Human and physical resources


Industrial advancement is an result of chiefly of the human and physical resources of the production. Sufficient advancement has been made in the domain of physical input such as capital and engineering. Despite rapid development in engineering the coveted degree of economic development and societal public assistance are yet to be achieved! One of the chief causes of failure has been underutilization of human resources in the state. Unfortunately the rate of advancement in our state has non been commensurate with our possible on history of deficiency of appropriate work civilization. Employer and employed are still looked upon as antagonists instead than as spouses. In the united enterprises frequent work stoppages, lockouts and other signifiers of industrial agitation are symptoms of predominating environment in industry.

In this undertaking the chief intent of the survey was to hold a thorough apprehension of the theoretical construct and their practical application by being placed in the existent work environment

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  • To understand their relevancy and happen the extent to which they are really being applied in the work state of affairs ;
  • To hold an in-depth cognition of the map of the organisation through existent work experience.


The undertaking apart from a brief overall reappraisal of the organisation surveies the degree of absenteeism rate in the organisation, mentioning the general staff of both the managerial and non-managerial degree of employees. The chief issue of concern was related with the employee ‘s presence rate and how frequently they find themselves neglecting in describing to work, at the same clip analysing different causes and other inducements sing wages and public assistance bundles offered to them every bit good as judging the satisfaction degree with their compensation bundle, which certainly creates a ground for finding their dedication towards the work.

This undertaking has besides been undertaken to garner the inside informations of employees turn over every bit good as analyzing the general tendency within an organisation enabling to happen an exact ground behind the increasing absenteeism rate in the organisation.

Hence, the major aims of this survey were: –

  • To place the prevalence degree of the absentees in Varun Beverages Ltd.
  • To place the major causes of the absenteeism at Varun Beverages Ltd.
  • To Asses the after effects of absenteeism in Varun Beverages Ltd.

The undertaking is based on my experience and frequent interaction with the employees in VBL.

“ Hypothesis ”

A hypothesis is a proposition, status or rule which is assumed, possibly without belief, in order to pull logical effects by this method to prove its agreement with facts which are known or may be determined.

When a research worker observes knows facts and takes up a job for analysis, he foremost has to get down someplace and this point of start is the hypothesis. In other words, one has to continue to explicate probationary solution every bit shortly as the job to be tackled is finalized. These proposed solutions or accounts constitute the hypothesis which the research worker returns to prove on the footing of fact already known or that can be made known. Even, aggregation of facts simply for the interest of roll uping them will give no fruits ; to be fruitful, facts need to be collected such that they are for or against some point of position or proposition. Such a point of position or proposition is the hypothesis. The probationary accounts or solutions are suggested to researcher by something in the capable affair and by our old experience.

Hypothesis proving agencies to cognize whether the hypothesis based on the information collected is valid or non. The chief object of hypothesis testing is whether to accept the void hypothesis. Procedure for hypothesis proving trades with stairss on the footing of which a hypothesis is either rejected or accepted.

Therefore, this survey has been chiefly carried out to analyze and judge the effects and deductions of absenteeism among the employees of a bottling works, both on the managerial and the non-managerial subdivision of employees.

The hypotheses of the survey are: –

  • Absenteeism affects and reduces organisational productiveness.
  • Logical mentality towards assorted jobs was more outstanding among regular attendants than absentees.
  • Older employees have greater committedness towards their work.

The hypothesis of this survey has been deduced and identified on the footing of the belief that employees usually absents themselves from work due to certain unconditioned and conditional grounds which affects organisational productiveness.

“ Scope OF THE STUDY ”

Every employee who takes off in rebelliousness of organisation ordinance has grounds, right or incorrect which justify themselves the legitimacy of their actions. Unless a direction attending plan identifies and addresses the causes of employee absenteeism it will be uneffective and unjust. Traditional disciplinary plans entirely can, at best, give the semblance of control. It is no secret that there are ways to crush even the best systems. The fright of subject frequently merely increases the desire to avoid direction systems.

If absenteeism is to be controlled the physical and the emotional demands of employees must be addressed. In a 1985 survey on “ Ratess of absence among Nurses ” it was found that 50 % of absenteeism could be controlled through go toing employees physical and emotional demands.

“ Constraint OF THE STUDY ”

My undertaking is entitled as:

“ A survey of the degree of absenteeism and its causes, at Varun Beverages Ltd. ”

( A survey conducted at Pepsi Bottling Plant Greater Noida, UP, with particular mention to managerial and non-managerial classs of employees )

My undertaking being based on the primary informations, I have undergone a session of interaction through questionnaire with both the managerial and non-managerial group of employees as per the demand of my undertaking.

Now, while undergoing the interview procedure I found certain restraints bing thereby in VBL:

  • Concealment of some true facts by the respondents due to fear of the direction.
  • Some of the responses given by the respondents obscure i.e. non legible and clear.
  • Few of them showed disinterest as they all have a impression that such an probe is ineffectual and that they will derive no benefit from it.
  • Few of them remained quiet when asked about what suggestions they would wish to give for future developments and success of VBL.

