Examining The Problems Of Drug Use In America English Literature Essay

I am traveling to look at the work of an English intellectual from the 19th century, an experimental American author and the male monarch of Gonzo ; an eccentric, an rational and a drug addict. When one ab initio thinks of drugs, they are thought of as medicative. Most drugs were foremost used for mending intents. Marijuana had medicative utilizations. Cocaine was given to mineworkers and plantation workers to increase their output. The drugs transfer the user to a more enjoyable province of head, a one which the homo mind craves.

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LSD was considered at one point by the psychiatric community to handle psychotic, down and epileptic patients. All of these writers started taking drugs with the purpose of finally bettering their ‘well-being ‘ , even Hunter S. Thompson.

Opium became a known drug in the West when poppies were brought from the Middle East ( popular in Islamic communities. Early portraitures of drug usage in Literature can be linked right back to the beginning of the written word with Greek poet Homer showing Helen of Troy as being a user of a derived function of diacetylmorphine. Writers such as Samuel Taylor, Coleridge, Shelley, Wordsworth, Byron and Keats all used opium and arguably produced their best work under the influence. Opium became a popular drug among the romantic poets. Arguably some of the best work from this epoch was produced by writers under the influence of opium. There was a “ practical detonation of drug usage among immature authors ” ( enotes.com/aˆ¦/drugs-literature ) in the romantic epoch. The most celebrated author from the Romantic period to compose about his experiences with opium was Thomas De Quincey, with his text ‘Confessions of an English Opium Eater ‘ . His opium usage started in 1804 and continued until he died in 1859.

There have been a figure of celebrated writers who have used drugs. Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Thomas De Quincey took opium. Gallic poet Charles Baudelaire smoked hashish. Scots author Robert Louis Steven used cocaine. Writer of ‘Brave New World ” Adlous Huxley took the psychedelic drug peyote. William Burroughs became synonymous with heroin dependence. Science fiction writer Philip K. Dick took voluminous sums of velocity. Hunter S. Thompson took everything. How many authors have chosen to picture their drug usage?

It could be argued that drug literature as a genre, or a subdivision in a book store, is a strain of book which covers the widest scope of political, societal and cultural issues. This field of literature brings the storytellers mind into ‘altered provinces ‘ which merely could n’t be explored in a sober ‘clean ‘ head. The airy experiences that these narcotics provide are tempting and provocative.

The drugs serve to help creativeness, whilst turning the storytellers and characters into paranoid wrecks. Particularly in Thompson ‘s ‘Fear and Abhoring ‘ – the novel follows the three twenty-four hours orgy of Duke and Gonzo. They set off on their journey with a auto packed with every hallucinogenic imaginable, a horn of plenty of pharmaceuticals

“ The bole of the auto looked like a nomadic constabulary narcotics lab. We had two bags of grass, 75 pellets of peyote, five sheets of high-octane blotting paper acid, a salt shaker full of cocaine, and a whole galaxy of motley uppers, sedatives, roarers, laughers… ” ( pg. 4 )

Gonzo goes on a journey across America to detect his individuality as a author. Consuming as many drugs as his auto and little pay will let him to transport. His lawyer Duke comes along for this great American journey to the greed ridden place of chancing and frailty known as Las Vegas. Thompson on the gap pages describes ‘his novel to be a relation of ‘A Savage Journey to the Heart of the American Dream ‘ . ‘Fear and Abhoring ‘ reads at times like an LSD trip. It took me several readings of the same page to to the full absorb what had been written. Possibly it was n’t supposed to be read this manner. It has an thorough and at times confused narrative.

Burroughs and Thompson create a nauseous image of America in the nineteen-fifties and the early 19 1970ss. The books papers before the hippie motion of the 1960ss and takes off at the wake in a journalistic manner. They explore the belowground countercultures of the clip. The places in society that characters take let them a position that few writers had the chance to research. We get the sense that Burroughs and Thompson are the experts in their field.

Burroughs and Thompson ‘s relation to the all in coevals authors such as Jack Kerouac

Thompson is full of snippings of cognition about the civilization and society that surrounds him. The storyteller provides a humourous and at times disgusting recognition of the manner in which American society plants. Bing a portion of the failed counterculture allows for a distinguishable position of many parts of society – popular America and belowground America, and the effects that these societies have on the people. Thompson provides an effectual societal and political commentary. This is particularly highlighted in pagesaˆ¦

Pages 72 to 74 Tell of the epoch of the early 1970 ‘s. Gonzo decided to read a newspaper to quiet him down, with headlines like “ TRIO ARRESTED IN BEAUTY ‘S DEATH ” and “ GI DRUG DEATHS CLAIMED ” . The headlines provide a commentary of great societal unfairness. He includes is a narrative about Muhammed Ali being put in prison for declining to travel to war. Thompson gives a great illustration of societal unfairness following an epoch when societal justness was purportedly high on the docket. An illustration of the great failure that Thompson believes his coevals is.

