This paper argues that when houses in fiscal services engage in corporate societal duty ( CSR ) it is chiefly for strategic motivations instead than moral motivations. Furthermore, it besides emphasizes on the impact that CSR activities may hold on fiscal establishments, in Mauritius and find what type of motivations are behind these enterprises. To be able to analyze these effects, which are quantitative in nature, a graded sampling study has been used aiming Banks known in Mauritius. The consequences of the survey demonstrate that although CSR is said to be taking the public assistance of society, it is being used as a tool to pull clients and achieve fiscal public presentation, to be eligible in the eyes of stakeholders.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Financial Services, Reputation, Mauritius
What is Corporate Social Responsibility?
Corporate societal duty is a phenomenon, where assorted administrations find means to better the society or community around them. Even though there is no individual significance of CSR, Carroll and Buchholtz ( 2000 ) offer this definition ;
“ Corporate societal duties encompasses the economic, legal, ethical and beneficent outlooks placed on organisation by society at a given point in clip ”
This construct was established by the four-part theoretical account of corporate societal duty proposed by Archie Carroll ( 1979 ) , and which was refined in ulterior publications ( Carroll,1991 ; Carroll and Buchholtz, 2000 ) . However, CSR is non merely a manner to set about socio-economic challenges but besides a manner to legalize the being of administrations. As Burke and Logsdon ( 1996 ) advocated, CSR can be a strategic agencies for administrations to acquire benefits by giving them visibleness in the society. It is known that the intent of utilizing CSR is non of net income devising nature but in fact, to make a bond with members of the society.
However, it can be advantageous for an administration since it helps the latter to do itself known of the populace and finally hold an impact on its fiscal public presentations ( Sen and Bhattacharya, 2001 ) . Harmonizing to Waddock and Graves ( 1997 ) CSR positively affects profitableness and at the same clip profitableness has a positive impact on CSR.
Furthermore, another definition of CSR can be the construct whereby companies integrate societal and environmental concerns in their concern operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary footing ( Commission of the European Communities ‘ Green Paper, 2001 ) .
Why Banks undertake Corporate Social Responsibility?
The widespread of acceptance of corporate societal duty in the banking industry implies that the public perceive the industry as to be socially responsible. Fiscal companies and specifically Bankss undertake corporate societal duty on two footing.
First some Bankss adopt societal enterprises since they benefit from those enterprises and they become more net income motivations. This position is reinforced by ( Cannon, 1992, p.33 ) who stated that A«A concern merely contributes to the full to a society if it is efficient, profitable and socially responsible. Similarly, ( Wood, 1991 ) stated thatA A«A the basic thought of corporate societal duty is that concern and society are interwoven instead than two distinguishable entitiesA A» .
Another position is that Bankss undertake corporate societal duty plans for the improvement and public assistance of the society that is based on moral position. To this respect, ( Holmes,1976A ; Moir.2001, p.23 ) cited in his survey of executive attitude to societal duty, found that the strongest response was thatA A«A in add-on to do net income, concern aids to work out societal job whether or non concern helps to make those jobs even if there is likely no short-term or long-term net income potency.
As involvement in the survey of corporate societal duty expanded over old ages, many surveies have as to why houses engage in activities or plans that benefit the society. Their researches reveal that directors are motivated by moral every bit good as strategic considerations. It is hard to find whether corporate societal duty is guided by moral values or whether they are profit motivations ( Graffland and Van de Ven, 2006 ) . Strategic motivations are the grounds that compel fiscal services to prosecute in corporate societal duty.
These motivations include factors such as profitableness of the company, instrumental motivations and institutional motivations as named by ( Hahn and Scheermesser, 2006 ) . The instrumental motivations are similar to the legitimacy theory and institutional theory portions the same position as stakeholder theory. The 2nd ground why concern might prosecute in corporate societal duty is the moral motivations.
