced physical provinces foster feelings of self-efficacy

1.

In a nutshell, both writers have stated that when people believe in their ain self-efficacy, this will increase their ain assurance in making higher degree of public presentation

2.11 Organization Motivations Through:

2.11.1 Communication

Committedness from people could be achieved in one understand what they he or she is expected to make. Moorhead & A ; Griffin ( 1995 ) stated that directors frequently fail to present the message to employees, in a clear and precise mode. In such state of affairss, the organisation clime will be really hapless, as persons will be working in a baffled environment where ends and aims are ill-defined. Harmonizing ( Hannagan, 2002 ) . , hapless communicating consequences in an unstable working environment and de-motivates employees There should be minimal engagement of staff. In order to pass on efficaciously organisation could used newssheets, briefing groups, notice boards and pictures

2.12.2 Leadership

Bono and Judge, 2003 ) have stated that i??Leadership the ability to enlist, mobilise, and motivate others to use their abilities and resources to a given causei??

Harmonizing to Schein ( 1992 ) , here is no best manner of leading. However an effectual leading should act upon employee behaviour in a positive mode, through assorted agencies such supplying preparation, offering inducements and giving publicity to employees. This can evidently promote staff to work harder and stay loyal to the organisation.

The literature reappraisal categorise leading as either transactional or transformational. Harmonizing to YUKL, a transmutation addition the aspiration degree of his followings by holding a common end. As such a leader go a function theoretical account and put the end and way of the organisation

As for a transactional leading, the relationship is based on wages for conformity & gt ; harmonizing to Bass and Avolio. the focal point is on conformity with organisational regulation as portion of efficiency direction. Here directors use a batch of public presentation direction techniques

Eyal and Kark, 2004 pointed out that the difference between the two type of leading manners is that a transactional leading inhibit invention in workers, engagement in the determination devising procedure and this may finally demotivate workers. On the other manus ( Geijsel et al. , 2003

, transformational leading dimensions ( e.g. vision edifice, rational stimulation, individualised consideration ) were found to straight act upon instructors ‘ sum of motive

2.13 Decision

Motivation is a topic that has been widely debated among both by the faculty members and the practicians. The following chapter trades with the methodological analysis that has been used for this survey

Chapter 3

3.0 RESEARCH AND METHODOLOGY

This chapter explains in inside informations the methodological analysis used in garnering the necessary information to carry on this survey. It highlights the beginnings of informations, the study design, and the information analysis method employed. The stairss which are necessary to carry on a research have besides been highlighted. The overall purposes was to be after and transport out the survey in consistently modes so as to accomplish a high grade of dependability and cogency of the findings

3.1 Beginnings of Datas

Datas beginnings are classified as being either primary beginnings or secondary beginnings. A beginning is primary if the information aggregator is the one utilizing the information for analysis. A beginning is secondary if one organisation or person has compiled the informations to be used by another organisation or single. For the intent of this survey, both primary and secondary beginning of information has been used

3.2 Survey Design

Research design is created by the research worker, is molded by the method, and is antiphonal to the context and the participants.

There are two attacks in planing a research, that is, the qualitative or the quantitative attack. Qualitative research is frequently regarded as a precursor to quantitative research, in that it is frequently used to bring forth possible leads and thoughts which can be used to explicate a realistic and testable hypothesis. This hypothesis can so be comprehensively tested and mathematically analyzed, with standard quantitative research methods.

Quantitative research are most normally used by physical scientists, although societal scientific disciplines, instruction and economic sciences have been known to utilize this type of research. It is the antonym of qualitative research.

Quantitative experiments all use a standard format, with a few minor inter-disciplinary differences, of bring forthing a hypothesis to be proved or disproved. This hypothesis must be demonstrable by mathematical and statistical agencies, and is the footing around which the whole experiment is designed.

Qualitative methods require a batch of careful idea and planning, to guarantee that the consequences obtained are every bit accurate as possible.For these grounds, these qualitative methods are frequently closely allied with interviews, study design techniques and single instance surveies, as a manner to reenforce and measure findings over a broader graduated table.

