PROJECT REPORT ON
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Internal ExaminerExternal Examiner
I, , Mumbai, hereby declare that the summer training report on “Training and development” submitted to the University of Mumbai, Mumbai in partial fulfillment of Degree of Masters in Commerce (Business Management) is original work conducted by me. The information and data given in the report is authentic to the best of my knowledge. The project report is not being submitted to any University for award of any Degree, Diploma and Fellowship
I would like to thank the faculty of “SMT. PARMESHWARIDEVI DURGADUTT TIBREWALA LIONS JUHU COLLEGE OF ARTS, COMMERCE AND SCIENCE” affiliated to the University of Mumbai for their excellent suggestion. A special thank to Dr. Nanda Indulkar, Coordinator for her constant encouragement and guidance from the beginning to the end with never ending patience. Her constant support and efforts helped me to complete my project on time.
I would also like to take an opportunity to thank all friends for co-operating with me and to all the people who are directly or indirectly connected to the project above. Special thanks to our Principal Dr. Trishala Mehta and President Dr. Vinod Tibrewala for their co-operation during the time of completion of the project. I would also like to thank our respected Professors like, Miss Anita Chaudhary and Miss Shraddha Thawani and also our Library Attendant Kawade Subhash, without whom the project would have not come to an end.
Success of every business enterprise depends on its human resource. Finding the right man for the job and developing him into a valuable resource is an indispensable requirement of every organization. Proper recruitment helps the line managers to work most effectively in accomplishing the primary objective of the enterprise. In order to harness the human energies in the service or organizational goals, every HR manager is expected to pay proper attention to Traing And Development activities in an organization. Thus, personnel functions, Traing And Development, when carried out properly, would enable the organization to hire and retain the services of the best brains in the market.
The world’s best companies have established their strength with their people. The employees identify themselves with the company they are working for. This also helps in building up their spirit, morale and spirit-de-cops which becomes strength of the company. There are certain ways that are to be followed by every organization, which ensures that it has right number and kind of people, at the right place and right time, so that organization can achieve its planned objective. The project covers introduction of training and performance appraisal .
Training and development OF WIPRO
An overview to Human Resource Management
Human resources Management is a term with which many organizations describe the combination of traditionally administrative personnel functions with performance, Employee Relations and resource planning. The field draws upon concepts developed in Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Human resources have at least two related interpretations depending on context. The original usage derives from political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called labor, one of the four factors of production. The more common usage within corporations and businesses refers to the individuals within the firm, and to the portion of the firm’s organization that deals with hiring, firing, training, and other personnel issues.
This article addresses both definitions.HRM is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets – the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The terms “human resource management” and “human resources” (HR) have largely replaced the term “personnel management” as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. Human Resource management is evolving rapidly. Human resource management is both an academic theory and a business practice that addresses the theoretical and practical techniques of managing Human Resource.
The objective of Human Resources Management is to maximize the return on investment from the organization’s human capital and minimize financial risk. It is the responsibility of human resource managers to conduct these activities in an effective, legal, fair, and consistent manner.
Functions of Human Resource Management
Human resource management serves these key functions
2. Training and Development
3. Performance Evaluation and Management
5. Industrial and Employee Relations
6. Record keeping of all personal data.
7. Compensation, pensions, bonuses etc in liaison with Payroll 8. Career development
The purpose of the study of Traing And Development in Wipros is to experience the quantity and quality of Human Resource which is needed by the company. It is done to bridge the gap between desired manpower and actual manpower i.e. Human Resource. The Direct Sales Department of Wipros recruits the Human Resource for their Sales. The Job Profile of Personnel who is selected by HR Department is Sales Executive. The Sales contain the Direct Sales.
In order to fulfill the project requirements I personally did recruitment for the Wipros under the guidance of Skilled Managers Team and also studied the training and development are the inseparable part of the process, so it becomes indispensable to study them together. Completing the project in Wipros made me to understand a practical face of the study. Apart from the Traing And Development, we also surveyed the overall need of Wipros in terms of their Human Resources, right from the Manpower planning to the final stage of separation.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To understand actual Training methods at Wipros
To be familiar with the industrial climate, culture, value system and environment.