The strategic position
Several researches have shown that directors in states around the Earth perceive strong strategic grounds for prosecuting in corporate societal duty ( Davis, 1973 ) . These are classified into instrumental motivations and institutional motivations ( Hahn and Scheermesser, 2006 ) . Instrumental motivations are managerial belief that prosecuting in corporate societal duty can maximize net income through production of goods and services that society demands. In the context of fiscal services, clients demand areA A«A security, entree, liquidness, involvement and societal responsibilityA A» ( Reifner, 1997 ) . At the same clip directors besides believe that stockholders value can be maximised by taking portion in corporate societal duty ( Tudway and Pascal.2006 ) .
Advocates of corporate societal duty argue that it is in the self involvement of concern to set about assorted signifiers of corporate societal duty and cut down corporate hazard ( Baker, 2006 ) . Therefore societal enterprises help in beef uping corporate repute of the company. In his 1973 article, Keith Davis outlinedA A«A societal ends are now a top precedence with members of the populace, so the house which wishes to capture a favourable public image will hold to demo that it besides supports these societal goalsA A» . In times of crisis or menace, corporate societal duties provideA A«A repute insuranceA A» that can procure fiscal services profitableness. Repute in banking industry is referred as an intangible plus that can increase merchandise or service demand and cut down costs ( Fombrun, 1996 ) . Thus one of the cardinal strategic motivations for prosecuting in corporate societal duty is the administration image and repute.
Many surveies have shown that fiscal services engage in corporate societal duty due to institutional motivations. These motivations compel administrations to beef up their corporate societal duties. Reasons that forces Bankss to set about societal enterprises are the force per unit area from the milieus such as stakeholder groups ( Aguilera et al, 2007 ) . Directors beliefs from researches is that reacting to institutional force per unit areas is of import for continuing company image or geting good will among stakeholders ( Aguilera et al, 2007 ; Bansal and Roth, 2000 ; Bertels and Peloza, 2006 ; Gardberg and fombrun, 2006 ; Sen and Bhattacharya, 2001 ) . Pressure to prosecute in corporate societal duty is frequently generated from the community itself. Others found that houses are compelled to take part in corporate societal activities to fit that of rivals ‘ in their industry ( Believeau et al, 1994 ; Peloza, 2006 ) .
Moral motivations to prosecute in corporate societal duty imply that concern has an ethical responsibility to A«A give backA A» to society. Although surveies have demonstrated that houses engage in corporate societal duty for strategic intents ( Kotler and Lee, 2005 ) . Others believe that personal moral values and the desire to lend positively to society for a better hereafter can be powerful drivers of corporate societal duty. The consequence from researches show thatA A«A making the right thingA A» appears to be a stronger motivation for prosecuting in corporate societal duty than the benefits these activities can bring forth for the house ( Bertoin Antsl, 1992 ; Hahn and Scheermesser, 2006 ) .
In a recent survey of Dutch directors showed that beside the fact that societal enterprises could better profitableness, enhance repute and strengthen employee motive to the house, they besides portion a strong desire A«A to do the universe a better placeA A» ( Graafland and Van de Ven, 2006 ) . From another survey, it has been demonstrated that many participants strongly believe that concern has a responsibility to better local communities and work for the improvement of the society without any personal benefit ( Glaskiewicz and Colman, 2006 ) .
Impacts of CSR on the success of fiscal services, based on 3 facets:
1. 3.1 Corporate Social Responsibility and employee turnover
Surveies have shown that possible employees are interested in the corporate societal duty policies of a possible employer. An administration with a good record for societal duties will pull and retain the best employees. Several researches besides points out that retaining employees has positive effects for houses ‘ fiscal public presentation and productiveness ( Huselid, 1995 ; Guthrie, 2001 ) . It has besides been shown in recent surveies that houses that are proactively showing corporate societal duty are practiced to cut down employee turnover ( Cropanzano et al, 2001a, B ) .