For this research, both a qualitative and a quantitative attack has been used which involves the designation of the concept, trying, design of study instrument and informations analysis.

3.3. Identifying the Concepts

In the initial stage of the research, the literature reappraisal was carried out in international diaries and publications that reflect the subject of the survey. A comprehensive reappraisal of the literature was the footing for the designation of the concepts and the development of instruments that was used in this survey.

3.3.2 Design of Survey Instruments

The study instruments, that is, questionnaires were designed to integrate five concepts, undertaking and airdrome economic sciences. These were administered personally to the respondents through personal bringing, mail and cyberspace. The concluding questionnaire comprises of seven parts, as follows:

1.

2. Demographic information.

3.4 Scale and measuring

A five-point graduated table was used to enter answering sentiment of the importance of each variable in the inquiry The graduated table intervals are interpreted as follows:

1. Strongly disagree S.D 1

2. Disagree D 2

3. Impersonal N 3

4. Agree A 4

5. Strongly agree SA 5

3.5 Pilot survey

A pilot study was carried out with 5 respondents to measure the fullness and lucidity of the questionnaire. Initially, some of the respondents found that the questionnaire to incorporate a few proficient footings and these has been rephrased utilizing a much more simple linguistic communication. However, there are a few footings for which a much more simple significance could non be found.In order to help the respondents, these have been defined in the questionnaire. in peculiar the definition of joint venture and plus based funding

3.6 Sampling

The study was carried out among the officers in the Finance Cadre at the Police Department

The size of the population for the different classs of respondents for this study ranges between This is illustrated in the tabular array below:

Table 3.1 i?? Survey Sample

Category Size Sample Percentage

Manager, Financial Operation 1 1 100

Assistant Manager, Financial Operation 4 4 100

Senior Financial Operations Officer 9 5 50

Fiscal Operations Officer 21 10 50

Adjunct Financial Operations Officer 33 17 50

Entire 48 217

The response rate for this study is set out below

Sample Number of questionnaire received

Number of to the full completed questionnaire

Manager, Financial Operation 1 1 1

Assistant Manager, Financial Operation 4 3 3

Senior Financial Operations Officer 5 6 5

Fiscal Operations Officer 10 11 8

Adjunct Financial Operations Officer 17 16 16

Entire 33

3.7 Data Analysis Method

The informations obtained from the study was encoded utilizing EXCEL and SPSS package version ( 10.0 ) .

In general, dependability refers to consistence of measuring whereas cogency refers to the extent to which an instrument measures what it is intended to mensurate. These factors have been punctually considered in the design of the study instrument every bit good as in the finding of the sample size.

In add-on, both descriptive statistics ( mean and standard divergence ) and illative statistics ( Chi Square, Kruskall Wallis trial ) have been used to analyse the information and information. The informations have besides been presented utilizing charts and diagrams every bit far as it has been possible.

3.8 Ethical motives

Ethical motives is an of import component in a research. Any shortcoming may ensue in invalid and bias decision on the subject of the study. As such, the followerss rule has been observed:

( a ) The research worker has sought and obtains the permission from the Director of Finance Operation ( Ministry of Finance and Economics Development to carry on the study

( B ) All participants were briefed on the intent of the research and they were given the pick to stop in instance they feel so.

( degree Celsius ) Participants were told that information obtained will be treated in rigorous confidentiality and namelessness will be maintained both during and after the study.

( vitamin D ) Finally no possible injury has been identified for those that participated in the survey.

3.10 Restriction of the Study

The attack adopted for the survey it to roll up information through ego administered questionnaires. In add-on the replies were restricted by the usage of a 5 point Likert Scale. . It is likely that a better apprehension could hold been obtained of the current state of affairs had interviews been carried out among the respondents. However, this was non possible due to clip and limited resources.

3.11 Decision

This chapter has given a elaborate description of the methodological analysis used for this research. The following chapter will show the findings of the analysis of the informations including the illations and observations made at that place from.