To interact with managers to learn management lessons.
To enhance knowledge, wisdom, dexterity, and skills which are needed for an effective and successful practicing HR manager.
To set up the milestone for further career building in continuation to corporate building.
1.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Area covered of the Wipros might have reached the global boundaries, but the scope of the study and project is restricted up to the Swargate Branch of Wipros even though numbers of branch offices are available throughout India. Studying Traing And Development of the employees as specialized subject restricts a trainee for not entering into the different parameters as well as views of the company. The findings of the study can be referred as a reference for the entire organizational policies, parameters and practices.
Primary Data which were collected from employees was depending upon the responsiveness, attitude, aptitude, ethical values and constraints on account of internal rules, regulations, norms, perception level and understanding level, leadership, experience, expectations and generally prevailing market trends. Hence dependent assumptions were to be made through the analysis.
Many a time things could not get opened because of limited transparency and openness; as a trainee is semi outsider for an organisation.
Search for Knowledge
Research is the task of searching for and analyzing. It is purposive, systematic, repeatable and different from casual observation. A proper research methodology helps in bringing out accurate results. It is a practical way of obtaining and analyzing data proper method should be used to collect the data required for the purpose of the research.
The scope of the study and project is limited to Wipros, Pune The project includes Traing And Development of Sales Executives and Marketing Executives
SOURCE OF DATA
The primary data are those that are collected fresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. The primary data was collected through interview conducted at Wipros. The primary data sources include copies of questionnaire.
The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have been passed through the statistical process. Secondary data was collected through internet and yellow pages. Secondary data are information which has previously been collected by the department under reference for an entirely different reason.
Introduction to Wipro
Wipro started as a vegetable oil company in 1947 from an old mill founded by Azim Premji’s father. When his father died in 1966, Azim, a graduate in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University, took on the leadership of the company at the age 21. He repositioned it and transformed Wipro (Western India Vegetable Products Ltd) into a consumer goods company that produced hydrogenated cooking oils/fat company, laundry soap, wax and tin containers and later set up Wipro Fluid Power to manufacture hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders in 1975. At that time, it was valued at $2 million.
In 1977, when IBM was asked to leave India, Wipro entered the information technology sector.
In 1979, Wipro began developing its own computers and in 1981, started selling the finished product. This was the first in a string of products that would make Wipro one of India’s first computer makers. The company licensed technology from Sentinel Computers in the United States and began building India’s first mini-computers. Wipro hired managers who were computer savvy, and strong on business experience. In 1980 Wipro moved in software development and started developing customized software packages for their hardware customers. This expanded their IT business and subsequently invented the first Indian 8086 chip.
Since 1992, Wipro began to grow its roots off shore in United States and by 2000 Wipro Ltd ADRs were listed on the New York Stock Exchange. With over 25 years in the Information Technology business, Wipro Technologies is the largest outsourced R ; D Services provider and one of the pioneers in the remote delivery of IT services. Being a global provider of consulting, IT Services, outsourced R;D, infrastructure outsourcing and business process services, we deliver technology-driven business solutions that meet the strategic objectives of our Global 2000 customers. Wipro today employs 96,000 people in over 50 countries. A career at Wipro means to learn and grow continuously, opportunities to work on the latest technologies alongside the finest minds in the industry, competitive salaries, stock options and excellent benefits.
HR PRACTICES IN WIPRO
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING
Planning is very important to our everyday activities. Several definitions have been given by different writers what planning is all about and its importance to achieving our objectives. It is amazing that this important part of HR is mostly ignored in HR in most organizations because those at the top do not know the value of HR planning. Organizations that do not plan for the future have fewer opportunities to survive the competition ahead. This article will discuss the importance of HR planning; the six steps of HR planning that is: Forecasting; inventory, audit, HR Resource Plan; Actioning of Plan; Monitoring and Control.