However the public assistance of employees are positively affected in work environment that are perceived to be just and merely, such as in countries of occupation satisfaction and emphasis ( Colquitt et al,2001 ) . When houses engage in corporate societal duty, it has a positive consequence on organisational results, such as lower employee absenteeism and higher degree of employee committedness ( Colquitt et al, 2001 ) .
This mean that employees who work for companies who take societal enterprises tend to be extremely motivated in their occupations, partially because they are working for the improvement of the society ; and partially because their employers are handling them good.
Therefore if an employee is extremely motivated, the administration tend to be more productive. As suggested by ( Aguilera et al, 2007 ) , corporate societal duty attention for the demands of employees thereby taking to take down turnover rates.
1. 3.2 Corporate societal duty and client satisfaction
Customers have either a negative or positive perceptual experience of house through the rating of equity that is shown through their merchandises or services offered ( Fornnell et al, 1996 ) . Customer satisfaction is in some signifier of rating through the services of the house and is besides an index of current, past and future public presentation of the concern ( Anderson et al, 2004 ) . Therefore one of the aims of a house is to accomplish high degree of client satisfaction and it is besides an of import focal point of corporate scheme ( Homburg et al, 2005 ) .
Through many surveies it has been found that client satisfaction is linked to a house ‘s profitableness and an overall mechanism by which a house can accomplish trueness among its clients ( Anderson et al, 1997 ) . In order to accomplish high degree of client satisfaction houses may better employee acquisition and competences through investing in preparations ( Rucci et al, 1998 ; Westbrook, 2000 ) .
It has besides been argued that clients seek value in the purchase or services they seek ( Zeithaml, 1988 ) . Furthermore presenting quality merchandises and run into the demands of clients is consistent with corporate societal duty, peculiarly with regard to the economic duty ( Carroll 1979 and Maignan et Al, 1999 ) . The last grounds that shows corporate societal duty is positively associated with client satisfaction is the ethical impacts on client perceptual experiences demonstrated by fiscal house ( Maignan, 2001 ) . When honestness and equity is reflected in an administration, clients feel they are equitably treated. The issue of honestness and equity and unity is related to the ethical portion of a house ‘s societal duties, therefore reflecting corporate societal duty activities ( Carroll, 1979 ) .
1.3.3 Corporate societal duty and repute
A company with a positive repute indicates that a house is extremely esteem or good regarded in clients or society position ( Weiss et al, 1999 ) . Repute is defined as A«A foreigners ‘ appraisal about what administration is, how good it meets its committednesss and conforms to stakeholders ‘ outlook, and how efficaciously its overall public presentation tantrums with socio-political environmentA A» . Reputation is an of import factor for the success of a house since it reflects how a given house is compared to its rivals ( Rao, 1994 ) . Thus repute is a cardinal factor that a house requires to construct and prolong competitory advantage. Corporate societal duties are hence predicted to a cardinal factor by which house can construct its repute.
1.4 Corporate Social Responsibility through Banks in Mauritius
Banks in Mauritius are invariably introducing refering CSR, as it is normally known that some Bankss have been funding educational undertakings and offering scholarships even long before CSR undertakings was launched by the authorities.
Harmonizing to Nicolas Ragodoo ( 2008 ) , “ Firms are really uniting CSR as a direction scheme. Sixty-nine per centum of endeavors are reported to be linking in external societal activities for the benefits of the wide community ( MET, 2010 ) . There is decidedly a lifting involvement in societal engagement on the portion of the Business sector ” . He besides stated an illustration ; “ The Mauritius Commercial Bank ( MCB ) , the taking Bank in Mauritius, has promised 1 % of its net incomes before revenue enhancement ( RS 4 600 000 ) for societal undertakings this twelvemonth and Barclays Bank has committed RS 4 000 000 for the battle against AIDS. The Hotel industry, through its national organic structure, has donated some RS 8 000 000 for community undertakings ”
Furthermore Mauritius is lifting as a Private Banking hub due to a well-developed fiscal system and the banking system is extremely profitable and sound. Presently, there is 19 commercial Bankss runing in Mauritius and there is really a turning concern in societal engagement on the portion of the banking sector.