Besides all these restraints I have been impressed by the inventiveness, cooperation, assurance and efficiency which were reflected through their cognition and experience and still happen my journey of interviewing, interesting and people at VBL good-humored and therefore at least I successfully interacted to 70 employees in Varun Beverages Ltd.


It can be said with absolute certainty that the RKJ Group has carved out a particular niche for itself. Its services touch different facets of commercial and civilian spheres like those of Bottling, Food Chain and Education. Headed by Mr. R. K. Jaipuria, the group as on today can put claim to expertise and leading in the Fieldss of instruction, nutrient and drinks.

The concern of the company was started in 1991 with a tie-up with Pepsi Foods Limited to fabricate and market Pepsi trade name of drinks in geographically pre-defined districts in which trade name and proficient support was provided by the Principals viz. , Pepsi Foods Limited. The fabrication installations were restricted at Agra Plant merely.

Varun Beverages Ltd. is the flagship company of the group.

The group besides became the first franchisee for Yum Restaurants International [ once PepsiCo Restaurants ( India ) Private Limited ] in India. It has sole franchise rights for Northern & A ; Eastern India. It has entire 46 Pizza Hut Restaurants & A ; 1 KFC Restaurant under its company.

It diversified into instruction by opening our first school in Gurgaon under direction of Delhi Public School Society. The schools of the group are run under a Registered Trust viz. Champa Devi Jaipuria Charitable Trust. Companies are average sized, professionally managed, unlisted and closely held between Indian Promoters and foreign confederates.

The group added another plume to its cap when the esteemed PepsiCo “ International Bottler of the Year ” award was presented to Mr. R. K. Jaipuria for the twelvemonth 1998 at a glistening award ceremonial at PepsiCo ‘s centenary twelvemonth jubilations at Hawaii, USA. The award was presented by Mr. Donald M. Kendall, laminitis of PepsiCo Inc. in the presence of Mr. George Bush, the 41st President of USA, Mr. Roger A. Enrico, Chairman of the Board & A ; C.E.O. , PepsiCo Inc. and Mr. Craig Weatherup, President of Pepsi Cola Company.


  • Target nucleus Brand
  • Focus on concern growing.
  • Satisfy market precedences
  • Focus on franchising with constructing nucleus of company proprietor.

A North Carolina Pharmacist established Pepsi Cola in 1980 as a remedy for Dyspepsia ( dyspepsia ) . Under the supervising of Mr. Bradhman Pepsi ‘s first bottling works was build 1905.

In 1977, when Coca-cola left the state so Pepsi Co. began to put programs to come in this immense Indian soft drink market. Pepsi working with Indian concern groups to seek authorities blessing for its entry in the India soft drink market. Pepsi offered Indian Government to assist in the exports of some of its agricultural merchandises in a volume that would cover the cost of importing soft drink dressed ore.

Pepsi Company is established in Indian in 1989. At that peculiar clip it was know as a non-Cobo ( Company owned bottling operations ) company. In January 1995 Pepsi took over and it is now known as a Cobo ( Company owned bottling operations ) company. It joined custodies with Voltas Ltd with 60 % equity. But now it has become a to the full owned subordinate.

Pepsi Company is wide based nutrient and Beverages Company, functioning more than 60 % of its gross revenues and operation net incomes from its snack- nutrients and eating houses concern. Established with a turnover of $ 28 billion in 1989, the company ‘s drink concern has grown 50 % streets in front of the market ; which has expanded by 20 % . It poured in huge amounts to flog up its visibleness at the retail degree, so that consumes were greeted virtually at really street corner by Pepsi ‘s blue-red and white colourss. Behind the ballyhoo, in attempt unseeable to consumers, Pepsi pumped in Rs.300 Crore to add musculus to its substructure in bottling and distribution. This is apart from the money that up rating the workss.

April 1993, Voltas and Punjab Agro ‘s equity bets were bought over change overing Pepsi Foods from a joint venture to to the full ain subordinate. Weak bottlers who did nit hold the finance were given massing support in from of interest- free loans to upgrade their operations. But the large scheme, which has proved to be victor was the place Pepsi, decided taken company owned Bottling operations ( COBO ) . For this another subordinate Pepsi co. India Holding was set up as investing vehicle capitalized at $ 9.5 million.

  • 1991 saw a major launch of 7-up in India, which was heartily received by India clients and consumers.
  • 1994 Pepsi achieved the figure 1 place in Cola trade name India.
  • 1995 2new COBOs were opened in UP & A ; Gujarat.
  • 1996 Mirinda attend No 1 Position in orange drink class.
  • May 1998 was major launch of Mirinda Lemon in India.

Pepsi is seeking really hard to keep the lead it made over its rivals in the India sift drink market. It is spread outing its concern in the other Fieldss besides. It is in the concern of export of drinks dressed ores. This twelvemonth Pepsi has achieved a 100 % growing in the export turnover in the first quart of 1998 over the corresponding period for the old twelvemonth. Pepsi has taken a lead in the drink concentrate exports from potency in the close hereafter. Pepsi has besides developed agricultural linkages to boot its export push and as a move in the way, its works at Sonepat has become the first rice-processing installation in India.