DEFINITION OF HR PLANNING
Quoting Mondy et (1996) they define it as a systematic analysis of HR needs in order to ensure that correct number of employees with the necessary skills are available when they are required. When we prepare our planning program, Practitioners should bear in mind that their staff members have their objective they need to achieve. This is the reason why employees seek employment. Neglecting these needs would result in poor motivation that may lead to unnecessary poor performance and even Industrial actions.
HR Planning involves gathering of information, making objectives, and making decisions to enable the organization achieve its objectives. Surprisingly, this aspect of HR is one of the most neglected in the HR field. When HR Planning is applied properly in the field of HR Management, it would assist to address the following questions:
1. How many staff does the Organization have?
2. What type of employees as far as skills and abilities does the Company have? 3. How should the Organization best utilize the available resources? 4. How can the Company keep its employees?
HR planning makes the organization move and succeed in the 21st Century that we are in. Human Resources Practitioners who prepare the HR Planning program would assist the Organization to manage its staff strategically. The program assists to direct the actions of HR department.
The programme does not assist the Organization only, but it will also facilitate the career planning of the employees and assist them to achieve the objectives as well. This augment motivation and the Organization would become a good place to work. HR Planning forms an important part of Management information system.
HR have an enormous task keeping pace with the all the changes and ensuring that the right people are available to the Organization at the right time. It is changes to the composition of the workforce that force managers to pay attention to HR planning. The changes in composition of workforce not only influence the appointment of staff, but also the methods of selection, training, compensation and motivation. It becomes very critical when Organizations merge, plants are relocated, and activities are scaled down due to financial problems.
Human resources planning is an important component of securing future operations. For sustainability, plans must be made to ensure that adequate resources are available and trained for all levels of an organization. Although police organizations are stretched to meet current service requirements, it is important that they also spend time to create plans to ensure there will be officers to fill future positions. These plans must be prepared well in advance, with targets set for the short, mid and long term. Not only must adequate resourcing be considered for the bulk of the workforce but special consideration must be given for the leadership of each organization.
This requires developing specialized succession plans for identifying and grooming potential future leaders. The leader candidates must receive management, leadership, and all relevant knowledge and skills training. Plans should also be created to leverage the knowledge of those leaving today’s leadership roles so that future leaders are fully informed. Securing future policing operations requires careful planning and a clear implementation strategy.
“When I look at where we have come, what gives me tremendous satisfaction is not so much the success, but the fact that we achieved this success without compromising on the value we defined for ourselves? Values combined with a powerful vision can turbo-charge a company to scale new heights and make it succeed beyond one’s wildest expectations.”
? Azim Premji
The basic purpose of having a manpower plan is to have accurate estimate of required manpower with matching skills requirements. The main objectives are:
. Forecast manpower requirements.
. Cope with changes – environment, economic, organizational. . Use existing manpower productively.
. Promote employees in a systematic way.
Human Resources Features and Functions
Human Resources encompasses all the applications necessary for handling personnel-related tasks for corporate managers and individual employees. Modules will include Personnel Management, Benefit Management, Payroll Management, Employee Self Service, Data Warehousing, Health and Safety, Workforce Management, Training, and Product Technology
Personnel management automates personnel processes including recruitment, personnel profile, organizational structure, career development ; training, reward management, job position and wage profiles, and business travel and vacation allotments. The software should support the following functionality: recruitment management; personnel information and tracking; organizational structuring; job position and salary profile; career development, training and performance management; compensation management; budgeting and cost control; government compliance reporting; expenses management; union information; discipline actions and grievances tracking;
and employment history/personnel reporting.
Benefits functionality is used to administer a diverse range of benefit plans. Such plans typically cover accidental death and dismemberment (AD;D), disability, life, medical, retirement plans, flexible benefits, and profit sharing plans.
Employee self-service lets workers access their personal information and benefit allocations on-line to manage life events and benefit selections without having to send forms to human resources. The software should also support benefit enrollment programs and new hire initiation.
