This research was focus on nutrient constitutions in China which had non adopted HACCP system. The chief intent of this empirical research was to place profiles of such nutrient concerns and compared consequences with nutrient concern which had adopted HACCP system. This research had included suggestions to promote HACCP system acceptance in Chinese nutrient industry.
There was one research carried out by Bai, Ma, Yang, Zhao & A ; Gong ( 2007 ) on inducements of HACCP system acceptance and features of nutrient concern in China prior to the research under reappraisal. Even research by Jin et Al. ( 2008 ) and Bai et Al. ( 2007 ) holding common topics ( i.e. HACCP system and Chinese nutrient industry ) but the focal point and aims of both research were different. Research by Jin et Al. ( 2008 ) was carried out to complement research carried out by Bai et Al. ( 2007 ) .
This was a quantitative research but no theoretical model was mentioned or used in the research.
Hypothesis ( Es )
This research had non stated any hypothesis.
Research design used by Jin et Al. ( 2008 ) follow other research workers in the similar field. Questionnaire was used as an instrument to roll up informations. The research had 2 stages. Focus group interviews were carried out before the development of the questionnaire ( Taylor & A ; Kane, 2005 ; Vela & A ; Fernandez, 2003 ) in stage 1. Questionnaire was developed with 3 different subdivisions and each subdivision was designed to roll up informations for different aims for the research. Sections in the questionnaire had included demographic information of the nutrient concern and respondent, respondent ‘s perceptual experiences on HACCP system and actuating factor and external factor impacting acceptance of HACCP system. Questionnaires were sent by mail to aim population.
However, it was noted that this research had non carried out any pilot survey whereas some research ( Taylor & A ; Kane, 2005 ; Cao & A ; Scrimgeour, 2004 ; Vela & A ; Fernandez, 2003 ) in the similar field had carried out pilot surveies before diseminating questionnaires to aim population.
The research did non portion what were the stairss taken to accomplish high degree ( i.e. 97 % ) of the respond rate. Research carried out by Cao & A ; Scrimgeour ( 2004 ) had indicated that directing reminders were an of import measure to promote engagement.
This research was industry particular and the mark population was 160 nutrient concern in Zhejiang Province. List of mark population was provided by the Hangzhou Agricultural Technology Information Service Center. This was a non-experimental design with purposive sampling. This is a common sampling method used by research ( BaAY , Yuksel, & A ; CavuAYoAYlu, 2007 ; Maldonado, Caswell, Leos, Martinez & A ; Aranda,2005 ; Henson, Holt, & A ; Northen, 1999 ) in the similar field of surveies.
As highlighted in subdivision 5, the sample was obtained from Hangzhou Agricultural Technology Information Service Center, Zhejiang Province. If we analyzed other HACCP related research, it was found that research workers either obtained sample from authorities bureaus ( Bai et al. , 2007 ; Maldonado et al. , 2005 ) , trade association ( Cao & A ; Scrimgeour ( 2004 ) or industry specific Yellow Pages ( Henson et al. , 1999 ) .
Since this research focal point on profiles of nutrient concern without HACCP system execution and compared consequences obtained with nutrient concerns with HACCP system, it was of import to obtain equal figure of nutrient concerns in the sample. This research had highlighted it had obtained equal per centum of sample with and without HACCP system execution.
Since the topic of research was related to HACCP, it was of import to obtain responses from respondents who had prior knowledge on HACCP system. The resaerch had stated that the respondents were either managers or directors of the nutrient concerns and bulk of the respondents from nutrient concerns with HACCP system implemented claimed that they have knowldege on HACCP.
Technique of Data Collection
Questionnaires were used to roll up research informations. Questionnaires were sent via mail to aim population. This was a less expensive manner to roll up research informations with namelessness and hopefully with more honorable responses. Many other research ( Bai et al. , 2007 ; Maldonado et al. , 2005 ; Henson et al. , 1999 ) . in the similar Fieldss besides distributed questionnaires by mail.
Measures / Instruments
Since the chief aim of this research was to find the profiles of nutrient concern without HACCP execution and compare findings with nutrient concerns with HACCP execution, this research had included a comprehensive demographic analysis and perceptual experiences of respondents on HACCP.