3.10 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Research hypotheses are the specific testable anticipation made about the independent and dependent variables in the survey. As portion of the survey, the undermentioned hypothesis will be tested:

3.11 Problem Encountered

In general, this survey has been a really enriching experience. However, during this research, the undermentioned jobs were encountered:

i?? Trouble to hold the engagement of some staffs due to their busy agenda.

i?? Most of the respondents return their questionnaires after the deadline.

i?? Difficulty to make some of the respondents at the scheduled day of the month

i?? Incomplete replies from the respondents

.

3.11 Decision

This chapter has given a elaborate description of the methodological analysis used for this research. The following chapter will show the findings of the analysis of the informations including the illations and observations made at that place from.

Chapter 4

4.0 ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS

4.1 Introduction

This portion of the survey trades with the analysis of the findings that have been obtained from the study. This is the nucleus chapter of the research undertaking as it provides the linkage between the theory underlying a topic and its application to the existent universe. In add-on, it can corroborate, reject or name for more research on a peculiar country. Social scientific discipline is a complex sphere whereby many endogenous or exogenic factors come into drama. It should be recalled that researching on a peculiar topic requires the research worker to follow the right methodological analysis so as to minimise indefensible prejudices in his or her decision on a peculiar subjects. As such, informations has to be validated for consistence and cogency. This is the phase where the research worker has to do some steadfast determination with regard to

( a ) uncomplete information in a questionnaire

( B ) defect which become evident after the questionnaire have been administered although the

research worker has taken all stairss to minimise such state of affairss

( degree Celsius ) the ethical norm which surround the behavior of a study

4.2 Demographic Information

4.2.1 Gender

A gender analysis has been carried out on the respondents. This is illustrated below:

Figure 4: Demographic information

There are severally 14 female and 19 male respondents. This ratio ( 1:1 ) reflects the composing of the work force in the Finance Cadre in the whole of the populace sector

4.2.2 Position

The occupation place of the respondent is given in the tabular array below:

Frequency Percent Cumulative Percentage

Manager, Financial Operation 1 3.0 3.0

Assistant Manager, Financial Operation 3 9.1 12.1

Senior Financial Operations Officer 5 15.2 27.3

Fiscal Operations Officer 8 24.2 51.5

Adjunct Financial Operations Officer 16 48.5 100.0

Entire 33 100.0

Figure5: Class of Military officers

The distribution of the respondents is as follows:1 respondent is a Manager, Financial Operation, 3 respondents are Adjunct Managers, Financial Operation, 5 respondents are Senior Financial Operations Officers, 8 respondents are Fiscal Operations Officer and 16 respondents are Adjunct Financial Operations Officers.

This information is farther presented in a pie chart:

From Figure 5, it can be noted that most of the respondents belong to the Assistant Financial Operation.

4.2.3 Age Analysis

An age analysis has been carried by utilizing a cross tabular matter beteen age and the place of the respondent. The elaborate information is given in the tabular array below:

Manager, Financial Operation Assistant Manager, Financial Operation Senior Financial Operations Officer Financial Operations Officer Assistant Financial Operations Officer

20 to 29 old ages 10 10

30 to 39 old ages 1 2 5 8

40 to 49 old ages 2 4 1 7

Above 50 old ages 1 3 2 2 8

1 3 5 8 16 33

.

Figure 7: Length of service

From the above tabular array, it is noted that all the respondents in the Manager, Financial Operation ( N=1 ) and Assistant Manager, Financial Operation ( N=3 ) are above 50 old ages old. All the respondents in the Assistan Financer Operation Officer Cadre are in the age bracket of 20 to 29. As for the other officers i.e Assistant Manager, Financial Operation, . Fiscal Operations Officer and Financial Operations Officer, they are all above 29 old ages old

The above information is illustrated in a saloon chart:

4.2.4 Length of Service

The tabular array below present the length of service and the age of the respondents

