**History of Mathematics**

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**BC**

**Mathematical**

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**180 BC Hypsicles: Number Theory**

Hypsicles was born in 190 B.C. in Alexandria Egypt. He was a mathematician and uranologist. He wrote the “Anaphorikos” or “On the Ascension of Stars, ” where he divided the Zodiac into 360° and used arithmetic patterned advance, “a sequence in which each figure additions by the same sum over the old one” ( O’Connor & A ; Robertson, 1999 ) . He besides wrote Book XIV of Euclid’s Elements, which was concerned with scratching regular solids in a domain (*Hypsicles of Alexandria*, 2008 ) .

Diophantus of Alexandria, author of the Arithmetica, which was the most dominant figure theoretic work of ancient times, explained belongingss of polygonal Numberss and added a regulation to acquire the*N*Thursday*m*-agonal figure, n [ 2 + ( n – 1 ) ( m – 2 ) ] /2, which he credited to Hypsicles ( Tattersall, 2005 ) .

The figure theory, a subdivision of mathematics, is concerned with the survey of the whole numbers, and of the objects and constructions that of course arise from their survey (*Number Theory,*2004 ) .

Hypsicles of Alexandria. ( 2008, January 1 ) .*Encyclopedia.com*. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Hypsicles_of_Alexandria.aspx

O’Connor, J. J. , & A ; Robertson, E. F. ( 1999 ) . Hypsicles of Alexandria.*Hypsicles life*. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Hypsicles.html

Tattersall, J. J. ( 2005 ) .*Elementary figure theory in nine chapters*( 2nd ed. ) . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Number Theory. ( 2004, February 1 ) .*figure theory | planetmath.org*. Retrieved November 29, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //planetmath.org/numbertheory

**60 BC Geminus: Parallel Postulate**

Geminus was a Grecian mathematician and uranologist, who thrived in the first century B.C. Nothing is known about his personal life, but his plants suggested the possibility that he lived or worked on Rhodes. The Theory of Mathematics, which discussed the logical subdivisions of the mathematical scientific disciplines, was attributed to Geminus (*Geminus,*2008 ) . Geminus examined the rules behind constructs such as ‘hypothesis’ , ‘theorem’ , ‘postulate’ , ‘axiom’ , etc. and gave historical histories of the development of the thoughts ( O’Connor & A ; Robertson, 1999 ) . In add-on, The Theory of Mathematics included some relevant unfavorable judgment of Euclid’s posits, specifically the fifth, the parallel posit, for which, he supposed, he found a cogent evidence (*Geminus,*2008 ) .

“The parallel posit is Euclid ‘s 5th posit: equivalent to the thought that there is a alone analogue to any line through a point non on the line.” ( O’Connor & A ; Robertson, 1999 )

O’Connor, J. J. , & A ; Robertson, E. F. ( 1999 ) . Geminus.*Geminus life*. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Geminus.html

Geminus. ( 2008, January 1 ) .*Encyclopedia.com*. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2830901609.html

**Cultural**

**100 BC Birth of Julius Caesar**

Julius Caesar, one of the most influential and celebrated work forces in Ancient Rome, was born in July 12 or 13 100 BC in Rome and was killed during the Ides of March in 44 BC. He was a Roman general, a solon, an speechmaker, a lawmaker, and a historian, who transformed the Roman democracy into the powerful Roman Empire (*Julius Caesar life*, n.d. ) . The followers are some of his accomplishments (*Julius Caesar*, n.d. ) :

- He ne’er lost in war.
- He was the leader of the invasion of Britain in 55 B.C.
- He improved Torahs to profit the people and made Torahs against the corrupt and unjust.
- He amended the Roman calendar, which is the 1 in usage today
- He cleared up the system of the Roman democracy and became the benchmark to future Roman emperors and European leaders

Julius Caesar life. ( n.d. ) .*Bio.com*. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.biography.com/people/julius-caesar-9192504

Julius Caesar. ( n.d. ) .*Julius Caesar*. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.roman-empire.net/republic/caesar.html

**20 BC Virgil: Aeneid**

Publius Vergulius Maro, Vergil or Virgil in English, was born in October 70 BC, near Mantua in northern Italy. Virgil, one of the best Roman poets, is known for his works the Ecologues, the Georgics and the heroic poem Aeneid.

