Hong Kong Government and the Non-Civil Service Contract

In 1999, Hong Kong Government has introduced the Non-Civil Service Contract ( NCSC ) Scheme in order to supply a more flexible deployment of staff within the Government on a short-run footing. In 2003, The Hong Kong Government has frozen the enlisting of civil retainers in order to cut down the budget shortage. However, in position of natural wastage and normal wastage on retirement of civil retainers, every bit good as the drawn-out service hours of The Hong Kong Public Libraries ( HKPL ) , the Leisure and Cultural Services Department ( LCSD ) , direction organic structure of HKPL has recruited NCSC staff in HKPL in order to get by with the increasing demand of libraries services.

As at 1 Jan 2010, the entire figure of lasting staff and contract staff are 975 and 567 severally, impermanent station counted on hourly-basis are up to 979,000 man-hours ( Appendix xx, LCSD ) , though these staff may execute similar or same responsibilities, there may be differences in their basic wages, wage bundles which may take to jobs on equity or motive.

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Researches shown that motive is closely related to public presentation of employees. Green ( 2000 ) has proposed an application model called “ Belief System of Motivation and Performance ” based on the theoretical theoretical account by Victor Vroom ‘s Expectancy Theory. In the book “ Motivation Management ” , Green has suggested that “ there is a critical connexion between motive and public presentation ” .

In this thesis, survey will be made on the effectivity of motivational factors from position of frontline staff in Hong Kong Public Libraries. Hong Kong Public Libraries are chosen for treatment since they are one of the most widely used civilization installations in Hong Kong, all of the Hong Kong occupants are able to bask the libraries services at no or really low cost throughout their life, some of library services are besides extended to non-Hong Kong occupants. Furthermore, most of the libraries are situated in countries easy accessed by the populace and the public libraries cover all of territories including outlying islands, for illustration, there are two public libraries in the Lamma Island.

Public library plays an of import function in supplying information for life-long acquisition and self-entertainment, advance reading wonts and fostering cultural environment for the state. Harmonizing to the Committee on Libraries Recommendation Report ( 2007 ) , public library is one of the most widely used civilization installations in Hong Kong. There are wholly 66 libraries in Hong Kong which covers all of the major territories, including one Central library, 5 major libraries, 27 territory libraries, 32 little libraries and there are extra 10 Mobile libraries which provide services for dumbly populated countries ( Leisure and Cultural Services Department, 2010 ) .

The first feeling of how good of a library is determined by the mentality and installations of the library, information provided every bit good as the services provided by library staff, particularly the frontline staff as they will often interact with clients.

In Chapter One, background of research will be provided. Definition and assorted theories of motive will be provided in Chapter Two. In Chapter Three, there will be account on the methodological analysis used, the research is chiefly based on quantitative method by roll uping informations from frontline staff of the Hong Kong Public Libraries. Chapter Four will supply elaborate analysis on the research information followed by treatment on the consequence. In Chapter Five, decision will be given accompanied by some recommendations for the research subject.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW ( 2054 words )

2.1 What is motive?

Kreitner ( 2007 ) has defined motive as “ the psychological procedure that gives behavior intent and way ” . Mullins ( 2005 ) has defined motive as “ some drive force within an person by which they attempts to accomplish some end in order to carry through some demands or outlooks ” .

George & A ; Jones ( 2008 ) suggested that work motive is the thrust forces direct an single behaviour including degree of attempt and continuity in an organisation. Motivation is merely one of the factors that impacting public presentation, personality, personal ability, resources available, working conditions, trouble of undertakings, etc.

Motivation is the thrust force which makes people to make things in order to carry through their desire, wants, needs or ends, if differs among different people and it may alter over a period of clip. There are two sorts of motive which are intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motive is internal forces which are related to the feeling of people such as their involvements and satisfaction. Extrinsic motive is related to external factors and may act upon by wagess, compensation or publicity. There are many theories related to motive such as Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands, Herzberg ‘s Hygiene Factors and Expectancy Theory which will be explained in the undermentioned subdivision:

2.1.1 Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands

Harmonizing to the psychologist Abraham Maslow ( 1987 ) , there are five demands of human existences which are:

physiological demands, it is the basic demands for things such as nutrient, H2O, shelter which are indispensable for endurance of human existences ;

safety demands, it is in the 2nd degree which refers to the demands for security, stableness, for illustration, occupation security and safe working environment ;

societal demands which is in the 3rd degree, it is the demands for societal life, friendly relationship and love, for illustration relationship between supervisor, colleagues and subsidiaries ;

self-esteem demands, it is in the 4th degree, it is the demands for pursing respects from others, demands for acknowledgment of one ‘s capablenesss from others, for illustration, publicity and achievements on the occupation ; and

self-actualization demands, it is the highest degree of demands, it is the demands to endeavour one ‘s all capablenesss in order to accomplish a end. Maslow ( Year req ‘d? ) proposed that the importance of these demands is arranged in hierarchy order, the demands at lowest degree must be satisfied before traveling to the following degree and it is non possible to skip degrees. Once the first degree of demand is satisfied, persons may seek to fulfill the higher degree of demand and so on harmonizing to hierarchy order. Maslow ( Year req ‘d? ) besides proposed that one time a demand is satisfied, it is no longer a beginning of motive.

2.1.2 Alderfer ‘s Existence-relatedness-growth ( ERG ) Theory ( ref? ? )

This is based on Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands but the figure of demands was reduced from five degrees to three degrees which are:

Being demands, these are basic demands for nutrient, H2O, shelter and security, it combined the first and 2nd degree of demands of Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands ;

Relatedness needs, it refer to the interaction with others, friendly relationship and love, it is same as the societal demands of Maslow hierarchy of demands ; and

Growth needs, this is the demands for personal development such as geting new accomplishments, cognition from the work. Differ from Maslow ‘s theory, ERG theory is more flexible that it proposed the demands for more than one degrees could be existed as incentive at the same clip.

Alderfer besides proposed that when employees have trouble to fulfill a higher degree demands, their motive to fulfill lower-level demands will be increased ( George & A ; Jones, 2008 ) .

2.1.3 Herzberg ‘s Hygiene Factors

Herzberg ( 1966 ) has proposed Two-factor theory of motive based on the survey of need satisfaction among applied scientists and comptrollers. This theory proposed that there are two sets of demands viz. motivator demands and hygiene demands. Incentive demands are related to the work itself, for illustration, occupation liberty, how interesting / challenging is the work? Hygiene demands are related to physical and psychological context of the work, for illustration, physical work environment such as room temperature and nature of supervising, relationship with co-workers, pay degree and occupation security ( Perlmutter, Bailey & A ; Netting, 2001 ) .

Harmonizing to this theory, employees will be satisfied when incentive demands are met. Herzberg ( 1966 ) suggested that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are two separate dimensions and they could be at the same clip. It is proposed that employees will non be satisfied even when hygiene demands are met, nevertheless, employees will be dissatisfied when hygiene factors are non met ( George & A ; Jones, 2008 ) . Though hygiene factors can non actuate employees but they should be kept at an acceptable degree in order to let actuating factors to work ( Perlmutter, Bailey & A ; Netting, 2001 ) .

2.1.4 Expectancy Theory

This theory is originally developed by Victor Vroom ( 1964 ) and could be represented by the undermentioned expression:

Motivation = anticipation x valency

Where valency is the strength of the penchant for a peculiar result of employees and anticipation is the chance that a peculiar action will take to a desired result ( Koontz & A ; Weihrich, 2008, pp293 ) .

This theory proposed that employees will merely be motivated when they believe they can finish the undertaking and the wages for finishing this undertaking is worth their attempt ( Lussier, 2009, pp398 ) .

2.1.5 McClelland ‘s Theory of Needs

Harmonizing to Robbins & A ; Judge ( 2008 ) , this theory is developed by David McClelland and his associates and three demands were identified harmonizing this theory:

I ) Need for accomplishment

This is the desire for accomplishment, the thrust to get the better of troubles and acquire win, it is shown that high winners have best public presentation on the undertakings with intermediate trouble, they dislike excessively easy or excessively hard undertaking.

two ) Need for Power

This is the desire to be influential and do others to move in the manner without divergence. Peoples with high demand in Power are more status-oriented, they enjoy to act upon others and prestigiousness position.

three ) Need for association

This is the demand for close relationship, friendly relationship and love, people with high association prefer harmonious relationship instead than competition.

2.1.6 Goal-Setting Theory

Locke and Latham ( 1990 ) suggested that a specified and disputing end could function as a incentive to actuate people to accomplish a better public presentation provided that people believed that they are capable to achieve this end.

Since the end set excessively low will take down public presentation and end set excessively high will do this end go unrealistic and unachievable, the end set should be neither excessively high nor excessively low ( refaˆ¦aˆ¦ ) . Besides, it is suggested to hold employees to take part in goal-setting procedure, it is because:

people involved in end puting procedure have better understanding about the end ;

employees are more familiar with their work than their supervisors who may put unrealistic and unreasonable ends ; and

Furthermore, employees will work harder to commission the end set by themselves.