For case, Barclays bank has as its flagship cause the battle against diabetes, given the high rate in our country.The mark for Barclays Mauritius in 2006A was around RS 29 580 for five enterprises related to Diabetes bar. For the World Diabetes Day in November 2007, Barclays Mauritius allocated the amount of RS 174 003 to the cause.
Furthermore, Deutsche Bank Mauritius have included active part in both Art Mela, a undertaking which promotes needy and handicapped kids to show themselves in a different environment through art, it is besides involve in the one-year Mauritius Handisports which provides a platform for disabled kids to take portion in path and field athleticss. In 2008, Deutsche bank supported the purchase of Christmas trees and gifts for the school jubilation, known as ‘L’Arbre de Noel 2008 ‘ , for approximately around 1,200 kids from the most disadvantaged countries of the island.
Deutsche Bank has besides been the lead patron of the Deutsche Bank Mauritius 100km Cycle Tour for some old ages. In 2008 over 1,000 bicyclers, consisting abroad professionals and recreational partisans, took portion. This event has an underlying charitable purpose and 32 Deutsche Bank staff who took portion in the Corporate Challenge non merely completed the class in a respectable clip but besides raised a sum of RS 700,000 for local charitable causes.
Furthermore, The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation ( HSBC ) believe that “ support for primary and secondary instruction, in peculiar for underprivileged kids, is critical to the hereafter development and success of every state. ” RS40 million were allocated to educational undertakings as contributions around the universe in 2006 by the HSBC group. In 2007 the HSBC Mauritius besides supports the Family Strengthening Programme ( FSP ) and has offered a figure of outreach services, to 170 kids and 96 grownups in 62 households identified as being helpless, and these include ;
Reding full-time societal workers of the FSP
Educational support to childs and responsible parties
Psychological and medical support
In add-on, Afrasia Bank through CSR has been back uping a figure of human-centered and charitable administrations and undertaking in Mauritius chiefly focused on sustainability of the society and the environment. The Bank is working closely with the Centre d’Evil of Bois Marchand a group which consist of kids between two and four old ages old, whose household are homesteaders and life in utmost poorness. Therefore, the bank provides these progenies with pedagogical environment by acquiring them prepared for pre-primary and primary schools. Afrasia aims to “ do a valuable part towards environmental protection through its usage of resources, the transportation of cognition to its staff and the populace and the creative activity of merchandises and clients services with a focal point on environmental subjects and sustainability. ” Hence, fiscal houses are now progressively integrating CSR as a direction scheme as it can do companies more advanced and construct better dealingss with the communities in which they live.
This chapter provides the methodological analysis of the study envisaged on the consequence of CSR on advancing fiscal services. In this vena, it represents the Southern Cross of the survey and it hence, seeks to sketch the cardinal facets before, during and after carry oning of the study. It offers a model about how the research was carried out and elaborates on the questionnaire design and enumerates several restrictions refering to the study.
2.2 Methodology of study for the aggregation of primary informations
The adopted research method for this peculiar undertaking was study in footings of questioning since it was seen as the best manner for roll uping, garnering and analysing relevant, precise and indifferent information from our sample. It is chiefly a model for the survey used as a guideline in the aggregation and analyzing of the information. Research by study involves the assemblage of primary informations by oppugning respondents about their, attitudes, perceptual experiences and outlooks in this peculiar sector.
2.3 The questionnaire design
The questionnaire used for this study comprises of 14 inquiries divide in 3 subdivisions viz. ; subdivision A based on the strategic position, subdivision B moral motivations and subdivision C based on impacts of CSR on the establishment. A Likert theoretical account was used ; from strongly differ to strongly hold. At the really beginning of the questionnaire itself, instructions were given on the first portion, and invitees were assured that their replies are merely for educational intent.