Beat coevals authors experimented with drugs to spread out their heads, to make what they believed to be untapped parts of their mind. The Beats represented a rejection of constitution. Their drug usage allowed them this rebellion ; they were revolting against the economic richness and societal stableness that followed World War II. Hunter S. Thompson was an bizarre intellectual who to all intense intents should be the most ‘straight ‘ white male who is a journalist.

The accelerator for the psychedelic and hippie motion of the 1960 ‘s was a drug called LSD. “ The Electric Kool Aid Acid Test ” by Tom Wolfe was marketed as being about deriving a new apprehension of life and transcending world. Wolfs ultimate decision is finally that LSD causes the user to go disinterested in the universe and apathetic about ethical results. This can be seen through the former pupil leaders of the left-of-center motion and the civil rights motion became disinterested with societal policy and political motion and alternatively began to concentrate on the drug. The writer intimations at the thought that these immature people could hold achieved great things for societal justness but alternatively threw it all off for this drug LSD.

“ Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas ” begins with the lines,

“ He who makes a animal of himself gets rid of the hurting of being a adult male ” . Thompson uses the drugs to get away from American life. The quotation mark refers to the storyteller ‘s heavy fickle usage of drugs to get by with the failure that he feels his coevals has become the failed counterculture of the 1960ss. Unlike the coevals before Thompson who used drugs to spread out their heads, he uses to the drugs in order to turn him into a muss, for world itself is excessively distorted.

“ their fickle behavior depicts the ungratified failure his coevals feels. ”

“ ThroughoutA Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, the supporters go out of their manner to degrade, maltreatment, and destroy symbols of American consumerism and surplus, while Las Vegas symbolizes the harsh ugliness of mainstream American civilization ”

Fear and Loathing has a frenetic gait which follows the manner of bizarre news media. Hunter S. Thompson has a self-generated manner of authorship, a relentless gait which barely gives the reader adequate clip to take a breath and reflect on what is go oning. Thompson uses pure duologue to narrate much of the novel. He describes to the reader precisely what he is believing and experiencing at the clip, for illustration the book begins during some sort of drug trip and we are informed consecutive off of how dying he is experiencing about the writers. Duke ‘s interior soliloquies reveal much about his character, they are frequently fuelled by drug hallucinations. It is as if the storyteller is driven by being on the threshold of a nervous dislocation. Duke is seesawing on the border of saneness with every drug that he inhales, sups and fumes.

Unlike Burroughs and De Quincey who provide rather drawn-out debuts to their novels we are thrown directly into the action with Duke and Gonzo half manner across the comeuppances on the outsirts of Las Vegas.

Thompson ‘s novel is about a hunt for the American dream. The end of the beats was to happen a more “ existent ” American experience. Gonzo and his co-worker are on their journey to Las Vegas across the waste deserts to happen America. They travel to the gross outing ego-driven Centre of America. The prototype of greed, selfishness, and all that is foul about worlds and western civilization.

Thompson creates pure bizarre news media. Much of “ Fear and Loathing ” reads like a Dictaphone recording,

“ Saturday midnight… Memories of this dark are highly brumous. All I have, for guide-pegs, is a pocketful of lotto cards and cocktail serviettes, all covered with scribbled notes. Here is one: “ Get the Ford adult male, demand a Bronco for race-observation intents… exposures? … Lacerda/call… why non a chopper? … Get on the phone, A leanA on the fuckers… heaving yelling. ” ( pg. 41 )

Thompson gives us a series of facts followed by rhetorical inquiries, separated by brief minutes of composure. This is a fresh drenched in cultural mentions which are to a great extent linked to the subject of Duke and Gonzo ‘s hunt for the American Dream.

“ Debbie Reynolds was yoking across the phase in a Ag Afro wigaˆ¦ to the melody of “ Sergeant Pepper, ” from the aureate cornet of Harry James ” ( pg. 44 )

Thompson efficaciously creates a disgustful image of Las Vegas. Debbie Reynolds was married to Harry Karl, a millionaire concern adult male. Reynolds took on much of Karl ‘s fiscal troubles that he faced due to chancing.

“ Will he do that inexorable connexion when my lawyer starts shouting about chiropterans and immense manta beams coming down on the auto? If so-well, we ‘ll merely hold to cut his caput off and bury him someplace. ” ( pg. 5 )

There is a sense that the reader is the child hitchhiker that they pick up at the beginning. Possibly we are bewildered immature adult male. Duke ‘s debut to the child that they pick up in the auto is a manner of presenting to the topographic point in which we are brought into the narrative.

“ I want you to cognize that we ‘re on our manner to Las Vegas to happen the American Dream. “ – “ I want you to hold all the background, ” I said. “ Because this is a really baleful assignment – with overtones of utmost personal danger… ” ( pg.6 )

It is as if poisoning were the lone response to the greed and crud that is Las Vegas.