In add-on, feedback is recommended to attach to with end puting theory to better public presentation harmonizing to a biennial research on US Air Force crews ( Greenberg & A ; Baron, 1995 ) .

2.1.7 Equity Theory

J. Stacy Adams ( 1965 ) has proposed a theory called equity theory, this theory is focus on the perceptual experience of employees about the equity of their work, it suggested that employee will seek to compare with a individual called referent who is perceived to be similar to that employee. Harmonizing to George and Jones ( 2008 ) which stated that:

Employee

Referent

Equity

Overpayment

Unfairness

Underpayment

Unfairness

( beginning: Exhibit 6.6 – Conditionss of Equity and Inequity in George & A ; Jones, 2008 pp.194 )

Harmonizing to this theory, employees will judge the equity of the results resulted from inputs based on their past experience and observation, they are motivated when they perceived that their outcome/input ratios are equal to their referent, they will either keep the position or to exercise excess attempt in order to acquire a better result ( George & A ; Jones, 2008 ) . However, when unfairness is perceived, i.e. when the employees perceive that outcome/input ratios greater or smaller than that of referent, tenseness will be occurred and attempts will be made in order to reconstruct equity.

Wayss to reconstruct equity:

I ) Employees may alter their outcome/input ratios, for illustration, when they are in the province of underpayment unfairness, they may work less harder or inquire for a wage rise.

two ) Employees may alter their referent or their perceptual experience for inputs and results ratios which is most likely happened in the state of affairs of overpayment unfairness.

three ) Employees may be motivated to happen another occupation or discontinue the occupation in order to reconstruct the equity.

2.2 Financial Reward

2.2.1 Basic rewards

It refers to number money earned by employees harmonizing to the figure of hours, yearss, hebdomads or months they work. It is the entire sum earned excepting committee or fillip. Basic rewards of library staff may change harmonizing to the nature of their contract and senior status, the difference may be up to several thousand dollars. For illustration, the rewards for a Library Assistant Trainee is merely $ 4,000, rewards for Library Assistant may change from $ 8,000 to $ 13,000 while maximal rewards for an Assistant Clerical Officer is $ 20,950 harmonizing to the Master Pay Scale ( appendix twenty ) in web site of the Civil Service Bureau ( 2010 ) . However, it is noted that Library Assistants and Assistant Clerical Officers may execute the same or similar occupation responsibilities in the Hong Kong Public Libraries.

2.2.2 Bonus

It refers to extra money added to regular payment paid to employees for their good public presentation, it will non impact basic rewards of employees and it is non lasting addition in rewards. With respect to the singularity of the Government ‘s civil service wage policy, fillip system is non applicable to all employees in the Government.

2.2.3 Merit Pay

Merit wage is the lasting wage addition granted to employees harmonizing to their public presentation, it is the inducement program aimed to actuate the future public presentation of employees ( Heneman & A ; Werner, 2005 ) .

Merit Pay System exists in Government wage construction as civil retainers of Hong Kong are paid under Master Pay Scale developed by the Government, civil retainers are able to bask one increase every twelvemonth with satisfactory public presentation ( Civil Service Bureau, HKSAR, 2010 ) .

2.2.4 Stock Options

This incentive strategy is by and large used on managerial class in private companies, a certain figure of stock options will be granted to the top executives or directors for their services. The top executives or directors are able to obtain these portions at a specified monetary value in future ( Wolff, 2003, pp 15 ) . This system helps to associate the public presentation of the employees to the hereafter development of the companies which is by and large used in private sectors, nevertheless, it is non applicable to employees of Hong Kong Government.

2.3 Non-financial Reward

2.3.1 Career Advancement

A calling is the part of an person to the society throughout one ‘s life-time which includes the function and responsibilities performed by this person ( Casto, 2000, pp.75-76 ) . Career promotion refers to the existent or possible upward motion of the calling of an person ( Morrison & A ; Adams, 1991, pp 3-4 ) . The Civil Service Bureau of The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region ( HKSAR ) ( 2005 ) shows that there are different ranks established under different class construction in Hong Kong Government, the publicity of civil retainers are capable to their ability, experience and public presentation. However, the calling chances for employees under NCSC Scheme are different from civil retainers as there are no valid publicity chances for these employees. In add-ons, they could merely use for authorities occupations through unfastened enlisting since they are regarded as outside appliers when using Government occupations.