Pepsi mean while added a new scope of merchandises to its agro-export Portfolio. These include Baron, a staff of life of peanut butter marketed in U.S. , Branded red and green chili, Puree, ginger and garlic paste & A ; cooking paste under the season ‘s Harvest place, which is besides the name of its branded basmati rice.

At present Pepsi is seeking really hard to keep its place in the market. It is runing in a really good managed mode. Some of its schemes it followed to be competitory in the market country follows –


One of the strongest arms in the Pepsi ‘s armoury is the flexibleness it has empowered with its people. Every trough and gross revenues individual has the governments to take whatever stairss he feels will do consumer aware of the trade name and increase its ingestion.


Pepsi has a really good managed distributive system. It is said the “ Pepsi do n’t hold bottlers, it has spouses ” . Pepsi has a well-aligned bottling web. It operates through COBO ( Company owned bottling operations ) and FOBO ( Franchise owned Bottling Operationss )

It is this manner a Pepsi Co. , India Strengthens it ‘s selling that gives it an border. Every figure of its gross revenues squad is meticulously taught the selling and show accomplishments that can leverage the range of the company ‘s bottling web to accomplish high visibleness for the merchandise.


Since the entry of Pepsi co. to India in 1987, the soft drink Industry has undergone a extremist alteration. When Pepsi entered parley was the leader with ‘Thumps UP ‘ being its flagship trade name. Other merchandise offerings by parley included Limca & A ; Gold Spot. Another upcoming participant in the market was the former bottle of Coca-Cola, Pure Drinks. Its offerings included Campa Cola, Camps Lemon and Campa Orange.

With the re-entry of Coca-Cola in the Indian market, Pepsi had to travel in for more aggressive selling to prolong its market portion. The chronology the initial stage of the “ Coal Wars ” in India was:

July 1986

An application for soft drinks-cum-snack nutrient joint venture by Pepsi, Voltas and Punjab Agro is submitted to the authorities after an earlier proposed alliance- 1985, between Pepsi and Duncan ‘s of the Goenkas fails to take off.


Final blessing for the Pepsi Foods Limited ( P.F.L ) undertaking granted by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs of the Rajeev Gandhi Government.

March 1990

Pepsi Cola and Seven up Launched in limited market in North India.

May 1990

The authorities clears the Pepsi undertaking once more but with a alteration in trade name name to Lehar Pepsi. Simultaneously it rejects the Coca-Cola application. Citra form the Parle stable hits the market.

Dec 1991

Pepsi extends its soft drinks reach on national graduated table. Merchandises launched Delhi and Bombay.

Jan 1992

Brito Foods application cleared by the FTPB. Pepsi and Parle start initial dialogues for strategic confederation but negotiations break off after a piece.


Pepsi launches Teem and Slice. Captures about 25.30 % of the soft drinks market in approximately two old ages.

July 1993

Volta ‘s pulls out of PFL joint venture. Pepsi decides to raise equity to 92 % Reports of coke – Parle dialogues gain strength.


Pepsi brought Dukes & A ; Sons


Pepsi launched Cans holding capacity of 330 milliliters in assorted spirits.


Pepsi brought Mirinda Orange opposite to Fanta.


Pepsi launched Lemon Mirinda to give taught competition to Limca.


Pepsi has launched its Diet Pepsi Can and 1.5 Liters favored conflicts for wellness witting people.


Refusing to thin its equity province Coca-Coal winds up operations in the state. Parle launches Thumps Up and Drinks launches Campa Cola.


Pepsi launched Aquafina.


Pepsi launched Mountain Dew


Mirinda lemon zinger, 7UP.Ice was launched by Pepsi.


Bubbly Pepsi was launched.


Pepsi Gold was launched.


By the word organisation we by and large mean, a structural model of responsibilities and duties required of a forces in accomplishing the preset ends.

An organisation of VBL is a simple yet complex in footings of the different appellations provided to its employees.

Company ‘s overall position of organisation can be successfully dealt as follows:

The people at PBG reflect the Company ‘s accent on superior gross revenues capableness and service. In North America, more than one-half of PBG employees work in gross revenues, followed by about one-third in operation. Their organisational construction, based on a general direction theoretical account, reflects the same precedences. The Vice President/General Managers of PBG ‘s market units lead selling and gross revenues attempts in immediate geographic countries with common major clients. They designed their organisation to give their market units the liberty to function the demands of single clients, develop market-specific schemes, and respond to local market place kineticss. From the General Manager to the frontline client representative, the full PBG gross revenues force competes on a local degree to function bing clients and to win new histories.


The aims of VBL are:

  • To detect the execution and working of gross revenues club programme at different subdivisions in Noida.
  • To supervise whether it is successfully implemented in the market.
  • To supervise the client consciousness about the gross revenues club programme whether they are to the full cognizant about the programme or non.
  • To look into out that all the needed stuffs for gross revenues nine programmed are given to customer/ retail merchant or non.
  • To happen out the consequence on increasing the gross revenues b/z of gross revenues nine programmed at partial store.
  • To supervise the pureness of vis-cooler at gross revenues club history.
  • To supervise the pureness of poke at gross revenues club history.
  • To supervise whether updates in the programmed book is clan in clip or non.
  • To do the books available to the clients.