20 to 29 old ages 30 to 39 old ages 40 to 49 old ages Above 50 old ages

& lt ; 5 year 8 8

5 to 10 years 2 4 6

11 to 20 years 4 1 5

21 to 30 years 6 1 7

Above 30 years 7 7

10 8 7 8 33

8 respondents has worked for less than 5 old ages, 6 respondents has worked for between 5 to 10 old ages, 5 respondents have worked for between 11 to 20 old ages, 7 respondents have worked for 21 to 30 old ages and 7 respondents have worked for more than 30 old ages

The above information is illustrated in a saloon chart:

The consequence from a qi square trial is given in the tabular array below:

Chi-Square Trials

Value df Asymp. Sig. ( 2-sided )

Pearson Chi-Square 74.452 12.000

The P value value is.000. As such, the statistic demonstrate that age and length of service are non independent variable

4.6 Education

A cross tabular matter has been carried out utilizing two variables to place the distribution of the respondents in term degree of instruction and place. This is shown below:

School Certificate Higher School Certificate sheepskin degree Professional Qualification ( ACCAand others )

Manager, Financial Operation 1 1

Assistant Manager, Financial Operation 3 3

Senior Financial Operations Officer 2 2 1 5

Fiscal Operations Officer 4 1 3 8

Adjunct Financial Operations Officer 5 7 2 2 16

15 10 3 3 2 33

From the above tabular array, 15 officers hold a School Certificate, 10 officers hold a Higher School Certificate, 3 respondents hold a sheepskin, 3 officers hold a grade and 2 officers hold a professional making.One Senior Financial Operations Officer and two Assistant Financial Operations Officer keep a grade while 2 officers in Assistant Financial Operations Officer keep a professional making. The statistic reflect Government policy of developing its forces. In add-on, it is besides noted that senior officers are non interested to upgrade their making

The above information is illustrated below:

4.8 Level of Motivation

Respondents were required to province their degree of motive on a 5 point Likert Scale. A cross tabular matter has been carried to place the degree of motive among the 3 classs of officers. This is shown in the tabular array below:

class of officer Sum

Manager, Financial Operation Assistant Manager, Financial Operation Senior Financial Operations Officer Financial Operations Officer Assistant Financial Operations Officer

Not at all 2 2

A small 1 1 3 6 11

Do non cognize 1 2 2 5

To some extent 1 2 2 1 5 11

Fully 1 2 1 4

1 3 5 8 16 33

Figure 10: Degree of Motivation

From the tabular array, it is noted that 13 out of the 33 respondents are non motivated, 5 respondent have non expressed an sentiment while 15 respondents are motivated. It is besides found out that the there is a low motive degree among all the class of officer except for the Manager Financial Operation

4.9 Working Condition

Harmonizing to Hertzberg, working conditions are hygiene factors i.e. they can merely maintain an employee happy but they do no needfully t contribute towards actuating an employee toward a higher degree of public presentation As such, respondents were required to show their positions on a set of 5 statements which have been framed on a 5 points Likert Scale.

Statistically, a average mark above 3 point out that the respondents hold a positive position on these statements while a mark of less than 3 shows that the respondents have given a low evaluation to these statements. A average mark of 3 denotes that there is no consensus among the respondents

The consequence of the analysis is given below

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Mean STD

I am satisfied with my present on the job environment

3 8 5 12 5 3.2424 1.2508

I feel that I am working in a safe environment

4 10 4 14 1 2.9394 1.1710

I am offered with all working installations

2 3 9 15 4 3.4848 1.0344

My organisation has province of the art engineering

6 6 6 13 2 2.9697 1.2621

The physical installations are visually appealing to me

4 5 7 11 6 2.6667 1.1087

On the footing of a average mark analysis, it is noted that respondents have given a low evaluation to the province of engineering that is being offered ( Mean=2.9697 ) , the ocular entreaty of the installations ( Mean =2.6667 ) , and the safety of the working environment ( Mean =2.9394 ) .