2.3.2 Personal Development

It is the womb-to-tomb procedure that refers to the accomplishments and experiences acquired by employees from their work. Harmonizing to Rainbird, Fuller & A ; Munro ( 2004 ) , work and acquisition are related in three dimensions which includes:

a ) Opportunities to construct up relationships with other communities at or beyond the workplace ;

B ) Opportunities to obtain accomplishments and cognition through the work ; and

degree Celsius ) Opportunities to acquire job-related makings through classs or day-to-day on-the-job preparation. Workplace is really supplying a learning environment to fit employees for their future calling and their personal development.

2.3.3 Recognition

It is a sort of wages which may be in the signifier of verbal or written recognition for good public presentation or excess attempt done by employees. Tangible acknowledgment include “ employee of the month ” , intangible acknowledgment include congratulations and feedback from supervisors for good work ( Mathis & A ; Jackson, 2008, pp.80-81 ) .

3. METHODOLOGY ( 227 words )

In this survey, the frontline staff of The Hong Kong Public Libraries is chosen for treatment. There are four aims in this survey:

To happen if there are any differences between the ideal and current place of these staff ;

To happen how these differences affect their occupation public presentation ;

To prove if the behaviour of these staff could be explained by motive theories ; and

To happen how effectual the bing factors on motive.

Quantitative method will be employed in this survey, a questionnaire will be designed and distributed to roll up informations from frontline employees in the Hong Kong Public Libraries. The questionnaire covers the countries sing the importance and satisfaction degrees of some of 10 satisfaction factors ( including xxxxxxxx req ‘d? ) . It besides includes inquiries on the relationship between these satisfaction factors and occupation public presentation, the sensed public presentation and payment equity among respondents and morale in workplace.

Due to the limited clip and resources, this study aims at roll uping 90 respondents from population, the mark sample will be divided into three groups where 30 respondents are lasting staff ( civil retainers ) , 30 respondents are contract staff ( non-civil service contract staff ) and 30 respondents are impermanent staff who are working on hourly footing. The respondents are indiscriminately selected from different libraries located in different territories, informations collected will be used for analysis and treatment in Chapter 4.

4. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ( 2894words )

The response rate is around 73 % , merely 66 questionnaires have been collected after the study and wholly 24 respondents have non responded to the questionnaire. The response rate for three mark sample groups are 80 % for lasting staff, 76.67 % for contract staff and 63.33 % for impermanent staff severally. A sum-up of study consequence is attached at the terminal of the thesis as Appendix xx.

4.1 Demographic Information of Respondents

Most of respondents are in the age group 26 to 35, 21 % are belongs to the age group 16 to 25, there are 20 % and 4 % for the age group 36 to 45 and 46 to 55 severally. There are about 45 % of respondents have monthly wage over $ 10,001, nevertheless, most of them are lasting staff, merely 20 % of them are contract staff. Majority of contract staff are within the salary scope of $ 7,501 – $ 10,000. Merely a few parts of impermanent staff are within the salary scope of $ 5,001 – $ 7,500, other impermanent staff is within the group having monthly salary $ 5,000 or below.

Chart 1 – Age Group of Total Respondents

Chart 2 – Average Monthly Salary Range of Total Respondents

Most of respondents have working in HKPL for over one twelvemonth, 43 % of respondents have over three old ages experience, merely 19 % of respondents are working in HKPL less than one twelvemonth. Around 29 % of respondents have working in current place for more than three old ages, 50 % of respondents have more than one twelvemonth but less than three old ages experience for current station, staying respondents have working in current place for less than one twelvemonth.

Chart 3 – Service Old ages in Hong Kong Public Libraries ( HKPL )

Chart 4 – Service Years in Current Position

4.2 Importance of Job Satisfaction Factors

Chart 5 – Importance of Job Satisfaction Factors

The consequences indicate the bulk of respondents consider that basic rewards as an of import factors in their ideal occupation. Among the three sample groups, lasting staff scores the highest per centum who considers basic rewards is really of import. There are 63 % of entire respondents see benefits as an of import factor in their ideal occupation, 2 % and 18 % of entire respondents see this factor are somewhat unimportant and neither of import nor unimportant severally. 80 % or entire respondents consider occupation security is an of import factor in their ideal occupation, merely 20 % of entire respondents see this factor is neither of import nor unimportant.

For importance of relationship with co-workers and good direction / policy, there are over 80 % of entire respondents see former factor is of import while merely 55 % of entire respondents consider the ulterior factor is of import. The per centum of entire respondents who consider working hours and working conditions / environment of import are 73 % and 62 % severally. There are 2 % of entire respondents consider working conditions / environment unimportant in their ideal occupation.