“ Every now and so when your life gets complicated and the weasels start shutting in, the lone existent remedy is to lade up on flagitious chemicals and so drive like a asshole from Hollywood to Las Vegas. ” ( pg. 12 )

“ Old elephants limp off to the hills to decease ; old Americans go out to the main road and thrust themselves to decease with immense autos. ” ( pg. 18 )

The drugs serve as a medicative remedy for Gonzo and Duke to modern America. There lone manner of genuinely detecting America.

“ It was a authoritative avowal of everything that was true and nice in the national character. I t was a gross, physical salutation to the antic possibilities of life in this state ” ( pg. 18 )

Within one paragraph Thomspon makes mention to Olympic and World Heavy Weight Boxing Champion Joe Frazier, the ill-famed battle with Muhammad Ali. Tim Leary, a celebrated advocate of the curative, spiritiual and emotional benefits of LSD. He coined the counter-culture phrase ‘Turn on, melody in, bead out. The phrase was used to promote people to encompass cultural alterations by the usage of psychedelics which would open their heads by detatching them from bing hierarchies in society. He besides refers to Owsley Stanley, an belowground LSD cook who produced big measures of pure LSD.

Thompson uses these cultural mentions to specify the 1960 ‘s. Duke describes this epoch as “ burned out and long gone from the beastly worlds of this disgusting twelvemonth of Our Lord, 1971 ”

The drugs create visions which allow the physical manifestations of disgust that Duke feels for the universe around him. Thompson ‘s drug fuelled hallucinations supply a societal, cultural and political critic of America and its common multitudes. As Gonzo ad Duke Approach the imperativeness tabular array in Las Vegas, Duke begins to see immense blood thirsty lizards and a blood besotted floor as he staggers across the saloon. We get glances of the events at the clip, with Duke turning on the telecasting to the intelligence about the Vietnam War. The veterans used diacetylmorphine to get away the rough worlds of the war whilst helping.

Gonzo ‘s response to this is one of utmost displeasure. The Vietnamese invasion of Laos happened in 1971.

The Television intelligence was about the Laos Invasion – a series of dismaying catastrophes: detonations and distorted wreckage, work forces flying in panic, Pentagon generals babbling insane prevarications. “ Turn that shit off! ” screamed my lawyer “ Lets getA outA of here! ”

Many writers have used drugs, but how many have them have depicted their ain drug usage? How many of them have created characters that are addicted?

We see the usage of “ lingo ” in Fear and Loathing, ‘hep ‘ which is the beginning of the word ‘hip ‘ significance ‘informed about the latest tendencies ‘ or more merely put ‘cool ‘ . “ Fear and Loathing ” does non hold a clear narrative construction. The narrative delves in and out of drug induced hallucinations and the surreal. When reading I was ne’er to the full cognizant of what was existent and what was imagined. Duke is non a dependable storyteller because of all the drugs that are ingested.

Dr. Gonzo and Duke are under the influence of drugs such as LSD, cocaine, intoxicant, peyote and hemp. As they arrive at the Circus-Circus Duke soaks some quintessence in Kleenex and inhales its noxious exhausts. The storyteller gives us an history of the effects that follow,

“ it makes you behave like the small town rummy in some early Irish novelaˆ¦ entire loss of all basic motor accomplishments: blurred vision, no balance, asleep lingua – rupture of all connexion between the organic structure and the encephalon. Which is interesting, because the encephalon continues to work more or less usually… ” ( pg. 45 )

Thompson describes his usage of drugs in a amusing manner. He refers to Early Irish prose which is known for its usage of hyperbole for humourous consequence, a close compulsion for lists, and a outstanding usage of sarcasm. “ Fear and Loathing ” is a novel filled with hyperboles and soaked in sarcasm.

“ After a piece you learn to get by with things like seeing your dead grandma creeping up your leg with a knife in her dentitions. ” ( pg. 47 )

“ No, this is non a good town for psychedelic drugs. Reality itself is excessively distorted. ” ( pg. 47 )

“ One of the things you learn, after old ages of covering with drug people, is that everything is serious. You can turn your dorsum on a individual, but ne’er turn your dorsum on a drug ” ( pg. 56 )

The drugs allow the reader the inquiry the narrative and the dependability

Pg. 58. Gonzo is listening to Jefferson Airplanes “ White Rabbit ” whilst in the bath. “ I want a lifting sound ” .

The Jefferson Airplane vocal refers to what a good trip can ensue in. A psychedelic acid stone vocal which was released in 1967, the music and wordss suggest the centripetal deformation experienced with hallucinogenic drugs. The vocal comes from an epoch when drugs were a portion of mind-expansion and societal experimentation. Ironically we find Bizarre entirely in the bath sing Las Vegas through a distorted viridity warped haze. He is non sing any sort of head enlargement with the runing knife gripped in his manus. ( pg. 58 )

“ I knew that ‘White Rabbit ‘ had finished ; the extremum had come and gone. ” ( pg. 59 ) This could be seen to be mentioning to the epoch itself. The hippy epoch had peaked and come to it ‘s death.