Data warehousing describes the process of defining, populating, and using a data warehouse. Creating, populating, and querying a data warehouse typically carries an extremely high price tag, but the return on investment can be substantial.
Health and Safety
Health and safety provides the tools to administer compliance with the health and safety regulations, accident and injury reporting, and tracking of lost time by employee.
Workforce management enables organizations to efficiently plan and organize their labor resources. It helps employers assess part-time employee labor, evaluate and project the contribution from individual employees, track time and expenses, as well as manage contracts.
The training functionality covers the planning and administration of employee training programs, and allows administrators to track training schedules, training budgets, training costs, and more.
The Functions of Human Resource Development
Human resource development can be a stand-alone function or a part of function within human resource department, human resource wheel. It is established when there are greater diversities in the workforce, more people involved in knowledge work, greater expectations in meaningful work and employee involvement, and shifts in nature between employees and organizations (Pat Mclagan). Related to human resource wheel, three primary functions of human resource development have been identified as follow: Training and development: Training involved providing the employees the knowledge and skills needed to do a particular task or job. Development involved preparing for future work responsibilities and increasing capacities of employees to perform their current jobs. It can be said that training and development focuses on changing or improving theknowledge, skills, ability, and attitudes of individuals.
The shape of training can be in the form of employee orientation, counseling, skills and technical training programs, or management training and development programs. B. Organizational development: It is defined as the process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and the well-being of its members through planned interventions that apply behavioral science concepts. It comprises ofmicro and macro changes. Micro changes are directed at individuals; small groups, or teams, whereas macro changes are intended to improve the effectiveness of the organizations. It can be said, in terms of human resource development, it is a change gent that requires facilitating, consulting, advising planning, implementing, or intervening with others to link to changes.
C. Career development: It is an ongoing process by which individuals’ progress through a series of stages characterized by a set of issues, themes and tasks. It involves two-distinct process, career plan and career management. Career planning involves activities performed by individuals with the assistance of counselors or others in order to assess their skills and abilities in establishing realistic career plan. Career management involves taking necessary steps to achieve that plan, and it mainly focus on what organizations can do to foster career development.
TRAINING ; DEVELOPMENT
The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies.
Training ; Development of individuals is a key focus area at Wipro. Our Talent Transformation Division handles this. For those with less than one year of experience a well-structured induction training program is conducted. This will cover all aspects of software development skills that are required. As a PCMM Level 5 organization, there is also high focus on Competency Development. Talent Transformation has a mandate to provide technical ; business skill training based on the departmental and divisional need. All employees are eligible to take training based on the competency gap identified or Project need. In addition to class room training one can take e-Learning with out waiting for class room training.
Compliance and Regulatory training is an important aspect in today’s regulated environment and is often implemented as part of corporate initiatives. All large companies have mandatory trainings be it in the field of Environment, Health ; Safety, Ethics, Risk-Management, Finance, Law, etc.
WIPRO TRAINING MODEL
At Wipro, we know how critical time is for fulfilling training needs and hence we have developed competency in the area of Rapid Learning. An emerging form of content development, Rapid Learning helps to develop content in a short span of time using various tools; the content delivery can be both synchronous as well as asynchronous. Wipro has strategic partnerships with leading technology providers to help you choose the tool that suits your requirement best. Based on research conducted in this area, Rapid Content Development can be used for any of the following content areas:
Critical Training – when the training requirement is critical and must be
Minor change – when the difference between what is known and what is new is minimal
Short shelf life – when the content in question has a very short shelf life
Frequent updates – when the content needs to be update frequently.
Process Training -Large enterprises keep updating their processes to improve the efficacies of their systems.