The Aenid is considered as the Roman’s national heroic poem. Virgil started to compose the heroic poem that will sum up his ideal Rome when Augustus became the swayer. The narrative is about Aeneus, a Trojan hero, whose mission is to set up a new Rome. The Aeneid shows the earliest yearss and fate of Rome (*Virgil,*n.d. ) .

Virgil worked on the Aeneid for the staying old ages of his life, but he died because of a febrility in 19 B.C. , go forthing the heroic poem unfinished. He wished for Aeineid to be destroyed, but the current swayer, Augustus ordered for it to be finished and published. The Aeneid appeared in 17 B.C. (*Vergil*, 2004 )

Virgil. ( 2004, January 1 ) .*Encyclopedia.com*. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404706635.html

Virgil. ( n.d. ) .*PBS*. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pbs.org/empires/romans/empire/virgil.html

**4 BC Birth of Christ**

Jesus Christ, besides known as Jesus of Nazareth, was born in 4 B.C. He was the laminitis and centre of Christianity, one of the most influential faiths in the universe. Merely a small was known about the childhood of Jesus, but the four scriptural Gospels Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John provide an history from his birth to his ministry (*Jesus Christ life*, n.d. ) .

Jesus Christ life. ( n.d. ) .*Bio.com*. Retrieved December 2, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.biography.com/people/jesus-christ-9354382

Jesus of Nazareth. ( 2004, January 1 ) .*Encyclopedia.com*. Retrieved December 2, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404703308.html

Jesus of Nazareth Biography. ( n.d. ) .*World Biography*. Retrieved December 2, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.notablebiographies.com/Ho-Jo/Jesus-of-Nazareth.html

**Ad**

**Mathematical**

**AD 50 Negative Numberss used in China**

Negative Numberss are Numberss that are less than nothing. The construct of negative Numberss started in China. Negative Numberss were used in Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art of Jiuzhang Suanchu in work outing systems of coincident equations. The suan Zhou ( numbering rods ) method was done with the usage of ruddy rods for positive measures and black rods for negative measures (*Negative Number, n.d. )*. The regulations for signed Numberss were besides given.

The Chinese part of negative Numberss is really of import since it completed the whole Numberss and rational Numberss.

Negative Number. ( n.d. ) .*Negative Number*. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_madeinchina/2005-08/18/content_71977.htm

**AD 75 Heron: measurings, roots, appraising**

Heron of Alexandria, sometimes called Hero, is a Grecian Mathematician and Engineer born in 10 A.D. Almost nil is known about Heron’s personal life. Heron’s glare was shown in his Hagiographas in mathematics and mechanics. He wrote at least 13 books in his life covering subjects such as geometry and mathematics, appraising, mechanics, pneumatics, automatic machines, war machines, optics and many more ( Shuttleworth, n.d. ) .

Metrica, a series made up of three books, dressed ores on computations of countries and volumes of organic structures such as cones, cylinders, pyramids etc. The Hero’s expression, which stated the country of a trigon with given sides, A = sqr [ s ( s-a ) ( s-b ) ( s-c ) ] where s = ( a+b+c ) /2, was found in the Book I of Metrica ( O’Connor & A ; Robertson, 1999 ) . Heron used arithmetic to work out complicated quadratic equations arithmetically, estimated the square roots of non-square Numberss, and calculated regular hexahedrons roots (*Hero of Alexandria, 2008 )*. Mensurae consists of inside informations of the different tools for mensurating. Dioptra contains practical and mathematical methods for land surveying (*Heron of Alexandria,*n.d. ) .

Hero of Alexandria. ( 2008, January 1 ) .*Encyclopedia.com*. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404702942.html

Heron Of Alexandria. ( n.d. ) .*Celebrated Mathematicians*. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.famous-mathematicians.com/heron-of-alexandria/

O’Connor, J. J. , & A ; Robertson, E. F. ( 1999 ) .*Heron of Alexandria*. Heron life. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Heron.html

Shuttleworth, M. ( n.d. ) . Heron of Alexandria – A Beautiful Mind.*Explorable*. Retrieved December 1, 2013, from hypertext transfer protocol: //explorable.com/heron-of-alexandria

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