Pages 59- 60

Detail gonzo listening to white coney in the bath. This whole scene represents how his coevals now feels about the 1960 ‘s.

“ when it comes to that antic note where the coney bites its ain caput off, I want you to throw that fuckin wireless into the bath with me ” ( pg. 60 )

Dr. Gonzo is the dog-tired drug addled remains of an epoch full of false promises and now in the thick of the Vietnam War. The optimism has died, and taken most of its suicidal heroes with it. Jimi Hendrix, who was widely known for his usage of psychedelic drugs such as LSD, choked on his ain puke and died in 1970. Janis Joplin died of a diacetylmorphine overdose whilst entering her album ‘Pearl ‘ besides in 1970. The Doors front-man Jim Morrison died of a drug overdose in the summer of 1971. They all died at the age of 20 seven. The promise of peace and love had non been fulfilled. The Vietnam War, despite protest and indignation was still go oning. There was a Republican leader in power. Gonzo was now “ merely another ugly refugee from the Love Generation ” . ( pg. 63 )

In chapter 8 Duke goes to see a former acid guruaˆ¦whose name has been deleted for legal grounds.

Thompson inside informations characters who have been left behind by the love coevals. Discarded and left absolutely confused by the drugs that they have taken and a society that promised them so much more. Duke approaches the house of this supposed ‘acid guru ‘ on the pretension of inquiring his advice on LSD. He mistakes his married woman for the physician

“ That was no old lady out at that place in the garden ; it was the good physician himself ” ( pg. 65 )

“ Forget LSD, I thought. Look what it ‘s done to that hapless asshole. ” ( pg. 65 )

Bottom of page 66! Refers to this epoch

“ Panic. It crept up my spinal column like the first lifting vibraphone of an acid craze. ” ( pg. 70 )

“ and if it on occasion gets a small heavier than what you had in head, wellaˆ¦ possibly chalk it off to coerce consciousness enlargement: Tune in, gross out out, acquire beaten. ” ( pg. 89 )

A fluctuation upon the counterculture phrase “ Turn on, melody in, bead out ” .

Writers use drugs to escalate and heighten their artistic abilities. Thompson uses the drugs

Fear and Loathing is the gall left over from the 1960 ‘s. The gall produced by the 1960 ‘s.

Embodies the American dream?

reflects the diminution of American civilization.

The “ wave address ” which comes at the terminal of chapter 8 transition captures a minute in clip and its terminal absolutely.

“ You could strike flickers anyplace. There was a antic universal sense that whatever we were making was right, that we were winningaˆ¦

And that, I think, was the handle – that sense of inevitable triumph over the forces of Old and Evil. Not in any mean or military sense ; we did n’t necessitate that. Our energy would merely predominate. There was non point in contending – on our side or theirs. We had all the impulse ; we were siting the crest of a high and beautiful waveaˆ¦ ” ( pg. 68 )

Part two of the novel follows Dukes journey to the District Attorney ‘s Conference on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs. There ‘s an of import alteration to the narrative tone. A relaxed if non exhausted Thompson

Chapter six of portion two, Duke and Gonzo attend the drugs convention. Duke uses drugs to get by with the state of affairss in which he finds himself. Thompson presents characters who weight up the ‘pros ‘ and ‘cons ‘ of taking a assortment of drugs in a figure of different state of affairss. When sat hearing

“ There was merely no call, at this conference, for anything but a monolithic ingestion of Sedatives: Reds, Grass and Booze ” ( pg. 144 )

Interesting, controversial societal commentariesaˆ¦

There ‘s a tone of jeer to Thompson ‘s narrative voice as he recounts the events at the Drugs convention. Gonzo mocks the doltishly naA?ve “ georgia adult male ” at the drug convention ( pgs. 146 )

“ Fear and Loathing ” is permeated by some eccentric illustrations. Cartoonist Ralph Steadman provides another interesting bed to this disjointed narration with his obscure images. The New York Times credits Steadman with capturing Thompson ‘s deranged esthesia.

When Duke and his lawyer halt at a cafe on Paradise Boulevard.

“ Waitress: Five greasers, one greaser Burger. Make you cognize where the American Dream is?

Lou: What ‘s that? What is it? ” ( pg. 164 )

Thompson highlights the complete amentia of some of the American people and the false hope that is placed upon “ The American Dream ” . The original ethos of the American Dream was that anyone can accomplish wealth, celebrity and success through difficult work. The Dream seems to basically be about the pursuit for money. Thompson envisions the American Dream as the chase of personal pleasance and greed.

In portion 11 of subdivision two Duke inside informations the failures of the “ acerb monster ” and their leaders. Duke criticises Tim Leary, the American author and LSD advocator who coined the phrase “ bend on, melody in, bead out ” .

