Globalisation has changed the world and its economy through-out the last 30 years (after WWII). The concept of globalisation has altered not only the economy but also society, by sharing limitless goods; information; technologies; materials; resources; services…etc. Trading has improved and enhanced society in each country’s economy, therefore the world has been continuing this, up ‘til now. How fast globalisation have been rising and spreading has gradually affected the environment rigorously. The effects of globalisation are: regional and global inequality; climate change and increasing poverty. The consequences of globalisation can be found and seen anywhere and everywhere for example: a few wealthy people and relentless poverty for everyone else. Plus Globalisation clearly involves trading natural resources which can lead to pollution and additional environmental intimidations. (Ivanova, 2004) It is the process of international assimilation. Humans from different countries have started to interact from thousands of years ago, the ‘Silk Road’ is one of the first examples that connected Asia, Africa and Europe.
Globalisation includes many things like philosophy; religions; language; arts; raw resources and exchanging products or ideas. Economic globalisation is developing a country’s economy by compromising the globalisation of production; markets; competition; technology; corporations and industries. (Wikipedia) There are many environmental policies right now, each year the issues get more severe and we (the human race) are trying to get each other’s attention and encourage each other to be more eco-friendly. Many of the environmental problems that we are dealing with are caused by globalisation, which is the point of this paper. It is to provide the information to prove that it is extremely hard to maintain the concept of international trading and at the same time improve our environment. It is true that globalisation is a humongous part of civilization but right now, it isn’t as crucial as saving our planet.
Earth’s environment is severely damaged and it is getting worse day by day, and if we don’t have a logical idea to sustain both our economy and our environment we would have no choice but to focus on our environment only. (Revell) In my extended essay, I will explain how globalisation affects the environment and the possible solutions to protect the environment yet sustain the international trade. I will clarify why damaging the environment is an inevitable significance of globalisation. This essay will include the influences of rising production; relocation of polluting industries; increased flow of goods, services and people. I will examine international environmental issues and how each of it links to globalisation. The effects of globalisation includes both positive and negative environmental impacts. Some of the good outcomes of globalisation on the environment are improving education and incomes, creates greener eco-friendly technology, improving use of resources and promoting growth through development. Globalisation is a huge impact on civilization; development and basically, the economy; therefore it can help improve the environment when promoting growth.
But globalisation is the reason for many environmental issues and it is also trying to improve the environment, the thing is damaging the environment has a high probability that it will continue as long as globalisation advances. For example the World Bank, it has successfully helped Mexico during the 90’s by reducing the number of unhealthy ozone days. The multinational corporations conducted research and created technology to reduce the consequences of humans on the environment which can be referred as “green technology”. Other examples are: eco-friendly cars which achieves higher fuel economy but lower emissions; Apple produced the MacBook which was built “using materials that are high recyclable and free of many of the harmful substances present in other computers” – Apple, and they mentioned that the software and hardware were designed to work together so that it is more energy efficient and “minimizes the carbon footprint of the computers”. (Adil Najam, 2007) (Economic Growth) One of the primary impacts of globalisation on the environment is the export-orientated destruction, which is overusing natural resources because of the high and increasing demands and population growth. Extensive deforestation, over-fishing and global warming are all examples of the negative impact due to globalisation.
The removal of ecosystems caused by over population growth was a colossal negative occurrence as well as capacious deforestation which took place globally due to the logging industry disposing products. Every year about 16 million hectares are gone. Countless trees are cut down for commercial and property purposes; deforestation is causing a loss of biological diversity no matter the reason. 90% of Australia’s forest are exported because their natural heritage were destroyed and nearly half of the forests that covered our planet are now gone. Day by day, deforestation expands and accelerates into the natural forests.The additional inputs that are required to fuel economic growth come at a cost to the environment. Renewable resources like land will become ‘in short supply’, the private land users differ and so they will fight each other for the land and they will bid against each other meaning the land prices will rise. (francesob, 2010) Global warming is a prime contrary impact on the environment; it is caused by the greenhouse gas discharge because of a growth of industrialisation in expanding on fossil fuels. Global warming happens due to carbon being released into the atmosphere, it concludes to increasing of sea levels which then impacts on weather systems. Over centuries global temperatures have increased because discharges of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide.