2.4 The Target population
We can state that it is hard, if non impossible to be able to hold the whole fiscal services population replying. It is besides, a really clip – consuming and expensive undertakings hence, we need to hold a targeted sample, which is proportionate of our population. We have decided to take Banks in Mauritius to carry on our interview. Not less than 19 Banks will be undergoing through this interview.
2.5 Data Collection
A formal interview will be chosen as a method of informations aggregation with the CSR representatives of the Bankss, and it will bring forth a rich and varied informations set in an informal scene. All the 19 Bankss ‘ CSR representatives will undergo the same sort of questionnaire in order to bring forth a consistence in what we are carry oning for our research. The information aggregation will be done during the hours of work so that to ease us in our interview and besides it is the easiest manner to acquire our response.
Analysis AND FINDINGS
3.1 Data Analysis
To analyse the information, SPSS was used and the significance value for all analyses was set at P & lt ; 0.05. In order to reply the research inquiry: “ Why Banks undertake Corporate Social Responsibility? , ” motives consequently. In order to obtain extra information about the response forms, we so performed Cross tabular matter, Chi-Square trial and Analysis of Variance ( ANOVA ) that allowed us to place the per centum of respondents who agreed that a peculiar motivation reflected the bank ‘s grounds for prosecuting in societal enterprises.
Consequences of the survey reinforced certain decisions from old research and suggested several new countries for farther probes. This chapter discusses the findings of the questionnaire study. It non merely deals with the single analysis of each inquiry, but besides compares one inquiry in relation to others and attempts to set up a nexus between the consequences found. Based on the sum-up of our findings, the undermentioned deductions were discussed:
3.2.1 Strategic grounds for prosecuting in CSR
Businesss see CSR as a beginning of concern hazard every bit good as a beginning of concern chance. If non good managed, CSR can hold a negative impact on the concern. Alternatively CSR could give benefits when appropriate mechanisms are put in topographic point for proper direction of CSR. Hence many fiscal and besides non-financial houses adopt CSR as a scheme to guarantee long-run concern success and better their hazard direction. In finding its schemes, Bankss like other fiscal services aims to maximise its net income and stockholder value. In peculiar, Ogrizek ( 2002 ) argues that the growing in socially responsible investings and CSR consciousness will take to market benefits and competitory advantages for those fiscal services houses who engage in CSR.
Descriptive statistic in table 1 shows clearly that there is a high correlativity between the bank and strategic motivations to utilize CSR. This is represented by the figures in the column of skewness criterion mistake, which are all between the graduated tables of 0.05 to 1.
Long Term Company Interest
Company Net incomes
Company ‘s Drawbacks
Valid N ( listwise )
To farther back up our descriptive statistic tabular array 1, ANOVA ( Analysis of Variance ) has been performed. The four motivations reflect the impression that prosecuting in societal enterprises can give positive fiscal consequences for the bank, either by bring forthing new grosss or by protecting bing net income degrees.
Analysis of variance
Long term company involvement
Create Financial Opportunity
Prevent hereafter Business Problem
Table 2 shows the p-value every bit good as the F value obtained through an ANOVA analysis for the factors in the strategic position. This shows that there is a important relation between the Bankss and the factors above, since the p-value is more than 0.05 ( = 0.831 ) .
3.2.2 Moral grounds for prosecuting in CSR
Reasons why fiscal services engage in CSR can be viewed in some signifier of moral or ethical duty towards the society. As argued by Holmes ( 1976 ) , besides doing net income, concerns should assist to work out societal jobs whether or non concern helps to make those jobs even of there is likely no short-term or long-term possible net incomes. Businesss besides undertake CSR to show that its actions are desirable, proper and appropriate.
They act in certain ways non for their ain benefits or any commercial involvement but because the society implicitly expects it from them. Factors such as fiscal services has valuable resources that can be used to work out societal jobs, their concern for society ‘s hereafter, employees motives to assist the society and personal satisfaction demonstrate why fiscal services engages in CSR.