Timothy Leary was possibly the most celebrated advocator for the usage of LSD. Thompson criticises Leary, the autumn of the acerb civilization and those “ people who took him excessively earnestly ” ( pg.50 ) . Hunter credits Leary with making “ a coevals of lasting cripples and failed searchers ” ( pg. 51 ) . Hunter S. Thomspon links the false promise that was placed on LSD in the 1960ss to organized faith, or as Duke calls it the “ paradoxically benevolent Irish bull ” ( pg.51 ) this “ blind religion in some higher power ” ( pg. 51 ) that does n’t be. Wolfe makes similar observations about the consequence that LSD had on the societal and political motions of the 19 1960ss. Wolfe ‘s ultimate decision being that LSD leaves the user disinterested in political issues and excessively self-absorbed and dreamy to do any existent alterations. As Thompson observes,

“ the energies of the Movement were long since sharply dissipated by the haste to self-preservation ” ( pg. 180 )

In portion 12 we find Duke seeking to make up one’s mind how he would explicate the batch of puke, crushed marihuana seeds, urine, broken glass and adult exposures covering the floor of the flat to an incursive constabulary officer. Duke observes that,

“ of class that would ne’er go on in Real Life, gentlemen. We merely put this thing together for presentation purposesaˆ¦ ” ( pg. 188 )

“ Psychadelics are about irrelevant in a town where you can roll into a casino at any clip and witness the crucifixion of a gorilla – on a fire Ne cross that all of a sudden turns into a pinwheelaˆ¦ ” ( pg. 190 )

Duke see ‘s the drug trade as fiting the political clime at the clip. People consume different drugs at different points in history harmonizing to the political and societal ambiance.

“ ‘Consciousness enlargement ‘ went out with LBJaˆ¦ and it is deserving observing, historically, that sedatives came in with Nixon ” ( pg. 202 )

LBJ is Lydon B. Johnson the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969. Johnson was greatly supported by the Democratic Party. When Johnson came into power after the decease of Kennedy, his chief concerns were with progressive societal plans and making the “ Great Society ” . The two chief purposes being the Elimination of poorness and racial unfairness.

Many sets in the sixtiess named themselves The Great Society. Grace Slick of Jefferson Airplane was a member of one of them. Nixon, a Republican campaigner followed in presidential term. When Nixon took office three hundred American soldiers were deceasing per hebdomad in Vietnam. There was a batch of force per unit area on him at the clip of his presidential term, frequently mocked and scoffed ataˆ¦ EXPAND.

Duke describes his visit to the drugs and narcotics bureau as a “ feeble screw around ” which exposed him to the amentia of the authorities and there deficiency of understanding when it comes to statute law sing drugs. The character Duke remarks on the province of the constabulary when it came to commanding the supposed ‘drug civilization, “ They could n’t even happen the blasted thing. ”

The topic of drug dependence is n’t something of prominence within “ Fear and Loathing ” , maltreatment of drugs is surely a outstanding subject, but Thompson does n’t travel into great item. He inside informations those who have been left behind by Acid civilization.

“ aˆ¦drugs, it is said, make one lose any sense of true world. In the terminal, it is ever, I think, under this charge that the interdiction is declared. We do non object to the drug user ‘s pleasance per Se, but to the pleasance taken in an experience without truth. ” ( 236 ) Jacques Derrida, “ The Rhetoric of Drugs, ” in Pointsaˆ¦Interviews, 1974-1994. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1995: 228-254. )

“ An American Boy ” A expression at word pictures of Drug Use in the work of William Burroughs, with a peculiar focal point on Junky

Each of the novels draws from existent life experience. Burroughs ‘Junky ‘ is a semi-autobiographical novel which follows William Lee ‘s descent into heroin dependence with blunt similarities to the life of William S. Burroughs himself.

Beat Generation is a term used to depict a group of authors that rose to prominence in the 1950 ‘s. Although arguably non truly a portion of the all in coevals, Burroughs inspired these authors with his shameless fearless composing manner.

“ The debris merchandiser does non sell his merchandise to the consumer, he sells the consumer to the merchandise. He does non better and simplify his ware, he degrades and simplifies the client. ” – William S. Burroughs

First published in 1953, ‘Junky ‘ reads like an encyclopedic usher to heroin dependence. Upon first reading it seems like a consecutive frontward narrative. I think this is partially due to its stark difference to the indigestible narration of ‘Naked Lunch ‘ . Burroughs ‘Junky ‘ holds great significance in its little minutes of illustriousness. When reading it is easy to breeze past these minutes of illustriousness. There are facets of ‘Junky ‘ in each of Burroughs novels. His presentation of the seedy drug belowground civilization serves as an of import certification of narcotics dependence at a clip when there were n’t any. Oliver Harris calls Burroughs work ‘ ” an of import papers ; archive of the resistance ; a true history of the true horrors of a frailty. ”