Therefore transportation is a big cause of global warming, not only do we all use cars or motorcycles but around 95% of the world’s international traded products are moved by trucks/lorries. The pollutions will eventually come at local; national and global scales, the foreseen increase in economic growth through-out the world, it is only expected that prospective pollution will multiply in many countries. And we are not talking about industrial countries only but potentially every country is likely to increase pollution over the next years. If harmful pollutants like: sulphur dioxide; small particulate; nitrogen dioxide; and carbon monoxide increase into the atmosphere then they will possibly set in new serious illnesses, healthy effects, blindness, crop loss and ecological damage.
If we look back into history, we can see that countries like: US, Japan, Canada and Western Europe increased pollution clearly as their economies develop. It is like a pattern that continues to repeat by developing countries. Globalisation and the economic growth are becoming critical threat to Earth’s environment!(Fisher, 2009) Over-fishing is another affair on the environment; it happens when fishing activities lessen fish stocks which lead to resource consumption. It occurs internationally, 4 out of 17 major fishing grounds have been fished out and a total of 70% of fish species are now close to their magnitude. Researches show that through-out 2005 most of the fishes are at their boundaries! (Pauly) One of the key features of globalisation is free trade, this helps multinational firm to integrate, expand and get involve in world trade. Ultimately the expansion of firm will require increase investment in capital such as building new factories that could generate negative externalities towards the environment. Increasing inward investment in developing nation like China has had some devastating effect on the environment.
The result of industrialization has made Beijing the 10th most polluted cities in the world in less than 10 years. Nevertheless, employment should improve especially in developing nation like India, China, to a further extent as more citizens have a stable job and a higher disposable income, this may be a great contribution to living standards worldwide. At the same time, consumer from different nations may benefit from better quality and more range of products/services hence dynamic efficiency. As a result, globalisation may be an effective tool to create an internationally competitive trade environment that could help reduce poverty worldwide, however it may be inevitable that there will be a trade-off between globalisation and the environment worldwide. (Shah, 2011) Firms are competing at a global scale; they may have to operate efficiently in terms of production and operation to be more competitive. This may designate that large firms all over the globe may have incentive to invest in new technology to reduce wastage. At the same time, the environment is always considered as a significant topic to many people, thereby it may also be necessary that firm has to be socially responsible to the environment to protect their brand image.
The result may be that firm will take action to protect the environment through different methods [technology] and become more productive efficient. Ultimately, we can see that although globalisation can have negative effect on the environment, the competitive nature of a global economy may force firm to be more efficient and socially more responsible to the environment. Although I mentioned that globalisation can have advantage effects on the environment, as you can see the negative effects of globalisation to the environment beats the advantages by far. I personally think that globalization can also inevitably damage the environment. This is because globalisation is a big ultimatum to the environment and we can clearly see that from some of my examples that I have listed above. Developing the economy from gobalisation will put more pressure on the environment and more waste will be emitted into the environment. Based on yale researches show that: “potential pollution is expected to increase by 2-4 times as well.” and pollution increasing more will show real serious threats to the environment.
As long as globalisation continues this way, the impacts it causes to the environment can’t be reduced. And the fact that our living standards require globalisation in the process like technologies, exported food, clothes…etc and that we use these exported goods which damages the environment, it suggests that as long as we continue all these little things that counts then damaging the environment is unavoidable. Unless each and every one of us change our lifestyles, we can not escape environmental destruction. And even if we eventually manage to do that, we could only reduce a part of environmental damage. Our planet has done too many harm to the environment, we have come to the stage where Earth starts to die so we need smart and logical solutions that will definitely work to save our planet. http://www.tienganh.com.vn/showthread.php?1986-Damage-to-environment-is-an-inevitable consequence I am not inferring that we should stop globalisation to help the environment but we should try developing effective guide for globalisation because long term environmental protection requires economic growth. The risk that the economic process will be overshadowed by environmental holocaust is a very slight chance, as the world develops governments in the future might be able to afford reducing pollution which might also control activities that harm landscapes and conserve natural forests or lands. Although developing the world’s economy is unlikely to go perfectly well, efficiently and effectively, the biggest risk to the environment is a frozen world economy. Let’s say we stopped globalisation, international trades and basically developing the economies come to an end then there will be barely any resources left to protect the environment. Stopping globalisation will come to the result of generating less pollution but it won’t help the environment. In conclusion, we shouldn’t stop globalisation due to the outcome of a stagnant world but we should come up with an effective guide so that globalisation goes in a healthy direction that could improve our environment in a contemporary method. We should know what we need to reduce in globalisation and what needs to remain to improve our environment.