Business process training is typically a part of any organization’s overall change management plan. Wipro provides Process Training in several fields including HR, Quality, Operation, Payroll, Recruitment, and more. For a meaningful transition of the process, quality training is extremely critical. Understanding the complexities involved in rolling out these process trainings, we bring you quick solutions that help deliver effective training for your organization. The components of process training are:
Wipro Leaders’ Qualities Survey,which started in 1992, is one of our oldest leadership development initiatives. It has successfully contributed in our endeavor to nurture top class business leaders in Wipro. We have 8 Wipro Leadership Qualities, which are based on Wipro vision, values and business strategy. In order to identify and help leaders develop these competencies we adopt a 360-degree survey process.
This is an end-to-end program, which starts with the obtaining of feedback from relevant respondents and ends with each leader drawing up a Personal Development Plan (PDP) based on the feedback received. The PDP is developed through “Winds of Change” which is a seven-step program that helps in identifying strengths and improvement areas, and determining the action step The Leadership Development Framework
Leadership Lifecycle Programs
Wipro has developed an approach for Life Cycle Stage Development Plan. Training and development programs at various stages have been designed by mapping the competencies to specific roles. Competencies specify the specific success behaviors at every role. Entry-level program (ELP) – The program covers the junior management employees with the objective of developing managerial qualities in the employee. The target group is campus hires and lateral hires at junior level. New Leaders’ Program (NLP) – It is popularly known as NLP and aims at developing potential people managers, who have taken such roles or are likely to get into those roles in the near future.
Wipro Leaders’ Program (WLP) – This program is for middle level leader with people, process, business development and project management responsibilities. These leaders are like the flag bearers of Wipro values and Wipro way of doing business. Business Leaders’ Program (BLP) – This is for senior leaders with business responsibility. At this level, people are trained up for revenue generation; and Profit ; Loss responsibilities.
The program covers commercial orientation, client relationship development, and team building and performance management responsibilities among other things. Strategic Leaders’ Program (SLP) – This program covers top management employees. The focus is on Vision, Values, Strategy, Global Thinking and Acting, Customer Focus and Building Star Performers. Wipro ties up with leading business schools of international repute to conduct this program for Wipro leaders. Custom Content Development
As a part of the Custom Content Development Service, Wipro provides innovative and affordable learning content solutions. This service is customized specially to meet your requirements and help you get a competitive edge. Wipro’s Custom Content Development Service goes through a rigorous development cycle to ensure Quality and Timely Delivery of the solution. Custom Content Development Service includes:
Compliance and Regulatory Training
Rapid Training solutions Performance Appraisal
Methods of Training
There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.
Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning.
The various methods that come under Cognitive approach
COMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT)
INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS)
PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI)
Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development.
The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are:
GAMES AND SIMULATIONS BEHAVIOR-MODELING
Another Method is MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD –
MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT –
The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes.
Management development method is further divided into two parts:
ON THE JOB TRAINING –
The development of a manager’s abilities can take place on the job. The four techniques for on the job development are:
JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE (JIT)
OFF THE JOB TRAINING –
There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are: SENSITIVITY TRAINING
STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES
Implementation of Training and Development
To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is calledtraining implementation. Training implementation is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole
training program. Even the best training program will fail due to one wrong action.
Training implementation can be segregated into:
Practical administrative arrangements
Carrying out of the training
Once the staff, course, content, equipments, topics are ready, the training is implemented. Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementation
phase requires continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the most important factor to taste the success. Therefore, following are the factors that are kept in mind while implementing training program:
The trainer – The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content. Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance. The trainer also set grounds before meeting with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course content and is flexible in his approach.
Physical set-up – Good physical set up is pre requisite for effective and successful training program because it makes the first impression on participants. Classrooms should not be very small or big but as nearly square as possible. This will bring people together both physically and psychologically. Also, right amount of space should be allocated to every participant.