Net incomes RELASES

Pepsi Co ‘s 2004 quarterly net incomes releases are expected to be issued the hebdomad of April 12

July 12, September 27, 2005 and January 30, 2005.


Investor dealingss: – Security analysts and other members the professional fiscal community who have inquiry Pepsi Co ‘s investor dealingss section at ( 914 ) 253-3035 or ( 914 ) 253-2155.

Stockholders: – Pepsi Co ‘s ( symbol: PED ) portions are traded chiefly on the New York Stock Exchange in US. The company is besides listed on the Amsterdam, Chicago, Swiss and Tokyo stock exchanges. Pepsi Co ‘s has systematically paid hard currency dividends since the corporation was founded.


“ Our mission is to be the universe ‘s prime consumer merchandise ‘s company focused on convenient nutrients and drinks. We seek to bring forth healthy fiscal wagess to put as we provide chances for growing and enrichment. Our employees, our concern spouses and the communities in which we operate. And in everything we do, we strive for honestness, equity and unity! ” as exclaimed by Pepsi Co ‘s.

Corporate Citizenship

Pepsi Co ‘s believe that they are corporate citizen ; it has a duty to lend to the quality of life in our trade goods. This doctrine is put into action through support of societal bureaus, undertakings and plans. The range of this support is extensive-ranging from sponsorship of local plans and support of employee ‘s voluntary activities to lend to clip, endowment and financess to plans of national impact. Each division is responsible for its ain giving plan. Corporate giving is focused on giving where Pepsi Co ‘s employees volunteer.

PEPSI Headquarters

Pepsi Co ‘s universe central office is located in purchase, New York, about 45 proceedingss from New York City. Edward Darell Stone, one of America ‘s foremost designers, designed the seven edifice central office composite. The edifice occupies 10 estates complex that includes the Donald Mkendall sculpture gardens, a universe acclaimed sculpture aggregation in garden scene. The aggregation of work is focused on major 20th century art, and characteristics work by such as Augusta Rodin, Henri Laurens, Henery Moore, Alexander Calder, Alberto Giacometti, Arnaldo Pomodoro and Claes Oldenberg. The gardens were originally designed by the universe celebrated garden contriver, Russel Page, and have been a visitant ‘s booth in operation during the summer and spring.


It provide following to employee:

  • On Job Training Program
  • In House Training Program
  • Out door Training Plan

Social welfare ACTIVITIES

Company provides public assistance activities to its employees like:

  • Uniform
  • Transportation system installations
  • Canteen
  • Annual meet etc.


Gr.Noida works in Varun Beverages works is a dedicated works for five major merchandises.

“ Shaping Absenteeism ”

Absenteeism in short can be defined as a failure to describe to work.

  • It is likely a symptom of low moral and worsening productiveness or small engagement at work as demonstrated by the employees remaining off from work.
  • It refers to the failure on the portion of employees to describe to work through which they are scheduled to work. In other words an unauthorised absence constitutes absenteeism.
  • It is referred to here in as failure of employees to describe to work when they are scheduled to work.


The direction of attending is an of import facet of supervising. The cost of absenteeism is greater than the direct payment of rewards and benefits made during the absence. Organization must besides see he indirect cost of staffing, programming, reframing, lost productiveness, diminished moral, bend over, chance cost. The indirect cost frequently exceeds the direct cost of absenteeism. Effective supervisory attempts in attending direction will impact a comparatively little per centum of employees but will bring forth significant nest eggs, increased productiveness and moral.


There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a different type of approach-

  • Innocent Absenteeism: – guiltless absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for grounds beyond their control illness and hurt. Innocent absenteeism is non blameworthy i.e. blameless. In a labour dealingss context this means that it can non be remedied of or treated by disciplinary steps.
  • Blameworthy Absenteeism: – it refers to employees who are absent without mandate for grounds, which are within their control. For case, an employee who is on ill leave even without being so and it can turn out so ; he/she is guilty of blameworthy absenteeism. To be blameworthy is to be blamable. In labour relation context this means that progressive action can be taken. For the big bulk of employees, absenteeism is legitimate, guiltless absenteeism, which occurs infrequently. Procedures for disciplinary action apply merely to blameworthy absenteeism. Many organisations rake the position that through the procedure of single absentee guidance and intervention, the bulk of employees will get the better of their jobs and return to an acceptable degree of regular attending.

“ Calculation OF ABSENTEEISM ”

The rate of absenteeism is expressed as the per centum of man-days lost through absence to the entire figure of adult male yearss scheduled in a given period.