In the demographic analysis, descriptive statistics for two groups of nutrient concerns was reported. Even the per centum for both groups were different, there was no manner to foreground if any important between the two groups of nutrient concerns. Other research ( BaAY et al. , 2007 ; Maldonado, et al. , 2005 ; Cao & A ; Scrimgeour, 2004 ) in the same field carried out demographic analysis besides used descriptive statistic without any survey on important differences.
The research besides used descriptive statistic to analyse the perceptual experiences of respondents on HACCP system. Analysis method used was similar to research carried out by BaAY et al. , ( 2007 ) .
In the last subdivision, average mark of motivations and external factors on HACCP system was calculated and analysis of discrepancy was a carried out to find if there was any important differences between two groups of nutrient concerns. Other research ( Maldonado et al. , 2005 ; Cao & A ; Scrimgeour, 2004 ; Deodhar, 2003 ) in the similar field besides carried out average tonss during the analysis. Some research ( Bai et a. , 2007 ; Henson, Holt, & A ; Northen, 1999 ) carried out Wilcoxon signed rank trial to find if any important differences between independent variables.
Entire 7 independent variables were analyzed for demographic analysis. It was found that nutrient concerns with big figure of employees ( Bai et al. , 2007 ; Taylor & A ; Kane, 2005 ) , exporting merchandises to abroad market ( Bai et al. , 2007 ; Maldonado, et al. , 2005 ) , had implemented other quality direction system ( Bai et al. , 2007 ; Maldonado, et al. , 2005 ; Cao & A ; Scrimgeour, 2004 ) and employed immature troughs with higher instruction degrees had a higher per centum of implementing HACCP system. Research findings by Jin et Al. ( 2008 ) were consistent with other research in the same field but different states.
Entire 3 independent variables were analyzed in the perceptual experiences of participants on HACCP system. It was noted that about all respondents worked in nutrient concerns with HACCP system execution claimed to hold good cognition of HACCP as compared to less than 10 % of employees worked in nutrient concerns without HACCP system execution.
More than half of the employees worked in nutrient concerns with HACCP system execution agreed that “ HACCP system is effectual for commanding nutrient quality ” as compared to less than one tierce of employees worked in nutrient concerns without HACCP execution.
Respondents worked in nutrient concerns with HACCP execution and claimed to hold knowledge on HACCP but their constructs might non be wholly right because HACCP system is effectual for commanding nutrient safety but non nutrient quality. Research done by Vela & A ; Fernandez ( 2003 ) besides found that many respondents with HACCP knowlege holding this misconception.
Entire 8 independent variables were analyzed in the motivations. Both groups of nutrient concerns had scored “ Improve merchandise quality ” to be the most of import motivations. This showed that even respondents claimed to hold knowledge on HACCP, they still have the misconception on HACCP for nutrient safety or nutrient quality.
The important motivation factors for HACCP execution between 2 different groups were “ Lower hazard of compromising nutrient safety ” , “ Expend foreign market ” and “ Improve net income border ” . Food concerns without HACCP system execution viewed these as of import actuating factors as compared to nutrient concerns with HACCP system execution.
I believed that Jin et Al. ( 2008 ) has interpreted average mark of “ Improve net income border ” falsely in the findings. Jin et Al. ( 2008 ) stated that “ it is noteworthy that nutrient endeavors with a to the full operational HACCP system in topographic point are more likely to see execution of the HACCP system as a manner of bettering their net income borders. ” The antonym should be right. If one expression into the mean mark for “ Improve net income border ” , nutrient concerns with HACCP system and without HACCP system execution was 3.05 and 2.44 severally where mark of 1 represents “ really of import ” and mark of 5 represents “ non really unimportant ” . Thus, nutrient concerns with HACCP system position did non see “ Improve net income border ” to be really of import as compared to nutrient concerns without HACCP system execution.
Entire 3 independent variables were analyzed for external factors. It was noted that nutrient concerns without HACCP system execution had scored “ Consumer consciousness of nutrient safety ” , “ Extension and support from the authorities ” and “ Recommendation of industry associations ” as important of import external factors to actuate them to follow HACCP system. The recommendations to promote acceptance of HACCP system had taken these factors into consideration.
The research had concluded that 4 profiles of Chinese nutrient concerns were really improbable to implement HACCP system.