On the other manus, respondents have given a comparatively high evaluation to their working environment ( M=3.2424 ) and the installations offered to them ( M=3.4848 )

In position of the determination, a correlativity analysis so as identify those factors which are related with the motive of the employees. This is shown in the tabular array below:

Factors

Correlation analysis

I am motivated to make my occupation

I am satisfied with my present on the job environment

Pearson Correlation.147

I feel that I am working in a safe environment

Pearson Correlation.363

I am offered with all working installations

Pearson Correlation.331

My organisation has province of the art engineering

Pearson Correlation.293

The physical installations are visually appealing to me

Pearson Correlation.342

Table 8: Factors lending toward Motivation

The correlativity factor lies in the scope of -1 to 1. A positive correlativity indicates that there is a an association between two variables while a negative correlativity indicates that there is an reverse association between two variables. The strength of the association can run from zero to one. From the above tabular array, it is noted that the correlativity factors are in the scope of.147 to.363.

On the footing of the above findings, it can be inferred that there is positive association between the work conditions and the degree of motive but they are non really strong. The lowest two comparatively low correlativity factors are: ( a ) satisfaction with working environment ( r=.147 ) , and the province of engineering that is being used in the organisation. The comparatively higher correlativity relate to the safety of the work ( r=.363 ) , the quality of the installations offered ( r=.331 ) and the ocular entreaty of the installations ( r=.342 )

4.10 Quality of Supervision

Harmonizing to Herzberg, the quality of supervising, and quality of inter-personal relation in an organisation are hygiene factors. Harmonizing to the writer, the presence of a hygiene factor does necessary non actuate an employee but its absence will do an employee to go demotivated

In this regard, respondents were required to province their positions on a set of two statements. These are:

( a ) My supervisor is friendly and show personal concern to my demand

( B ) My supervisor pattern an unfastened door policy

Three alternate picks were given to the respondents and these are given below:

( a ) I am agreeable with the statement 3

( B ) I am apathetic with the statement 2

i?? I do non hold with the statement 1

The consequence from the analysis is given below ;

Agreeable Indifferent Not agreeable MEAN STD

My supervisor is friendly and show personal concern to my demand 12 11 10 1.9394.8269

My supervisor pattern an unfastened door policy 10 11 12 2.0606.8269

From the information contained in the above tabular array, it is noted that respondents do non portion a common sentiment with regard to the personal qualities of their supervisor. 12 respondents have stated that their supervisor is friendly and show personal concern to their demand while 10 respondents hold an opposite position. 11 respondents are apathetic as respect the friendliness and caring attitude of their supervisor

Similarly, 10 respondents have stated that their supervisor pattern an unfastened door policy against 12 respondents who feel that their supervisor do non pattern an unfastened door policy. 11 respondents are apathetic with regard to this statement

In relation with the two above statements, respondents were required to rate their degree of satisfaction with the qualities of their supervisor on a 5 point Liker Scale

The information obtained is tabulated

Frequency Percent Cumulative Percentage

Strongly Disagree 3 9.1 9.1

Disagree 11 33.3 42.4

Impersonal

6 18.2 60.6

Agree 5 15.2 75.8

Strongly Agree 8 24.2 100.0

Entire 33 100.0

From the above tabular array, it is noted that 14 respondents ( i.e. 42 % ) are non satisfied while 13 respondents ( 39 % ) are satisfied. 6 respondents have taken a impersonal place

In order to place the relationship between the quality of supervising with the motive of the officer, a Wilcoxon trial has been carried out at the 5 % significance degree. The inside informations of the trial are given below

Degree of satisfaction – motive

Z -.154

Asymp. Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.877

a Based on negative ranks.

B Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test

The P factor is.877.This indicate that the quality of supervising has an influence on the motive degree of employees

Interpersonal Relationship

As already mentioned, Herzberg considered interpersonal relationship in an organisation to be a hygiene factor while Maslow classified it as portion of the societal demand of an person. In this regard, the positions of the respondents have been sought on a set of three statements associating to interpersonal relation as shown below

i?? I have good relation with my equals

( vitamin D ) I maintain a good relation with my subsidiaries

( vitamin E ) I maintain a good relation with my higher-ups

As earlier, three alternate picks were given to the respondents and these are given below:

( a ) I am agreeable with the statement 3

( B ) I am apathetic with the statement 2

i?? I do non hold with the statement 1

The consequence obtained from the analysis is given below

Not Agreeable Indifferent Agreeable MEAN STD

I have good relation with my equals

6 10 17 2.3333.7773

I maintain a good relation with my subsidiaries 4 12 17 2.3939.7044

I maintain a good relation with my higher-ups 6 9 18 2.3636.7833

The information obtained has been analyzed utilizing the average tonss. As such, a average mark above 2 denotes that overall respondents agree with the statement while a average mark that fall below 2 indicates that overall respondents are non agreeable with the statement. A average mark of 2 indicates that there is a deficiency of consensus among the respondents with a statement.

It is noted that all the three statements have a mean mark that is above 2. This indicates that respondents have good relation with their equals ( M=2.3333 ) , they maintain a good relation with my subsidiaries ( M=2.3939 ) and they maintain a good relation with my higher-ups ( 2.3636 )

The analysis has been extended to verify as to whether there is a relationship between the degree of motive and the interpersonal relationship. In this regard, the sum tonss have been worked for the three statements and a hypothesis testing has been carried to place the relation between interpersonal relation and the degree of motive

The aggregative tonss obtained for the three statements and the frequence distribution is given in the tabular array below:

Aggregate Scores Frequency Percent Cumulative Percentage

3.00

1 3.0 3.0

4.00

1 3.0 6.1

5.00

3 9.1 15.2

6.00

6 18.2 33.3

7.00

8 24.2 57.6

8.00

6 18.2 75.8

9.00 8 24.2 100.0

Entire

33 100.0

From the above tabular array, the mark for the 3 statements are below 5 for 5 respondents while it is above 5 for 28 respondents

The undermentioned hypothesis trial has been carried out at the 5 % statistical significance degree

Holmium: Good interpersonal relationship is a incentive

H1: Good interpersonal relationship is non a incentive

The consequence of the trial is given below:

Ranks

N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks

Negative Ranks 0.00.00

Positive Ranks 32 16.50 528.00

Neckties 1

Entire 33

a RELATION & lt ; motive

B RELATION & gt ; motive

hundred motive = RELATION

RELATION – motive

Z -4.959

Asymp. Sig. ( 2-tailed ) .000

a Based on negative ranks.

B Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test

.The P factor is.000. As such there is sufficient grounds to reject the void hypothesis. As such, it can be concluded that good interpersonal relationship is non incentive. The findings are in line with the proposition of Herzberg

4.11 Pay as a Incentive

Up to now the argument as to whether wage is a incentive is still traveling on in the faculty members universe. Herzberg acknowledged the complexness of the salary issue ( money, net incomes, etc ) , and concluded that money is non a incentive in the same manner as that of the other primary incentives are, such as accomplishment and acknowledgment. However, some empirical findings in the literature denote that money is a incentive in some contexts such as the occupation place, states, province of the economic system

It is along these lines t that respondents positions were sought on their grade of satisfaction with the wage degree and that consequence that wage can hold on the motive and aspiration of employees

As such, respondents were given a set of 4 dichotomous inquiries associating to pay. The responses are tabulated in the tabular array below:

Statement Yes No Do non cognize

I am satisfied with my present salary 11 16 6

I will execute better if I get a wage addition 19 4 10

The wagess construction encourages staffs to upgrade their accomplishments 5 8 20

I accept a high burden or extra duties if I am paid a higher salary 15 8 10

Table 15: Wage as a Incentive

The general decision from the statistics is that employees are non satisfied with their wages ; they will execute better if they are allowed a wage addition, the wages construction does non promote staff to upgrade their accomplishment and they will accept a higher work which is commensurate with a rise in their wage package.