The six factors in the tabular array below ( table 3 ) correspond to motivations classified as moral 1s described in the preceding literature reappraisal. These informations reflect the impression that Bankss engage in corporate societal duty for the benefit of the society. Furthermore, from the tabular array itself, the mean is ranged from 4.50 to 2.62, which shows that there is a correlativity between the moral position and bank name.
Solve Social Problems Better
Concern for Society ‘s Future
No Reason Not To Prosecute In CSR
Valid N ( listwise )
Furthermore, a mated sample t-test, table 4, has been performed to demo the correlativity between the variables showed in table 3. As demonstrated in the tabular array below, from brace 1, the bank name and valuable resources point of position, it can be noted that there is an reverse relationship between these two variables. If there is a deficiency of valuable resources to accomplish societal enterprises, this will cut down the good will.
Paired Samples Correlations
Bank Name & A ; Valuable Resources
Bank Name & A ; Solve Social Problems Better
Bank Name & A ; Concern for Society ‘s Future
Bank Name & A ; Personal Satisfaction
Bank Name & A ; Moral Leadership
Bank Name & A ; No Reason Not To Prosecute In CSR
As from Pair 3 in Table 5, it can be deduced that more the company is concerned by the society ‘s hereafter and engages in CSR, it will finally take to higher bank name or good will. This can be shown, by holding a STD Error mean of 0.915, which clearly means a strong correlativity between these two variables.
3.2.3 Impacts of CSR on the Bankss.
Fiscal services houses recognize that the construct of corporate societal duty impacts on their operating environment and has important effects for their public presentation and endurance. In the banking sector the impact of CSR progressively manifest in the attempts to make a competitory advantage out of CSR schemes. However by prosecuting in CSR, fiscal services conceive a positive image of their company, they achieve a better place against rivals and they are able to construct societal webs in foreign civilizations. Therefore by prosecuting in CSR, it has an impact on the company image and profitableness.
As from competitory advantage and bank name point of position, i.e. brace 2 from table 6, it can be noted that there exists an reverse correlativity between competitory advantage and bank name as there is a -0.0559 which means if a bank does non prosecute in CSR this can take to a autumn in competitory advantage and if the bank engages more in CSR this can take to a higher competitory advantage.
Paired Samples Correlations
Bank Name & A ; Company Goodwill
Bank Name & A ; Competitive Advantage
Bank Name & A ; Strengthen Global Network
Bank Name & A ; Employees ‘ Employee turnover
For case, as from brace 1 of table 7, it can be deduced that more the company engages in CSR it promotes the image of the bank, which finally leads to higher bank name or good will. This can be shown, by holding a STD Error mean of 0.875 which clearly means a strong correlativity between these two variables.
Paired Sample t-test
LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
The restrictions of our survey are based on the facts that figures in our analysis does non finish reflect the existent footing on which Bankss perform CSR activities. It is obvious that a CSR director in a bank would state that, they engage in corporate societal duty merely for the public assistance of the society, without following any schemes for their ain benefits. Banks staff involved in corporate societal duty would non hold or accept the fact that, it is in the enlightened opportunism of their concern that they undertake assorted signifiers of CSR. Though in Mauritius it is the instance, since all Bankss are under the duty to apportion 2 % of their net incomes to CSR. Finally, other motivations for corporate societal enterprises may be beyond those described in the literature and found in the questionnaire. Further enquiry could turn to this restriction.
Fiscal services houses recognize that the construct of corporate societal duties impacts on their operating environment and has considerable effects for their public presentation and endurance. This article has reviewed a wide apprehension of what is meant by corporate societal duty, how and why fiscal services undertake such activities. Whether actions taken by concern that provide concern benefits are finally regarded as socially responsible or fiscal houses are utilizing it as a strategic position. Directors of fiscal houses chiefly Bankss are motivated to assist the society voluntarily every bit good as for their ain benefit. However in our survey the consequences generated from all the analyses showed that most fiscal houses use corporate societal duty both as a strategic tool and voluntarily, but the per centum were higher refering the moral motivations since directors of Bankss would n’t unwrap confidential information to demo their schemes.