Consequences besides show that there are more than 70 % of entire respondents see both acknowledgment from supervisor / clients and calling promotion / personal development of import in their ideal occupation while the per centum of entire respondents who consider these two factors unimportant are 3 % and 4 % ( double-check the information ) severally. However, it is observed that when the respondents are farther divided into three sample groups, the per centum of lasting staff who consider acknowledgment and calling promotion / personal development of import are much higher than contract staff and impermanent staff. Merely 52 % of entire respondents consider interesting / disputing work is an of import factor in their ideal occupation, those who consider this factor is neither of import nor unimportant is 36 % and 12 % consider this is an unimportant factor in their ideal occupation.

Chart 6 – Permanent Staff on Recognition from Supervisor / Clients

Chart 7 – Contract Staff on Recognition from Supervisor Clients

Chart 8 – Impermanent Staff on Recognition from Supervisor / Clients

Chart 9 – Permanent Staff on Career Advancement / Personal Development

Chart 10 – Contract Staff on Career Advancement / Personal Development

Chart 11 – Impermanent Staff on Career Advancement / Personal Development

Consequences show that rewards is the factor with higher precedence while good direction / policy, working conditions and interesting / disputing work are factors with lower precedence from the point of view of libraries staff.

There are no major differences for three classs of staff when see the importance of the above factors except acknowledgment from supervisor / clients and calling promotion / personal development. The employment nature of contract and impermanent staff may assist to explicate this phenomenon as these two sorts of staff are employed on contract base and reclamation of contract is required sporadically, their focal point of ideal occupation will be put on factors such as how to procure their occupation or how to gain more money, the acknowledgment from supervisor or calling promotion may so hold lower precedence in their ideal occupation.

4.3 Satisfactory Level on Current Position

Chart 12 – Satisfactory Level for Current Position

There are 45 % of entire respondents satisfied with their current rewards, 30 % of them are neither satisfied nor disgruntled, 20 % and 5 % of entire respondents are slightly disgruntled and really disgruntled with their current rewards severally.

There is something singular when the consequences are farther subdivided into three sample groups, it is found that over 90 % of lasting staff is satisfied with their current rewards and merely 8 % of them are neither satisfied nor disgruntled. However, the satisfactory rate are extremely dropped in the consequences of contract staff and impermanent staff, there are merely 17 % of contract staff and 21 % of impermanent staff who satisfied with their current rewards. Those who dissatisfied with their current rewards are 35 % and 42 % for contract staff and impermanent staff severally.

Chart 13 – Permanent Staff on Wagess

Chart 14 – Contract Staff on Wagess

Chart 15 – Impermanent Staff on Wagess

There are 18 % of entire respondents who satisfied with benefits provided by current place, 30 % of them are neither satisfied nor disgruntled with the benefits while 52 % of them are dissatisfied with the benefits provided. Again, a large difference is found between the satisfactory rate ( or satisfaction degree? ? ) among lasting staff and contract / impermanent staff on benefits. There is merely 4 % of lasting staff who dissatisfied with benefits while there are 79 % for both contract staff and impermanent staff who are dissatisfied with benefits provided. The same phenomenon may be observed in the satisfaction degree on occupation security. It is shown that there is merely 4 % of lasting staff dissatisfied with occupation security while there are 56 % of contract staff and 79+ % impermanent staff are dissatisfied with occupation security.

Chart 16 – Permanent Staff on Benefits

Chart 17 – Contract Staff on Benefits

Chart 18 – Impermanent Staff on Benefits

Chart 19 – Permanent Staff on Job Security

Chart 20 – Contract Staff on Job Security

Chart 21 – Impermanent Staff on Job Security

The satisfaction rate on relationship with co-workers is 67 % for lasting staff while merely 65 % for contract staff and 84 % for impermanent staff severally. The overall satisfaction rate is 71 % which is indicates most of the staff are satisfied with the relationship with co-workers in current place. ( back uping fig. needed? ? )

Consequences besides show that there is 37 % of lasting staff who are dissatisfied with direction / policy, 63 % of them is neither satisfied nor disgruntled. Data shows that there is 35 % of contract staff who are dissatisfied with the direction / policy, merely 13 % of them are satisfied and the staying 52 % are neither satisfied nor disgruntled. For impermanent staff, there are merely 11 % of them are satisfied with direction / policy and the staying are neither satisfied nor disgruntled. The ground for this may be due to the impermanent staff are less affected by the policy of the Hong Kong Public Libraries ( HKPLs ) and their mobility are comparatively higher than lasting staff and contract staff. ( back uping fig. needed? ? )