As we know, employees are the twenty-first century organisation ‘s greatest assets. Accountants are even adding human capital to the balance sheet. Absenteeism is a cosmopolitan job in an industry. It becomes a job when it exceeds 10 % as it disturbs the production agendas and creates many jobs. Personnel Research surveies have farther revealed that: –

  • The yearss before and after a vacation are apt to higher rate of absenteeism.
  • Employees who belong to local country are absent more frequently than foreigners.
  • Bad conditions increases rate of absenteeism, particularly among employees who live at distant topographic points.
  • Employees under the age of 25 old ages and above the age of 55 old ages are absent more frequently than those in the age group of 26 to 55 old ages.
  • Operative employees are absent more often than the supervisors and directors.

The higher the rate of wage and greater the length of services of the employees , the fewer the absences.


The causes of absenteeism are many and include: –

  • Major accidents and unwellness
  • Low morale
  • Poor working conditions
  • Boredom on the occupation
  • Lack of occupation satisfaction
  • Inadequate leading and hapless supervising
  • Personal jobs
  • Poor physical fittingness
  • Inadequate nutrition
  • Transportation system jobs
  • The being of income protection programs
  • Stress
  • Work burden
  • Employee discontent with a corporate bargaining procedure and its consequences.

Although both pschyiological and non- pschyiological factors contribute to it, the findings of Indian surveies appear to hold slightly greater accent on non-pschyiological 1s.

The workers in Indian industries found that chronic absenteeism was related to: –

  1. The extent of workers designation with the company.
  2. Integration with work group.
  3. Satisfaction with supervisors.
  4. Belief in the hereafter of the company.

On the other manus there are few psychological factors as the major causes of absenteeism of Indian industrial workers. Such factors are hapless wellness, conveyance trouble, do jobs, and indebtness etc.


The definition of absenteeism, factors impacting and its causes are rather clear. What is non so clear is how to take affirmatory actions to command it. Traditional methods of absenteeism control based merely on disciplinary processs have proven to be uneffective. It is about impossible to make a just disciplinary action because even good run disciplinary systems, which treat which dainty similar actions in systematically similar ways are seen as unjust. The ground for this is discipline entirely normally identifies the root cause of absenteeism. Every employee who takes clip off in rebelliousness of company ordinances has grounds, right or incorrect which justify to themselves the legitimacy of their actions. Unless the direction attending programme identifies and addresses the cause of employees ‘ absenteeism it will be uneffective and unjust. Now, if absenteeism is to be controlled the physical and physical and emotional demands of employees must be addressed.

The intent of attending direction is to develop a willingness on the portion of all our employees to go to work on a regular basis and to help them in actuating their colleagues to go to work on a regular basis. Now, this can be done by-

  1. Addressing the physical and emotional demands of our employees.
  2. Communicating the attending ends of the organisation so employees can understand and place with them.
  3. Covering with instances of inordinate absenteeism efficaciously and reasonably so disincentive can happen.

Successful disposal of an attending direction plan requires directors and supervisors to be cognizant of and make work environment in which the followers can be actualized

  1. The greater the extent to which persons identify their ends with the ends of the organisation the greater their motive to be regular in attending.
  2. The more people find their occupations meaningful to them, the greater their motive to be regular in attending.
  3. As employees workload additions due to the absence of a colleague, equal force per unit area is exerted on the absent co=worker to go to work on a regular basis.
  4. The more people like working for the organisation the higher their motive to go to on a regular basis. Recognition of good employee attending helps better attending.
  5. Employees will hold a lower absence ratio if they fail they fail face to discourse their on the occupation jobs with their supervisors.
  6. Employees with a low absence ratio have attitudes of compliance and ‘team spirit ‘ .
  7. Low absence ratio employee is more satisfied.

Like employees turnover, there is evitable and ineluctable absenteeism. Absenteeism is ineluctable when the employee himself falls ill, his dependents at place all of a sudden become ailing or there is an accident inside the works. Ineluctable absenteeism is accepted by directors and is even sanctioned by labour Torahs. For insisting, one twenty-four hours of leave with rewards for every 20 yearss of service is allowed by the mills act, 1948.

Evitable absenteeism arises because of dark displacement, chances for moonlighting and gaining excess income awkwardness, deficiency of occupation security, occupation satisfaction and unfriendly supervising. This absenteeism needs step ining by the direction. Directors should take stairss to take causes of absenteeism. On the positive side, directors must make a work environment which will do the employees realize that it make sense to work in the mill instead than remain at place and blow their time.Moreover, the direction must hold a safety program, implement it and measure its effectivity.


“ Degrees of absenteeism beyond the normal scope in any organisation have a direct impact on that organisation effectivity and efficiency. ”

It is evidently hard for an organisation to run swimmingly and to accomplish its ends if its employees fail to describe to their occupations. The work programs is disrupted and often-important determinations are delayed. In organisation that relies to a great extent on assembly- line production, absenteeism can be more than a break: it can ensue in the drastic diminution in the end product and in some instances it can convey about a complete closure of the production. But degrees of absenteeism beyond the normal scope in any organisation have a direct impact on its efficiency.