Establishing rapport with participants – There are various ways by which a trainer can establish good rapport with trainees by: Greeting participants simple way to ease those initial tense moments Encouraging informal conversation
Remembering their first name
Pairing up the learners and have them familiarized with one another Listening carefully to trainees’ comments and opinions
Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed Getting to class before the arrival of learners
Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time
Using familiar examples
Varying his instructional techniques
Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog down
Reviewing the agenda – At the beginning of the training program it is very important to review the program objective. The trainer must tell the participants the goal of the program, what is expected out of trainers to do at the end of the program, and how the program will run. The following information needs to be included: Kinds of training activities
Setting group norms
Flow of the program
Handling problematic situations
BENEFITS GIVEN TO THE EMPLOYEE IN WIPRO
You also have access to various job opportunities within Wipro itself. This would enable you to pursue careers of your choice in the Organization. Your career at Wipro is what you make of it. It is a tool that gives you flexibility to apply for the job of your choice and map your own career. Very few organisations can match Wipro’s capability to offer the kind of flexibility and opportunity to pursue multiple careers and unhindered growth, while you continue to work in the same organisation.
Wipro Leaders Program
We not only groom your technical talents but also bring out the leader in you. Our Leadership Program gears you up to take on the challenge for successfully heading large and strong teams. The program is designed to identify the specific actions and attitudes that constitute the Wipro leader’s qualities. It examines how each manager rates against these qualities, provide an understanding of how the required skills and competencies can be developed and plan what each individual can do to strengthen his or her leadership qualities. Recognition
Your hard work and contribution never go unnoticed at Wipro. The size we have grown to and the diversity of people has given rise for a need to introduce awards. At every step of success there is an award awaiting you. The challenges we encounter, motivates us to accomplish greater feats and the comforts of rewards and recognition comes as a package Long Services Award
We at Wipro take pride in our long serving colleagues. They are a major force behind our success. We recognize their contribution through a comprehensive reward programme – Schemes include holiday packages with special facilities. Benefits
The governing theme in our organization is the well being of employees. The benefits we offer them are on par with the best available. Our Compensation package is among the best in the industry and it is aimed at retaining existing talent. The package caters to all positions across Wipro. A reward for each position is based on performance, potential, criticality and market value. We have a comprehensive medical assistance program that covers the whole gamut of medical expenses you and your family incur. Our reimbursement scheme provides you tax shelter on quasi-official expenses.
Your growth in the company will be complemented by your own self-development. Our educational assistance plan offers you all encouragement in pursuing the course of your interest.Our leave policy also includes a sabbatical to pursue higher studies related to your profession. Our responsibility towards new employees doesn’t stop at salaries and compensation alone. We offer all possible help to facilitate their settling down. We provide interest-free loan mainly intended to cover housing deposit or the purchase of a two wheeler. We also provide contingency loans for your marriage, illness or death of a close family member.
As a part of employee empowerment, we offer stock options to deserving employees. The Wipro Employee Stock Option Plan (WESOP) allows us to make employees share with us the rewards of success.
Our other facilities include credit cards for all our employees as per the policy. Monetary benefits apart, we take interest in the personal well being of our employees. We have a facility wherein your domestic chores will be taken care of through an external agency, ensuring that with us you don’t need to worry about all those boring routines like payment of bills, personal travel bookings etc. Not to forget shuttle services to our development centers and canteen facility. (We also provide transport facilities to our development centers and cafetaria at our facilities)
All these in addition to a host of deferred benefits like provident fund, gratuity and pension plan.
Add SWOT analysis of wipro….
FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS
Recruitment Process is an lengthy process as there is a lot of time involved to choose a right person for a right designation. As an media firm to recruit a talent involve lots of time as well as cost. So headhunting is an
easy way for media firm to choose a right talent in a particular time with a minimum cost as the talent is hire for a particular project only. Different project needs different kind of talent. So at Kara Studio HR Recruitment is not successful as its an growing firm when the company expands its project that time HR will be successful
HRM BY BISWAJEET PATNAYAK
PERSONAL MANAGEMENT BY C.D. MEMORIA
DYNAMIC OF PERSONAL MANAGEMENT BY
PROF. M.N.RUDRA DASAVRAJ
PERSONAL MANAGEMENT BY EDWIN FILIPPO