Around the clip of the publication of William S. Burrough ‘s “ Junky ” , the 2nd moving ridge of American opiate dependence had arrived and was in full swing. Heroin was an built-in portion of the cultural individuality of the hippie. In the 1950 ‘s diacetylmorphine was a portion of the ‘beatnik ‘ subculture in New York. I found a figure of suiting definitions a beatnik is in the Urban Dictionary. They are described as,

“ a 50 ‘s group of immature work forces, after the war looking for action and exhilaration, created art and roamed around states looking for truth. ”

Or a,

“ cool 50 ‘s youth civilization. Wore berets and Polo cervixs. Hung out in java stores playing bongos and declaiming poesy and experimenting with marijuana.Pre-dates the hippy motion by about 10-15 old ages. ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.urbandictionary.com/define.php? term=beatnik )

“ Drug addict ” has a straightforward narration with a beginning, in-between and an terminal. The about impersonal journalistic manner of composing follows William Lee ‘s descent into dependence. Burroughs highlights the forms in the manner in which a drug addict lives.

Opiates become a portion of a hippie subculture in 1950 ‘s America – the “ beatnik ” subculture foremost arising in the Harlem wind scene of the 19 mid-thirtiess and mid-fortiess. It ‘s interesting to observe how the beatnik civilization evolved into the flower peoples, with it ‘s beginnings in the word hippie.

“ The Junky needs Junk like the diabetic demands insulin ”

“ Junky ” inside informations the wonts of American subcultures. William Lee describes his wont as if it were a 9-5 occupation. The lives of drug addicts queerly mirror those of the consecutive universe.

“ I stopped imbibing, stopped traveling out at dark, and fell into a everyday agenda: a cap of debris three times per twenty-four hours, and the clip in between to be filled someway. ” ( pg. 62 )

Burroughs compares Drug addicts with homophiles,

“ There are people who look like drug addicts and are n’t, merely as some people look fagot and are n’t. It ‘s a type that causes problem. ” ( pg. 108 )

Burroughs depicts drug addicts, who have been ravished by their dependences,

“ Doolie sick was an formidable sight. The envelope of personality was gone, dissolved by his junk-hungry cells. Viscera and cells, galvanized into a nauseating insect-like activity, seemed on the point of interrupting through the surface ” ( pg. 48 )

“ Junky ” could be described as a survey of underworld linguistics. Burroughs places a glossary of footings at the terminal of “ Junky ” . He refers to what is called ‘junk slang ‘ . The glossary of footings implies that this book is intended for a wider audience. Burroughs was n’t composing entirely to the 1950 ‘s drug addicts. It is as if Burroughs is supplying grounds and accounts for the behavior of a group of people that most would see perverts. He works to chase away stereotypes. The penetration that Burroughs provides could merely hold come from his ain experiences. The “ English nuts ” lexicon of footings. Burroughs was n’t composing entirely to the drug addicts of the 1950 ‘s epoch. If he were at that place would n’t be a demand for a glossary of footings. A glossary is defined as “ an alphabetical list of proficient footings in some specialised field of cognition ” . ( wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn ) . Burroughs is the expert in this “ specialised field of cognition ” drug dependence. If I were to be transported to the 1950 ‘s drug addict belowground subculture, the glossary that Burroughs provides would surely assist my integrating into such a clip and topographic point.

There is a ‘social comfort ‘ that comes with drug usage. The drug user is a portion of something that non many are secluded to. Slang nomenclature is non merely a manner of maintaining there illegal activities secret, but besides a manner of maintaining people out.

The novel does n’t function to romanticize or demonise drugs ; it serves an oculus informant history of the American station war resistance.

Burrough ‘s ‘Junky ‘ is a semi-autobiographical history of the life of William S. Burroughs.

Although compelled by the enticement of opium, all of these pieces of literature approach the negative sides of dependence. All of the writers were criticised for lauding drug usage and yet it can clearly be read that the hideous consequences of narcotics dependence.

William s. Burroughs is the prototype of an American, yet he is a fagot diacetylmorphine nut.

Thomas De Quincey prides himself on being a true English adult male. “ Confessions of an English Opium-Eater ” follows his journey to see the Maya – his complete loss of cultural individuality. Opium originates from the E, a topographic point which De Quincey frights. An English in-between category adult male. An English Opium-eater.

*Similarities between drug dependence and dependence to literature, the writer as the drug thruster.

Burroughs compares the drug trade to the overall universe trade. He sees the drug trade as merely a microcosm of the universe trade market. How? – mention in notes.

“ This topographic point is like the ground forces: the shark ethic prevails – eat the wounded. In a closed society where everybody ‘s guilty, the lone offense is acquiring caught. In a universe of stealers, the lone concluding wickedness is stupidity ” ( pg. 72 )

Burroughs notes that dependence to debris, or diacetylmorphine, begins with the user ‘s belief in some false complaint. The drug dependence creeps up on the user.