Apart from the above viewed fact the most of import job faced is related with that of the cost of absenteeism! Many organisations set aside about 3 % of budget for absenteeism. This makes an norm of about 8 yearss a twelvemonth per employee. If absenteeism is above your budgeted figure or certain employee exceed the mean in your organisation so this indicates that you have an absenteeism job. However, even if absenteeism is below it a focussed attempt will probably give improved attending.

The cost of absenteeism leads to: –

Decrease in productivity-

  1. Employees may be transporting an excess work load or back uping new staff.
  2. Employees may be requires to achieve and orientate new or replacement workers.
  3. Staff ethical motives and employee service may endure.

Fiscal cost-

  1. Payment of overtime may ensue.
  2. Cost of self-insured income protection programs must be borne plus the ways cost replacing employees.
  3. Premium cost may lift for insured programs.

Administrative cost-

  1. Staff clip is required to procure replacing employees.
  2. Staff clip is required to keep and command absenteeism.


Although most absenteeism has a negative impact on the organisation, we can gestate of state of affairss in which the organisation may profit by an employee ‘s voluntarily taking non to come to work. For case, unwellness, weariness or extra emphasis can significantly diminish an employee ‘s productiveness. In occupations in which an employee demands to be watchful it may good be better for the organisation if the employees does non describe to work instead than demo up and execute ill. The cost of an accident in such occupations could be prohibitory. Even in the direction occupations, where errors are less dramatic, public presentation may be improved. When directors are absent themselves from occupations instead than do a hapless determination under emphasis. But these illustrations are clearly a typical for the most past, we can presume that organisation benefits when employee absenteeism is low! !

“ Decision ”

Recent studies have shown: –

  1. The higher the rate of wages the greater the length of service of the employee, the fewer the absence.
  2. As an organisation grows, there is a inclination towards higher rate of absenteeism.
  3. Womans are absent more frequent than work forces.
  4. Single employees are absent more often than married employees.
  5. Younger employees are absent more often than older employees but the latter are absent for longer period of clip.
  6. Unionized organisation has higher absenteeism rates than non-union organisations.
  7. Logical mentality towards assorted jobs was more outstanding among regular attendants than absentees.
  8. Emotionally surcharged statements were more frequent among absentees.
  9. Absentee group was found to hold apathetic attitude, whereas regular worker showed more critical thought towards their work.

Attendance betterment plans can work! What the employees want is commitment and support from all degrees of direction, an effectual attending record-keeping system, audience and unfastened communicating on the grounds for the attending plans.

Implementing and keeping a work environment where unfastened communicating and squad spirit can boom will at first sometimes seem a mammoth and unrealistic undertaking. If you need encouragement merely see some of the benefits ; reduced absenteeism, unfastened communicating, squad spirit, advanced grudges and greater employee satisfaction.


Research in common idiom refers to a hunt for cognition. One can besides specify research as a scientific and systematic hunt for pertinent information on a specific subject. In fact, research is an art of scientific probe. It is the chase of truth with the aid of surveies, observation, comparing and experiment. In short the hunt for cognition through nonsubjective and systematic method of happening solution to a job is research.

Harmonizing to Clifford Woody, “ Research comprises specifying and redefining jobs, explicating hypothesis or suggested solutions, roll uping, forming and measuring informations, doing tax write-offs and making decisions to find whether they fit the formulating hypothesis ” .


A research design is an agreement of conditions for connexions and analysis of informations in a mode that aims to unite relevancy to the research intent with economic system in process. Research design is a program that specifies the beginnings and types of information relevant to the research job. It is a scheme stipulating which attack will be used for assemblage and analysing the information. In fact, it is the conceptual construction with which research is conducted ; it constitutes the bluish print for the aggregation, measuring and analysis of informations. The program is an lineation to research strategy on which the research worker Idaho to work. The construction of the research is a more specific lineation or the strategy. The scheme shows how the research will be carried out, stipulating the method to be used in roll uping informations.


Research design is chiefly of three types: –

  1. Exploratory research
  2. Descriptive research
  3. Experimental research

EXPLORATORY RESEARCH: – It is frequently the initial measure in the series of surveies designed to provide information for decision-making. The chief intent of this research is for explicating the job for more precise probe or of developing a working hypothesis from an operational point of position. The major accent in such surveies is on the find of thoughts and penetrations.

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH: – It includes studies and investigative questions. The descriptive research is typically concerned with finding the frequences with which something occurs or finding the grade to which variables is associated. It is guided by an initial hypothesis.

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH: – In this some variables are manipulated to detect their consequence on other variables. Experiment is defined as a procedure where events occur in a scene at the discretion of the experiment and controls are used to place the beginning of discrepancies in the topic. Thus they are those where the research worker tests the hypothesis of the causal relationship between variables.

The research undertaken by me in this undertaking is a descriptive research

The research methodological analysis adopted for the undertaking can be stated as follows –

  • An extended survey of the subject through assorted beginnings like cyberspace, books and work done on some subjects
  • A questionnaire was prepared to analyse the degree of absenteeism in VBL.
  • Collection of questionnaire took topographic point after a twosome of hebdomads to analyse informations
  • All the responses were studied and certain findings and recommendation were given.
  • A item and systematic study was prepared.