The analysis has been extended to place the class of staff which are most disgruntled with their wages. The consequence of the analysis is given in the tabular array below:

Manager, Financial Operation Assistant Manager, Financial Operation Senior Financial Operations Officer Financial Operations Officer Assistant Financial Operations Officer

no 1 2 4 9 16

Do non cognize 1 1 4 5 11

yes 1 1 2 2 6

1 3 5 8 16 33

On the footing of the above tabular array, it is noted high ranking officers are by and large satisfied with their wages against lower degree officer who are non satisfied with their wages

In position of the argument environing wage and its motivational consequence, the undermentioned hypothesis has been tested at the 5 % statistical significance degree.

Holmium: Pay act as a incentive

H1: Wage is non a incentive

The consequence of the trial is given below:

N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks

Negative Ranks 24 14.94 358.50

Positive Ranks 3 6.50 19.50

Neckties 6

Entire 33

a I am satisfied with my present salary & lt ; motive

B I am satisfied with my present salary & gt ; motive

hundred motive = I am satisfied with my present wage

I am satisfied with my present salary – motive

Z -4.150

Asymp. Sig. ( 2-tailed ) .000

a Based on positive ranks.

B Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test

The P factor is.000. As such there is sufficient grounds to reject the void hypothesis. As such it can be concluded that wage is non a incentive. This happening support the propostion of Herzberg

4.12 Job Design and Motivation

Harmonizing to the literature reappraisal, occupation design is a major contributory factor to actuate employees. The survey which was carried at the Hawthorne works revealed that occupation design influence the societal interaction between employees and this finally affect the motive of employees.In add-on Hertzberg argued that occupation enrichment is required for intrinsic motive, . Harmonizing to Hertzberg, occupation should hold sufficient challenge to use the full ability of employees. As such employees who demonstrate increasing degrees of ability should be given increasing degrees of duty.

On this premiss, respondents were required to province as to whether they consider their occupation to be meaningful. This is illustrated below

Figure 12: Meaning of the Job

It is noted that 64 % of the respondents ( i.e. N=21 ) consider their occupation to be meaningful while 18 % ( i.e. N=5 ) hold a different position. In add-on, 18 % of the respondents ( N=6 ) have non given a response.

In add-on to the above, respondents were required to give their positions on 4 statements on a 5 point Likert Scale

( a ) I have a good grade of freedom and independency for making my occupation

( B ) I make full usage of my endowments, accomplishment and abilities in executing my work

i?? My duty is commensurate with authorization

( vitamin D ) My occupation is career oriented

The mean mark for four factors that are built-in in the occupation of the respondent has been worked out. In line with the old model, a mean mark that is above 3 indicates that most respondents back up a statement while a average mark that is below 3 indicates that most respondents do non back up a a statement. A average mark of 3 indicates that there is no consensus on a statement

The consequence of the analysis is shown inn the tabular array below:

Statement

Mean Std. Deviation

I have a good grade of freedom and independency for making my occupation

3.6970.8095

I make full usage of my endowments, accomplishment and abilities in executing my work

3.6970.7699

My duty is commensurate with authorization

2.9697 1.2371

My occupation is career oriented 2.8485 1.1489

Table 17: Factors inherent in a Occupation

From the above tabular array, it is noted that 2 statements have a mean mark which is above 3. These relate to

( a ) Freedom and independency in making one occupation ( M=3.6970 )

( B ) Using one ability, endowment and accomplishment of making one occupation ( M=3.6970 )

This point out that the employees are satisfied with the above two factors

However, there are two statements whereby the mean tonss are below 3. These relate to

( a ) There is lucifer between duty and authorization ( M=2.9697 )

( B ) The calling chance in a occupation ( M=2.8485 )

The analysis has been extended to find as to whether occupation design has an consequence on the degree of motive. The average mark on the 4 statements have been worked and this is shown below:

Mean Score Frequency Percent Cumulative Percentage

2.25 1 3.0 3.0

2.50 2 6.1 9.1

2.75 7 21.2 30.3

3.00 5 15.2 45.5

3.25 4 12.1 57.6

3.50 2 6.1 63.6

3.75 6 18.2 81.8

4.00 3 9.1 90.9

4.25 2 6.1 97.0

4.50 1 3.0 100.0

Entire 33 100.0

From the tabular array, it can be noted that the mean mark for 23 respondents are above 3 and the mean mark for 10 respondents are below 3.This indicates that most of the respondents are satisfied with the present occupation design. In this regard, a hypothesis trial has been carried at the 5 % statistical significance degree to prove whether the occupation design is actuating people. The hypothesis is set out below:

Holmium: Job content act as incentive

H1: Job content is non a incentive

The consequence of the trial is given below

N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks

Negative Ranks 15

15.20 228.00

Positive Ranks 17

17.65 300.00

Neckties 1

Entire 33

a Job content & lt ; motive

B Job content & gt ; motive

hundred motive = Job content

Trial Statisticss

JOBCON – motive

Omega

-.675

Asymp. Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.500

a Based on negative ranks.

B Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test

The P factor is.005. As such, there is deficient grounds to reject the void hypothesis. As such, it can be concluded that occupation content act as a incentive. This finding support Herzberg motive theory whereby proper occupation design could be made as a motivation tool for directors

4.13 Training

Harmonizing to the literature reappraisal, preparation is a accelerator for promoting employee to put a higher degree of personal end. It gives the inspiration to come on in the calling promotion ladder. As per Se it assist employee to fulfill their self-actualization demand ( Maslow, )

Respondents were required to show their sentiment on the importance of preparation and preparation policy of their organisation

Statement

SD D N

A SA MEAN STD

Training assist me to make my occupation efficaciously 1 5 7 14 6 3.5758 1.0616

My organisation is supplying me with the needed preparation

0

5

8 16 4 3.5758.9024

Entire

20 out of the 33 respondents see preparation as a manner to increase their effectivity, 6 respondents hold an opposite position and 7 respondents have non given their positions

20 respondents are of the position that their organisation is supplying them with the necessary preparation, 5 respondents do non portion this position and 8 respondents have adopted a impersonal place

Overall, it can be considered that preparation is playing an of import function at the Finance Division of the Police Department. As already mentioned, Mauritius has moved from a system of line budgeting to a system of Programme based Budgeting. This had required intensive preparation to implement the new system

In this regard, respondents were required to give their positions as to whether developing contributes toward their personal motive.

The statistics are given in the tabular array below:

Positions Training Acts of the Apostless as a motivational tool

Percentage

Strongly disagree 2 6.1

Disagree 9 27.3

Impersonal 7 21.2

Agree 11 33.3

Strongly agree 4 12.1

Entire 33 100

Table 20: Training as a Motivational Tool

On the footing of the above information, it can be concluded that developing contribute toward employee motive in position 45 % ( N=15 ) of the respondents have given a positive response.as compared to 11 respondents ( 33 % ) who have given a negative response.7 respondents have non voiced their sentiment on this issue

The above information is besides illustrated utilizing pie charts:

Figure 13 Training as a Motivational Tool

The information has been farther explored to find as to whether there is an association between respondents positions on preparation as a motivational tool and their ain personal motive. The undermentioned hypothesis has been tested at the 5 % significance degree utilizing Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Trials

Holmium: Training contribute employee motive

H1: : Training does non lend employee motive

The trial consequence is given below:

N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks

developing contributes toward their personal motive. – motive Negative Ranks 8 9.00 72.00

Positive Ranks 9 9.00 81.00

Neckties 16

Entire 33

a preparation contributes toward their personal motive. & lt ; motive

B preparation contributes toward their personal motive. & gt ; motive

hundred motive = preparation contributes toward their personal motive.

Trial Statisticss

Training contributes toward my personal motive. i?? my degree of motive

Omega

-.217

Asymp. Sig. ( 2-tailed )

.828

a Based on negative ranks.

B Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test

Table 21: Training as a Motivational Tool Test

On the footing of the consequence ( i.e. p =.828 ) there is non sufficient grounds to reject the void hypothesis. As such, it can be concluded that developing contribute toward actuating staff

4.14 Promotion

Under his two-factor theory, Herzberg defined a incentive as something that give positive satisfaction that arise from intrinsic degree Celsius

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