“ Junky ” is immensely different to William Burroughs ‘ other work. “ Naked Lunch ” , which was foremost published in Paris in 1959, follows a series of virtually unrelated narratives. It is a fresh with no sense of secret plan. As with Thompson ‘s portraiture of fickle behavior in his characters, this deficiency of construction was wholly knowing. Burroughs wrote “ Bare Lunch ” during the deepnesss of his diacetylmorphine dependence, much of the book was written through a narcotic haze. Like De Quincey ‘s hideous opium induced hallucinations in “ Confessions of an English Opium-eater ” , Burroughs depicts a “ rollercoaster drive through snake pit ” ( JG Ballard ) . “ Naked Lunch ” is a frustrating read of heroic proportions. The novel is made up of the “ uniform tissue ” ( pg. 111 ) Burroughs goes from a conversation between two distorted physicians to remarks on bureaucratism.

The chief subject that runs throughout ‘Naked Lunch ‘ is that of dependence. Literary critic Rob Woodard notes that the “ despairing pursuit for diacetylmorphine serves as a metaphor for every bit destructive compulsions go arounding around the demand for control, be it sexual, political, or societal. ” In society drug nuts are treated in a different manner to

“ Naked Lunch ” contains of import political and societal observations. In the subdivision ordinary work forces and adult females we encounter the speaking bastard. Burroughs “ speaking asshole ” is used as a metaphor for any laden motion.

The speaking asshole narrative could besides function as an fable for the origin of any literary text. Artists ever reveal more than they intend to. The asshole transcripts the manner in which authors and creative persons talk about their work, as if they do n’t cognize where the thoughts came from. Burrough ‘s allows the organic structure to hold its retaliation on the society that hinders the organic structure. A society which makes bodily maps shameful.

“ This buttocks talk had kind of a gut frequence. It hit you right down at that place like you got ta travel. You know when the old colon gives you the cubitus and it feels sorta cold interior, and you know all you have to make is turn loose? ” ( pg. 111 )

Burroughs explicitly compares the experience of reading fiction with the experience of drug dependence. The fresh serves as an counterpoison to the ‘narcotic sleep ‘ that literature and society was sing at the clip of its publication. As author Terry Southern observes, ‘Naked Lunch ‘ “ is an perfectly annihilating ridicule of all that is false, crude, and barbarous in current American life ” . Thompson ‘s “ Fear and Loathing ” serves as a similar review of the “ American Dream ” and the false hope.

“ Bing an Infusion from the life of a bookman ” A expression at word pictures of Drug Use in Confessions of an English Opium-Eater by Thomas De Quincey

De Quincey sees that,

“ Nothing, so is more revolting to English feelings, than the spectacle of a human being push outing on our notice his moral ulcers, and rupturing off that ‘decent curtain ‘ ” ( pg. 1 )

Thompson surely burns, destroys and rapes this “ nice curtain ” ( pg.1 ) in his hunt to happen the American Dream.

De Quincey ‘s autobiographical novel was rather controversial at the clip of its release, with its unfastened treatment of drug usage and dependence. He describes in great item the hallucinations which occurred whilst he was under the influence of opium. De Quincey gave one of the first literary word pictures of the effects of opium ; little was understood about the negative effects of the drug at the clip of the books publication. He believed and supported the British Colonial Rule.

A critic for the best Scots books of all clip sees Confessions as documenting “ the political economic system of consciousness ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.list.co.uk/article/2746-confessions-of-an-english-opium-eater-thomas-de-quincey-1822/ ) Marx famously wrote “ It is non the consciousness of work forces that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their societal being that determines their consciousness. ”

De Quincey ‘s “ Confessions ” consists of two parts with a figure of subdivisions which recount his experiences with opium. In Part one the reader is given an account to the roots of his opium dependence. De Quincey recounts this “ singular period ” in his life when he spent clip as a homeless blowout in London during 1802-1803. He provides interesting emotional and psychological penetration into the beginnings of what would subsequently go an opium dependence.

Part two is divided into three subdivisions which are linked by a short debut. De Quincey depicts The Pleasures of Opium, Introduction to The Pains of Opium and The Pains of Opium. He foremost comes to utilize opium in the fall of 1804, whilst at college in London. DeQuincey describes his debut to opium as a “ central event ” ( pg. 37 ) . He began taking opium for his tormenting tooth aching, on the recommendation of a college familiarity.