Sampling Design

Sampling is used to roll up primary informations when the beginning of informations is far excessively many to be wash uping handled. Sampling is the built-in portion of informations aggregation procedure.

The manner of choosing a sample is known as sample design. It is the definite program for obtaining a sample from a given population. It may every bit good put down the figure of points to be included in the sample i.e. the size of the sample.

Sample design is determined before informations are collected.


The key for utile systems is the choice of the method for roll uping informations and associating it to analysis and determination issue of the action to be taken. The truth of the collected information is of great importance for pulling correct and valid decision from elaborate probes.

There are two types of informations viz. primary and secondary.


The primary informations are those, which are collected afresh and for the first clip, and therefore go on to be original in character. There are several methods of roll uping primary informations, peculiarly in study and descriptive research. Some of import 1s are observation method, interview method, through questionnaire, through agendas etc.


Secondary informations agencies, informations that are already available that is they refer to the information which have already been collected and analyzed by person else and which have already been passed through the statistical procedure. Secondary information may either be published informations or unpublished informations and can be gathered through Internet, books, magazines, manuals, diaries etc.

In this survey I have used Structural Questionnaire for roll uping primary informations. I have besides made frequent interaction with the direction and the employees during my preparation at Varun Beverages Ltd.

My survey was purely based on the primary informations aggregation method collected by agencies of questionnaire dealing and affecting the overall sample of 70 people working in Varun Beverages Ltd. , representing 20 of director degree of employees and 50 of the non-managerial subdivision!

The information has been interpreted on the footing of tally taging and therefore deduce the per centum figure based on the replies given by the sample ingredients, represented below with the aid of a pie-chart and per centum ( % ) notation: –


  • The above information base construction shows that 10 % of directors fall within the age class of ( 20-30 ) old ages, 55 % are between ( 30-40 ) old ages, 25 % are in ( 40-50 ) old ages and 10 % are under ( 50-60 ) old ages of age. This shows that the immature executives efficaciously run Varun Beverages.
  • The above information base construction shows that40 % of directors fall under the class of graduate students and 60 % of them fall within the class of graduate students. This shows that in Varun Beverages most of the director are
  • The above information base construction shows that none of the directors fall under the wage graduated table of Rs.5000, 30 % of directors lie between ( 5000-0000 ) , 40 % between ( 10000-15000 ) , 10 % between ( 15000-20000 ) , no employee between ( 20000-30000 ) , 10 % between ( 30000-40000 ) and 10 % between ( 40000-50000 ) . This shows that the wage of the directors in Varun Beverages Ltd is moderate!
  • The above information base construction shows that 5 % of the directors suffer from pecuniary which is caused due to repeat of same type of work and therefore to take leave while 95 % of directors considers other factors like unwellness, apathetic state of affairss, incorrigible jobs etc as an obvious ground for taking leave from work. None of the directors complained of overload of work, emphasis and cumbersome state of affairss, as they remained apathetic toward these facts for being a possible cause to go forth.
  • The above information base construction shows that 30 % of the directors convey their subsidiaries to transport on with the pending work. No director declares the vacation for their employees when they are on leave, 40 % direct them before or on the same day of the month refering the undertaking their subsidiaries have to execute while 30 % adopt other factors like they appoint a leader to help their employees or inquire other departmental caputs to take necessary action.
  • The above information shows that 65 % of the directors confirmed that their employees are regular in the organisation while 35 % of directors complained about the abnormality of their employees due to obvious grounds like unwellness, anxiousness, and in contingent state of affairss.
  • The above information base construction shows that 75 % of directors maintain an attending registry. 20 % go for a personal ticker to look into their employees, 5 % come to cognize about the presence of their employees through other people in the works. While none of the directors said that they do non keep any record of their employees.
  • The above information shows that 25 % of directors think that true preparation and development absenteeism can be reduced as than employees will go more efficient to execute their occupation good and therefore will to love to work. 20 % of directors think diversion and amusement installations should be provided to employees and it will cut down their emphasis and therefore they will register relaxed.30 % think that wages of employees should increase while 25 % are of the position that employees should be provided adequate leave show that they do non necessitate any ground for the absent from work.
  • The above informations based construction shows that 48 % of employees fall within the age of class of ( 20-30 ) old ages, 28 % between ( 30-40 ) old ages, 20 % between ( 40-50 ) old ages and merely 4 % autumn between to ( 50-60 ) old ages.
  • The above informations based construction shows that 54 % employees are metric passed, 26 % is intermediate, and 18 % are alumnus while merely 2 % are graduate student. They show that for VBL higher academic makings are non more of import than efficiency and difficult work
  • The above informations based construction shows that 72 % of employees of VBL earn up to Rs 5000/ per months, 24 % of employees earn between ( 5000/-10000/ ) per months while merely 4 % of employees were holding their monthly wage between ( 10000/-15000 ) .
  • The above information shows that 80 % of people in VBL seldom take leave from the company, 12 % said they ne’er take leave, 8 % said they due to grounds of unwellness and exhaustion often take leave from their work while everyone of them remained indifferent for often falling under the class of an absentee. Therefore, the committedness of workers in VBL towards their occupation is really high.
  • The above information base construction shows that 2 % of employees are affected due to poisoning and therefore fall absent, 56 % suffer from unwellness or hurt and therefore are committed to absenteeism, 26 % see some unanticipated contingent state of affairss, which are beyond their control like, decease in the household, marriages etc. and therefore fall absent while 16 % are non satisfied with their occupations therefore do n’t desire to describe to work.
  • The above information base construction shows that 64 % of employees face tax write-off in wage on being absent, 2 % suffer arrest in increase, 28 % got their foliages reduced, 6 % have to work for excess hours for which they are non paid, while
  • The above information base construction shows that 92 % of employees inform their foreman prior of being absent, 2 % inform the following twenty-four hours, 4 % inform the same twenty-four hours from telephone or personally, while 2 % do non inform at all as they consider it necessary.
  • The above information base construction shows that 100 % of employees do non desire to be called as an absentee.
  • The above information base construction shows that 98 % of employees want to change over themselves from an absentee employee to a non-absentee employee while staying 2 % remained indifferent of this position.
  • The above information base construction shows that 30 % of employees think absenteeism as accustomed job of employees, 24 % consider it as a regular pattern in any organisation as it is found everyplace, staying 46 % dainty it as an incorrigible job as it is beyond their control and therefore they ca n’t avoid it.