The bulk of entire respondents are impersonal for the on the job hours. Merely 20 % of entire respondents are dissatisfied with on the job hours and there are 29 % of entire respondents are satisfied with the working hours. There are 32 % of entire respondents who satisfied with the working conditions / environment, merely 12 % of respondents are dissatisfied with this factor, for the staying respondents, they are neither satisfied nor disgruntled with this factor. ( back uping fig. needed? ? )

When comparing on the importance of acknowledgment from supervisor / clients, informations show that the response from three sample groups are more or less the same, 64 % of entire respondents are neither satisfied nor disgruntled with this factor, 13 % of entire respondents are satisfied while 21 % of entire respondents are dissatisfied with the acknowledgment from supervisor / clients. ( back uping fig. needed? ? )

A major difference is shown on the factor of calling promotion / personal development, for lasting staff, there are merely 21 % dissatisfied with this factor while there are 70 % of contract staff and 89 % of impermanent staff who dissatisfied their calling promotion / personal development in their current place.

Chart 22 – Permanent Staff on Career Advancement / Personal Development

Chart 23 – Contract Staff on Career Advancement / Personal Development

Chart 24 – Impermanent Staff on Career Advancement / Personal Development

Consequences show that merely 25 % of lasting staff dissatisfied with the factor for interesting / disputing work while there are 48 % of contract staff and 32 % of impermanent staff dissatisfied with this factor. This may be counted on the employment nature of different sorts of staff. Permanent staff of General Grade in authorities ( e.g. Assistant Clerical Officers ) will be rotated to different sections for different responsibilities, they may happen their work more interesting / challenging. However, contract staff is unable to revolve to other section and they could merely revolve their occupation responsibilities within the same office which extremely decrease the attraction of the work. For the impermanent staff, since their mobility is high, they are able to execute responsibilities in different office and hence they are less likely to happen their work drilling.

Chart 25 – Permanent Staff on Interesting / Challenging Work

Chart 26 – Contract Staff on Interesting / Challenging Work

Chart 27 – Impermanent Staff on Interesting / Challenging Work

Overall consequences show that most of the occupation satisfaction factors are of import to the respondents, nevertheless, it is observed that lower precedence are given to factors related to direction / policy, working conditions and interesting / disputing work. When the consequences of importance and satisfaction degree of these factors are compared, it is found that the dissatisfaction rate ( or degree? ? ? ) is high for some of the satisfaction factors which consider rather of import by entire respondents such as benefits, occupation security and calling promotion / personal development.

4.4 Relevance of public presentation and factors

Chart 28 – Relationship between Job Performance and Job Satisfaction Factors

There are 80 % of entire respondents believed their occupation public presentation is related to the rewards, 2 % of entire respondents consider their occupation public presentation is irrelevant to rewards, the staying of respondents believed their occupation public presentation is neither affected nor unaffected by rewards.

About one half of entire respondents consider their occupation public presentation are affected by benefits and occupation security to certain extend, merely 11 % of them consider occupation public presentation is irrelevant to benefits and 3 % of entire respondents see it is irrelevant to occupation security. ( back uping fig. needed? ? )

Most of the entire respondents believed relationship with co-workers will impact their occupation public presentation, the per centum of entire respondents who consider this factor is neither affected nor unaffected and slightly unaffected are 15 % and 2 % severally. ( back uping fig. needed? ? )

Data show that 44 % of entire respondents believed their occupation public presentation is related to direction / policy, 47 % of them are impersonal for this factor and 9 % of them believe this factor is unrelated to their public presentation. When respondents are sub-divided into three sample groups, it is found that per centum of impermanent staff who believes direction / policy related to occupation public presentation is the lowest among three sample groups. This is because impermanent staff is those with highest mobility and shortest contract period, besides their occupation nature are chiefly everyday occupation such as postponing without any office / administrative responsibilities, hence, they are less affected by direction / policy of the organisation.

( Add fig of entire respondents on Good Mgt / Policy? )

Chart 29 – Permanent Staff on Good Management / Policy

Chart 30 – Contract Staff on Good Management / Policy

Chart 31 – Impermanent Staff on Good Management / Policy

It is found that about half of entire respondents see working hours and working conditions will impact their occupation public presentation, approximately 5 % of respondents consider these factors are wholly unrelated to occupation public presentation and the staying respondents see these factors are neither affected nor affected their public presentation. ( back uping fig. needed? ? )

Different consequences from three sample groups of staff were found for factor of acknowledgment from supervisor / client and calling promotion / personal development. There are 84 % of lasting staff, 69 % of contract staff and 68 % of impermanent staff see acknowledgment is related to their public presentation. Respondents who consider calling promotion / personal development related to their public presentation are 87 % of lasting staff, 52 % of contract staff and 58 % of impermanent staff severally. The about nothing calling chances for contract and impermanent staff in public libraries may assist to explicate the difference in informations between lasting staff and contract / impermanent staff.