“ That my strivings had vanished was now a trifle in my eyes: – this negative consequence was swallowed up in the enormousness of those positive effects which had opened before me- in the abysm of godly enjoyment therefore all of a sudden revealed. ” . ( pg. 39 )

In the concluding paragraph of pleasances De Quincey addresses an ode-like salutation to opium,

“ Oh! merely, elusive, and might opium! that to the Black Marias of hapless and rich alike, for the lesions that will ne’er mend, and for ‘the stabs that tempt the spirit to arise, ‘ bringest an pacifying balm ; facile opium! that with thy potent rhetoric stealest off the intents of wrath ; and to the guilty adult male, for one dark givest back the hopes of his young person, and custodies washed pure of blood… . ”

De Quincey describes opium as the secret to all human felicity, what “ philosophers had disputed for so many ages ” ( pg. 39 ) . He refers to two contrasting verse forms by John Milton, L’Allegro a pastoral verse form which in Italian means “ the happy adult male ” and the contrasting verse form Ill Penseroso which means “ the thoughtful adult male ” . Milton explores and contrasts the ultimate pleasances which are suiting to different life styles. The verse forms depict a kind of patterned advance of felicity. They were popularly referenced by many poets in the eighteen-hundreds Williams Blake was to a great extent influenced by Milton ‘s work and provided illustrations for L’Allegro and Ill Penseroso.

De Quincey ‘s opium wont became a day-to-day modus operandi in 1813. He takes opium everyday like he breaths air into his lungs. It seems that his opium usage has become a full blown dependence, that no 1 could carry him to give up.

Confessions of an English Opium-eater follows De Quincey ‘s internal battles, an geographic expedition into the mind of an opium-riddled mind, and the opium induced incubuss which follow. The storyteller ‘s internal battles are reflected in his confusion and diffidence. De Quincey ‘s oppugning high spots the confusion in which in he feels,

“ And how, and in what mode, do I populate? In short, what category or description of work forces do I belong to? — -And as a bookman and a adult male of erudite instruction, and in that sense a gentleman ” ( pg. 51 )

The opium seems to bring on and escalate this oppugning province. Or does he take the opium to submerge out these uncertainties that he is sing? He does desire to be defined as an ‘opium-eater ‘ or an rational, but instead a philosopher.

“ I may confirm that

Wine and Opium are often contrasted throughout. De Quincey serves to put some false beliefs about opium to rest. The effects of opium, he states are non like the intoxicant effects of vino, “ no measure of opium of all time did, or could elate. ” ( pg. 40 ) De Quincey addresses the reader about how different the effects of opium are to alcohol.

Opium highs last for much longer, intoxicant gives the user a impermanent high as it were, the effects extremum and so fall rather rapidly. The high from opium can stay stationary for eight to nine hours. De Quincey describes the opium high in the first case as being like an ague fire, and so settling into a “ steady and equable freshness ” ( pg. 40 ) The reader ca n’t assist but feel that this fire will finally take it ‘s user to fire out.

Thomas De Quincey points that alcohol ( vino ) disorders the senses, whilst opium introduces “ keen order, statute law and harmoniousness ” ( pg.40 ) . These lone semen into consequence if opium is taken decently. He describes opium as something which greatly improves 1s religious wellbeing. The user becomes acutely cognizant of their emotional milieus. Harmonizing to De Quincey opium “ communicates repose and balance to all the modules ” ( pg.41 ) , settling all feelings of hatred and anxiousness, conveying it ‘s user to a province of uncanny emotional wellness. Wine merely serves to do overpowering emotions that are felt by the drinker. Opium creates a province of “ unclouded repose ” , whereas vino clouds the opinion and reveals those work forces who are “ disguised by soberness ” ( pg.41 ) .

The Pains of Opium follows De Quincey ‘s atrocious descent into dependence. Leaving him “ powerless as an baby ” ( pg. 67 ) He credits his greatest agony to the incubuss which visit him. De Quincey recounts to the reader the darker yearss of his opium dependence, when the pleasances turned into the strivings of opium. He compares his drug addled hallucinations with a kid ‘s, “ power of picture, as it were upon the darkness all kinds of apparitions ” ( pg. 67 ) . De Quincey no longer has the power to disregard these dark apparitions of the dark. The straitening dreams that took topographic point were followed by some other noteworthy alterations that De Quincey describes. The dreams were followed by a deep unhappiness.

“ I seemed every dark to fall, non metaphorically, but literally to fall, into chasms and sunless abysms, deepnesss below deepnesss, from which it seemed incapacitated that I would of all time re-ascend ” ( pg. 68 )

De Quincey lists the effects in which opium has had upon his head. He strongly describes how his whole sense of infinite and clip has been warped. De Quincey inside informations how he “ sometimes seemed to hold lived for 70 or 100 old ages in one dark ” ( pg. 68 ) . He has experienced continuances of clip “ far beyond the bounds of any human experience. ” ( pg. 68 )

The Pains of Opium surely outweigh the pleasances.

Burroughs – treatment of intoxicant in drug addict – his physician recommended he travel back on diacetylmorphine

A socially acceptable, legal drug such as intoxicant is portrayed and proven to be more damaging to 1s wellness.

Like Thompsons narrative, we are ne’er certain of how serious to take De Quincey ‘s narrative, as if to deflect himself from the serious nature of his dependence and the guilt that he would experience were it to the full realised. In To the Reader De Quincey denies that his opium usage compromised his unity as an English gentleman. He claims his usage of opium has ne’er led him into a way of self-indulgence and yet this whole book

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