“ Findings OF THE STUDY ”

Conducting a questionnaire based on the degree of absenteeism and its causes at Varun Beverages Ltd. Of both the directors and the non-managers, facts that can be derived are: –

  • Childs are more privileged with occupation options in VBL.
  • Directors every bit good as the employees of VBL are wholly dedicated and devoted towards their domain of activities.
  • Both the directors and the workers consider absenteeism as an incorrigible job, which is found more likely to be beyond their control.
  • Most of the employees of VBL are educated and packed with complete cognition of their work profile.
  • Both the subdivisions consider salary as an of import inducement in bring arounding increasing absenteeism rate and there in VBL they are confronting jobs with low wage.
  • Non of the employees at VBL want to be called as an absentee and wants to lend his maximal and pay their best attempts towards increasing the merchandise ional activity every bit good as advancement of Pepsi group.

Therefore, all our hypothesis viz. :

  • Absenteeism affects and reduces organisational productiveness.
  • Logical mentality towards assorted jobs was more outstanding among regular attendants than absentees.
  • Older employees have greater committedness towards their work.

“ Impression FROM THE STUDY ”

  • There was found to be a timely well-structured and well-administered organisational civilization in VBL.
  • The rewards and wages construction of the company was found to be purely in conformity with the jurisprudence.
  • A duly and timely filing of all returns in relation to rewards and salary disposal was carried out.
  • The awareness degree among the employees sing the assorted foliages and installations being provided by the company were found to good.
  • There was a general satisfaction amongst the people with respects to their wages in relation to their virtues.
  • It was found that company did non supply any educational installations to the employees.
  • There was a general satisfaction amongst people with respects to canteen and other installations. Besides they are non wholly satisfied by the public assistance activities of company.
  • There was found to be really low occupation security amongst employees.
  • The wage of most of the people could fulfill either their basic needs merely, or their demands every bit good as modesty demands.
  • Most of the people employed at Pepsi felt that their colleges possessing about equal makings and experiences working in other houses were pulling more salary than them.
  • Frequent prejudices can be witnessed in the works.
  • There is a deficiency of proficient cognition among the workers of the company.
  • A bulk of the employees working at Pepsi are satisfied with the foliages they are provided.

“ Suggestion ”

With all the theoretical cognition and practical experience I posses, I would wish to propose the following- :

  • To increase the awareness degree of employees working at Pepsi with respects to assorted things like figure of earned foliages.
  • To better upon their Grievance redresser programme should be conducted.
  • To convey a sense of occupation security among the employees.
  • They should be provided with public assistance activities in absolute footings.
  • Trainings and development plan should be conducted more earnestly.
  • Rules and ordinances of the endeavor or that of the works should be made clearer to every employee working in VBL and it should be insured that they abide to the same.


  1. Questionnaire based on the survey of the degree of absenteeism and its causes at VBL, ( particular mention to Managerial classs )
  2. Questionnaire based on the survey of the degree of absenteeism and its causes at VBL ( particular mention to Non-managerial classs )
  3. Comparison of the information of attending record of 2005 with that of 2006 till the month of July, collected from the attending registry of VBL.

“ Bibliography ”

While undergoing the undertaking for roll uping assorted information ‘s and inside informations I have referred the followers: –


  • Organizational Behavior STEPHEN ROBBINS PEARSON EDUCATION-2005
  • Organizational Behavior FRED LUTHANS TMH-2005
  • Human Resource Management GARRY DESSLER
  • Business today magazine




  • Attendance registry of VBL.
  • Oxford lexicon.


  • Ad and streamers of Pepsi.
  • Television advertizements.
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