Chart 32 – Permanent Staff on Recognition from Supervisor / Client

Chart 33 – Contract Staff on Recognition from Supervisor / Client

Chart 34 – Impermanent Staff on Recognition from Supervisor / Client

Chart 35 – Permanent Staff on Career Advancement / Personal Development

Chart 36 – Contract Staff on Career Advancement / Personal Development

Chart 37 – Contract Staff on Career Advancement / Personal Development

Data besides indicates there are 45 % of entire respondents consider an interesting / disputing work will impact their occupation public presentation, while 42 % of them are impersonal for this factor and 13 % of them consider this factor will non impact their public presentation. ( back uping fig. needed? ? )

Chart 38 – Percept on reasonably paid by Respondents

There are 35 % of entire respondents consider they are reasonably paid, nevertheless, a contrasting consequence was found when comparing lasting staff and contract / impermanent staff, around 62 % of lasting staff see themselves are reasonably paid while over 80 % of contract and impermanent staff consider they are non reasonably paid. Contract staff is the group which has the highest per centum ( more than 90 % ) that perceive they are below the belt paid while there are more than 70 % of impermanent staff see themselves are below the belt paid.

Chart 39 – Purpose to happen a new occupation within 3 months

There is about half of entire respondents show an purpose to happen a new occupation within three months. The per centums of respondents who have this purpose are 4 % for lasting staff, 65 % for contract staff and 84 % for impermanent staff severally. The grounds for altering occupations are chiefly due to insecurity occupation, unjust / low payment, other grounds are related to switch working hours, deficiency of preparation, hapless working environment and direction / policy.

Chart 40 – Overall Morale Perceived by Respondents

Chart 41 – Self-evaluation of Job Performance

Most of respondents consider overall morale in their workplace is in norm, respondents who consider overall morale is good and just are 23 % and 8 % severally. There are 53 % of respondents consider their public presentation is good while 42 % of respondents consider their public presentation is in norm, 5 % of respondents consider their public presentation is first-class.

4.5 Future Development of the Hong Kong Public Libraries

At the terminal of twelvemonth 2010, The Leisure and Cultural Services Department ( LCSD ) , direction organic structure of The Hong Kong Public Libraries ( HKPLs ) , has arranged a series briefing Sessionss on the new work force deployment program of frontline staff and new operational manner in HKPLs. The deployment program is formulated based on the survey from confer withing companies and aimed to better the efficiency and effectivity of the HKPLs.

Harmonizing to the program, the frontline operation will be divided into proviso of nucleus services and non-core services. The nucleus services such as office / disposal responsibilities, check-in and check-out services, reader enrollment, roll uping assorted fees will be supported by lasting staff ( civil retainers ) . The non-core services such as shelving, lamination of books will be supported by impermanent staff from outsourcing contractors.

Under the new operational manner, there will be execution of new system – Radio Frequency Identification ( RFID ) and sweetening on Library Automation System ( LAS ) which provide customer-oriented services such as reserve, adoption and reclamation of library stuffs and e-notification services through different platforms. It is expected that sweetening of LAS and execution of RFID could assist to foster better the efficiency and effectivity of library services.

Six libraries are selected for the pilot strategy of new operational manner, findings and positions will be collected for fine-tuning of the program, operational usher and preparation classs will besides be provided to back up the new operational manner. Under the new operational manner, it is suggested that the bing non-civil service contract staff will be bit by bit replaced by the lasting staff through unfastened enlisting since new system could assist to better the flow of operation and greatly diminish the demand of work force.

From the informations released by LCSD, there are xxx % turnover rate throughout xxxyear. Data collected from the questionnaire besides indicate that more than 73 % of contract and impermanent staff planned to happen a new occupation due to unjust payment and hapless benefits, with the execution of this new operation manner, it is anticipated the Hong Kong Public Libraries could hold a more stable work force and better quality of client services.

5. Decision AND RECOMMENDATION ( 944 words )

The first major determination of this research is that the bulk of respondents are by and large agreed the satisfaction factors listed in questionnaire are of import. However, it is found that respondents have showed dissatisfaction on different countries of occupation satisfaction factors except the factor on relationship with co-workers. It is besides observed that the dissatisfaction degree is high in some of the factors which consider of import by respondents such as benefits, occupation security and calling promotion / personal development.

