**English mathematician and natural philosopher**

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### Question 1 Part B

Sir Isaac Newton was an English mathematician and natural philosopher ( Graig, 1901 ) . He was born the twelvemonth of Galileo ‘s decease on Christmas twenty-four hours at Woolthorpe, Lincolnshire in 1642 ( Bell, 1942 ; Graig, 1901 ) .

In 1661, he attended Trinity College at Cambridge as an undergraduate ( Ball, 1908 ; Westfall, 1987 ) . As stated by Graig ( 1901 ) , his involvement on mathematics was inspired after reading Descartes ‘ Geometry ; he besides studied the plants of other mathematicians including those of Barrows and Wallis ( Struik, 1948 ) . Harmonizing to grounds, by 1665, the twelvemonth of his graduation from Cambridge ( Graig, 1901 ) , he had invented a really powerful scientific work, the concretion ( Ball, 1908 ) .

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The innovation of the infinitesimal or “fluxional” concretion is regarded as his greatest mathematical find ( Westfall, 1980 ) , without which modern scientific discipline and engineering would non hold been advanced ( Bell, 1942 ) . Fluxs were applied by Newton in order to decide jobs of curvature ( Ball, 1908 ) . The method of fluxions, known today as distinction was published in 1693 ( Graig, 1901 ) . In add-on to this, Newton identified that the procedure of distinction was reverse to the procedure of integrating ( Struik, 1948 ) , and formulated the cardinal theorem of concretion ( Westfall, 1987 ) .

Equally far as the innovation of concretion is concerned, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz besides discovered concretion in 1674. However, since Newton ever postponed the publication of his chef-d’oeuvres for many old ages ( Mannuel, 1968 ) , Leibnitz published his work foremost in 1684 ; nine old ages before Newton ‘s find became public ( Ball, 1908 ) .This resulted to a long difference between Leibnitz and Newton over the precedence of the calculus inception ( Graig, 1901 ) . However, it was admitted by all that both invented concretion independently even though Newton ‘s precedence is good established ( Bell, 1942 ) .

Newton gained a family at Cambridge in 1667 and by 1669 he became Lucasian professor of Mathematics ( Graig, 1901 ) . His masterpiece Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, known as Principia, was published in 1687 and it is considered one of the greatest and most influential books which shaped the development of scientific discipline ( Westfall, 1977 ) . Harmonizing to Cohen ( 1980 ) , through Principia Newton initiated a fresh attack to the reading of nature by the usage of mathematical analysis. Principia is comprised of three books which include the three Torahs of gesture every bit good as Newton ‘s jurisprudence of cosmopolitan gravity ( Westfall, 1980 ) .

After Hooke died, he was elected president of the Royal Society in 1703, a station which he held until his decease ( Graig, 1901 ) . In 1704, he published Opticks, one of his major work aimed to explicate the belongingss of visible radiation and coloring material ( Westfall, 1980 ) . In add-on, Enumeratio Linearum Tertii Ordinis which dealt with three-dimensional curves categorization and De Quadratura Curvarum in which he employed infinite series on the rectification and quadrature of curves were besides published as appendices to the Opticks. De Quadratura Curvarum besides included the binomial theorem, which he had invented in 1665, and a sum-up of the method of fluxions ( Ball, 1908 ) .

Newton is regarded as a superb illustration of a mathematical mastermind ( Mannuel, 1968 ) ; nevertheless one can barely see that he was self-instructed ( Westfall, 1993 ) . He died on the twentieth of March at the age of eighty- five ( Graig, 1901 ) .

He is rightly regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all times, since his mathematical accomplishments and advanced analysis of natural phenomena comprised a revolution ( Cohen, 1980 ; Westfall, 1987 ) . Old ages after his decease, his amazing finds are still considered inspirational by scientists, endeavoured to follow his paths ( Bell, 1942 ) .