Small and medium endeavors ( SMEs ) with little figure of employees were improbable to implement HACCP system because high costs of execution ( Taylor & A ; Kane, 2005 ) and deficiency of fiscal resources ( Bai et al. , 2007 ) . This research had suggested to supply quantitative costs and benefits information on implementing and operating of HACCP system so that top direction of nutrient concerns were equipped with necessary information to measure right the magnitude of the costs and benefits prior to the execution. This suggestion was in parallel with Bai et Al. ( 2007 ) and Maldonado et Al. ( 2005 ) .
Food concerns providing to domestic market were besides improbable to implement HACCP system because HACCP system implamtation was market oriented. Other resaerch from the same field besides had drawn the same decision that impementation of HACCP system was to run into international market demands ( Bai et al. , 2007 ; Maldonado et al. , 2005 ) and really specifc domestic niches market demands ( Maldonado et al. , 2005 ) .
Food concerns which had non implemented other quality systems such as ISO9001, GMP, etc. were improbable to imeplement HACCP system. Other research from the same field besides had drawn same decision. Maldonado et Al. ( 2005 ) and Henson et Al. ( 1999 ) had concluded that anterior acceptance of ISO9001system had direct influence on the acceptance of HACCP system. Reasons being HACCP system execution costs will be reduced if the nutrient concerns had prior impelemnted other quality systesms.
Many reserach ( BaAY et al. , 2007 ; Maldonado et al. , 2005 ; Cao & A ; Scrimgeour, 2004 ; Henson et al.,1999 ) in the similar field had collected demographic information about the nutrient concerns but merely BaAY et Al. ( 2007 ) had included information on instruction degree of director of the nutrient concerns. However, BaAY et Al. ( 2007 ) did non transport out any analysis on the relationships between instruction degrees of directors and HACCP system acceptance in nutrient concern.
This resaerch carried out by Jin et Al. ( 2008 ) had established a relationship between instruction leevls of directors and HACCP system execution in nutrient concerns and it had concluded that directors with comparative low instruction degrees were improbable to implement HACCP system in nutrient concerns.
Consequences presented in the tabular arraies and all were interpreted right with the exclusion on the one of the motivations “ Improve net income borders ” was interpreted falsely. This was highlighted in subdivision 9. Findingss.
Target population of this research were 160 nutrient concern from Zhejing Province. It had non included nutrient concern from other states of China. The consequences obtained might non be representative because the rubric of the research is “ Adoption of HACCP system in the Chinese nutrient industry: A comparative analysis ” non “ Adoption of HACCP system in the Zhejing Province nutrient industry: A comparative analysis ” .
No ethical issue was observed in the research. Name of nutrient concerns and respondents remained anon. .
Review of the article
14.1.1 Original Contribution
This was the first research to place profiles of nutrient concerns which were improbable to implement HACCP system and it had provided recommendations on how to promote HACCP system execution amongst nutrient concerns. This was besides the first research to set up a relationship between instruction degrees of directors and HACCP system execution in nutrient concerns.
14.1.2 Important Advice for Government
This was the first research highlighted that nutrient concerns without HACCP system execution were sensitive to consumers with high degree of nutrient safety consciousness. Therefore, this research had proposed that authorities should educate general populace on the importance of HACCP system to guarantee nutrient safety. General public with this consciousness will probably take to buy merchandises produced by HACCP certified nutrient concerns. Food concerns without HACCP system will hold to implement HACCP system in order to remain competitory.
14.1.3 Presentation of Findingss
Research workers had presented consequences in tabular arraies for easy mention and illustration to the audiences. Each of the tabular array was decently identified and parametric quantities were besides labeled clearly. The flow of findings and presentation of tabular arraies were in analogue.
14.2.1 Pilot survey
Focus group interviews were carried out before questionnaire was developed. No pilot survey was carried out to farther better on the questionnaire before directing to aim population.
14.2.2 Target population
Respondents of this research were 160 nutrient concern from Zhejing Province. It had non included nutrient concern from other states of China.
14.2.3 Research Question
One of the research inquiries on perceptual experiences of the HACCP system might non be “ right ” . The inquiry in the study was “ HACCP system is effectual for commanding nutrient quality ” . The inquiry should be reworded to “ HACCP system is effectual for commanding nutrient safety ” alternatively of “ nutrient quality ” because this inquiry was seeking to happen out perceptual experiences of respondents towards HACCP system.
Appendix 1 – Transcript of the Article
Refer to Appendix 1.
Appendix 2 – Viper Scan Report
Refer to Appendix 2.
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