The high satisfaction degree ( rate? ? ) for the factor on relationship with co-workers may be explained by Alderfer ‘s ERG Theory as stated by George & A ; Jones ( 2008 ) , the direction of the Hong Kong Public Libraries are likely fail to run into the being demands and growing demands of employees, when employees have trouble to fulfill a higher degree demands, their motive to fulfill lower-level demands will be increased, it may assist to explicate the per centum of contract and impermanent who consider relationship with co-workers is of import are higher than the lasting staff as their motive to fulfill relatedness demands additions. ( Concept job? ? )

The 2nd major happening show that motivational factors particularly factors related to basic rewards, relationship with co-workers and acknowledgment from supervisor will impact the occupation public presentation to different extend from the point of view of most of the respondents. It is besides suggested that satisfaction degree on these factors will impact the turnover rate of employees as it is shown that employees which are dissatisfied will hold a thrust to look for a new occupation.

The 3rd major happening show that there is a high per centum of contract and impermanent staff who consider they are below the belt paid when comparison with their co-workers, as stated in Equity Theory ( ref req ‘d? ? ) , employees will seek to reconstruct equity when they perceived that inequality exists. In this instance, underpayment inequality occurs, contract and impermanent staff are seeking to happen a new occupation in order to reconstruct the equity as they perceive that they are non reasonably paid when comparing to their co-workers who perform the same occupation responsibilities.

It is observed that contract and impermanent staff are highly dissatisfied with the hygiene factor – occupation security, harmonizing to Herzberg ‘s Two-factor Theory ( 1966 ) , though hygiene factors can non actuate employee, it is suggested to maintain the hygiene factors at an acceptable degree in order to let actuating factors to work. In add-on, Mobley ( 1977 ) has pointed out that satisfaction degrees is closely related to the turnover rate, employees are likely to discontinue the occupation when their satisfaction degree of the occupation lessenings.

5.1 Deductions

The findings has deductions on human resources direction of the Hong Kong Public Libraries ( HKPLs ) as it is observed that the dissatisfaction degree are high in factors such as benefits, occupation security calling promotion / personal development and work itself in specific for contract and impermanent staff. Improvements may be made harmonizing to these findings in order to better the satisfaction degree.

It is noted that HKPL is cognizant of the job and seek to turn to it by execution of new operational manner. The new manner which planned to enroll lasting staff alternatively of contract staff who are eligible for higher wages and bask fringe benefits such as medical and dental benefits, this meet the physiological demands of Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands ( 1987 ) as rewards could be used to buy nutrient, H2O and shelter which are indispensable for endurance. The lasting stations created could besides assist to fulfill safety demands of employees as occupation security is provided. In add-ons, the calling way provided by the lasting station has met the demand of self-esteem which provides the possibilities of calling promotion for employees.

With the execution of the new operation manner, employees are able to bask a better calling chances and more just rewards with progressive wage graduated table and periphery benefits. It is expected that the new operation manner could supply a more stable work force, improved quality of client services and cut down turnover rate of employees in the Hong Kong Public Libraries.

5.2 Restrictions:

Although consequences show that most of employees believe the occupation satisfaction factors will impact their public presentation, it should be noted that occupation public presentation will non be entirely affected by these factors. For illustration, employees with high motive or occupation satisfaction degree may execute ill due to miss of ability, and employees with low motive or occupation satisfaction degree may hold good public presentation due to high ability. Job public presentation will be affected by ability of employees and other factors which have non mentioned in the questionnaire such as occupation liberty, preparation provided and work-life balance.

In add-on, the limited clip and resources have confined the trying size of the research

5.3 Recommendations:

Recommendations for future research and the Hong Kong Public Libraries:

For future research, it is recommended that:

Research method such as qualitative method to be employed. Focus group and questioning with frontline employees and their supervisors may be used in order to roll up more elaborate information.

Further surveies to be conducted with a larger sample size in order to acquire more comprehensive information on motive and occupation satisfaction factors.

For the Hong Kong Public Libraries, it is recommended that:

The direction should pay attending if the different on the job hours among employees of the same rank will take to dissatisfaction. For illustration, the Assistant Clerical Officers who receive the same rewards and periphery benefit, those who work in public library are required to execute shift responsibilities while others who work in office are enjoy five-day hebdomad.

They should pay attending for the occupation satisfaction degree every bit good as public presentation of impermanent staff as these staff is non included in the new operational manner.

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