India Biscuit industry is the 2nd largest maker of biscuits in the universe with the entire turnover of R 3000 crores. Indian Biscuit industry is turning at 17 % . Biscuit market is dominated by Parle-G and Britannia in India, with Parle-G holding about 40 % market portion and Britannia holding 40 % market portion. Krackjack is sweet and salt biscuit from Parle-G and Britannia 50-50 is besides a sweet and salt biscuit from Britannia. Britannia 50-50 is a replacement for Krackjack, as it serves for the same intent.
Entire Mall, Star Bazaar and Big Bazaar are located in and around Koramangala. Koramangala is an Urban country with high denseness of population. The mean size of these promenades is around 2 lakhs sq. foot. These promenades act as market topographic point for industries to sell their merchandises straight to the clients.
Description of the Findingss
The monetary values for Krackjack 65gms battalion and Britannia 50 50 ( 65 gram ) were collected and is summarised in the undermentioned Table.
Monetary value in different Malls ( in R )
Krackjack ( 65gms )
Britania 50 50 ( 65gms )
Item non available
Table 1: Monetary value of the merchandise and its replacement
From the above tabular array it is apparent that the monetary value of the merchandise ( Krackjack ( 65gms ) ) and its replacement ( Britannia 50 50 ( 65 gram ) ) remains the same across all the Malls, selected for this survey.
Gross saless Measure
The mean gross revenues of Krackjack 65gms battalion and Britannia 50 50 ( 65 gram ) is summarised in the undermentioned Table.
Entire Malls ( Weekly Gross saless Measure )
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday
Krackjack ( 65gms )
10 to 15
80 to 150
Britania 50 50 ( 65gms )
10 to 15
80 to 150
Table 2: Average hebdomadal gross revenues of the merchandise and its replacement
Discounts and Promotions
There were no particular price reduction or promotional offers were given for Krackjack and Britannia 50 50.
Summary of interview with Total Mall, FMCG merchandise director.
Promotions are by and large given by the merchandise maker. Manufacturer gives promotional offers for assorted grounds like – to increase their market portion, maker want to advance some merchandise, maker want to construct the trade name image, want to pull clients.
Entire Mall procurance squad have the authorization to give publicities. When Entire Mall want to advance a specific merchandise, the Mall give promotional offers for those specific merchandises.
Discounts are given by the merchandise maker.
Discounts are besides given by the Total Mall, to unclutter the stocks or to increase the gross revenues for a peculiar merchandise which will ensue in immense net income.
The mark clients for Entire Mall are – regular customers/house clasp, store keepers, people looking for offers which are non given by distributers.
There are no price reductions or publicity for certain merchandises because, the market is saturated and there is no farther demand to increase the market portion. The other ground could be, the merchandise might be a critical merchandise, which clients will purchase even if there are no price reductions.
If a merchandise is non available in the shop, 30 % of the clients will non prefer exchanging to a different product/brand ( trade name loyal clients ) , 30 % of the clients will purchase what is available in the shop and 30 % of the clients will be interested to seek rival ‘s merchandise or utility merchandise.
Analysis of the Findingss
Nature of the merchandise
Biscuits autumn under indispensable consumer goods class. Biscuit has become a household point. Essential goods are goods that are indispensable for the consumer ( family ) . Consumers tend to purchase indispensable goods irrespective of the alteration in the monetary value of the indispensable goods.
Demand and Supply
There is ever demand for biscuits. Even if the monetary value of biscuit is increased, the demand remains inelastic. The jurisprudence of demand is non applicable for indispensable goods like biscuits. Parle-G has non increased the monetary values for its biscuits for the past 16 old ages. Demand curve for biscuits is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Demand curve for Biscuit
Parle-G and Britannia industry biscuits to run into the consumers demand. Even if the supply additions, monetary value is non increased and if the supply decreases besides, the monetary value is non decreased. Biscuit monetary values are inelastic to the measure manufactured. The supply curve for biscuits is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Supply curve for Biscuit
The measure of biscuits consumed by family remains changeless irrespective of the addition or lessening in the income degrees of the house clasp. Thus the house hold demand for biscuits is inelastic to the income of the family. Engel curve for biscuits is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3: Income consequence on Biscuit consumed
As the demand for biscuits are changeless for the family, the monetary value snap for biscuits is zero. Change in monetary value does non impact the measure of biscuits consumed in the house clasp.
As the demand for biscuits are changeless for the family, the demand snap for biscuits is zero, irrespective of the monetary value alteration.
As the income additions or lessenings, the demand for biscuits is changeless for the family. So the income snap for biscuits is zero.
Consumers get the same public-service corporation value for the fixed budget for Krackjack and Britannia 50 50. Figure 4 shows the indifference curve for Krackjack and Britannia 50 50.
Figure 4: Indifference curve for Krackjack and Britannia 50 50
Key natural stuffs required for fabrication biscuits are wheat, vegetable oil and sugar. Since biscuits are indispensable goods, the monetary value of the biscuits remain same irrespective of the monetary value fluctuation in the natural stuffs cost. When the natural stuffs monetary value additions, maker produces more biscuits and by following good pricing schemes, they will sell more biscuits to keep their net incomes. When the natural stuffs monetary value lessenings, the maker maintains changeless supply of biscuits fiting the measure demanded.
Net income Maximization
The monetary value of biscuits is fixed. Natural stuffs used for fabricating biscuits are wheat, vegetable oil and sugar. If the monetary values of the natural stuffs lessening, Parle-G and Britannia will do immense net incomes. When the monetary value of the natural stuffs addition, the net income border decreases for biscuit makers. Inorder to keep same net income degrees, the biscuit makers will merchandise more biscuits and sell more biscuits to keep their net income borders. To increase the gross revenues, Parle-G and Britannia will follow some of the pricing schemes mentioned in subdivision 9. Pricing Schemes.
Biscuits are heterogenous merchandise. Biscuit industry ‘s market construction is oligopoly, and is dominated by Parle-G, Britannia and ITC. Parle-G, Britannia and ITC together control 90 % of the biscuit industry in India. Parle-G and Britannia are monetary value compositors in the biscuit industry. There is immense barrier to entry into biscuit industry because of immense capital investing, economic systems of graduated table. In biscuit market, monetary value and end product determination are undetermined. Parle-G has 40 % market portion in the Indian biscuit market and Britannia besides have 40 % market portion.
Federation of Biscuit Manufacturer ‘s of India ( FBMI ) is an industry organic structure, which represents the involvements of biscuit industry in India.
By and large authorities holes monetary value for indispensable goods. For biscuits, industry organic structure FMBI sets the monetary value. Since biscuits are low border concern, biscuit maker can do more net incomes by selling more measure of biscuits. More measure of biscuits is sold to clients through assorted channels like – whole Sellerss, distribution web, retail shops and Malls. Biscuit makers give measure price reduction to Malls, inorder to sell more biscuits, which inturn will besides give more net incomes for the Malls.
Consumers have changeless demand for indispensable goods like biscuits and the budget for those indispensable goods tend to be fixed. The monetary value of Krackjack ( 65 gram ) and Britannia 50 50 ( 65 gram ) battalion remains the same. This gives an option to the consumer to choose either of the biscuit for the same monetary value and measure. Thus the public-service corporation value for the Sweet and salt biscuit is changeless for the consumer.
A consumer who is devouring Krackjack biscuits, when he/she goes for shopping Krackjack biscuits in a promenade and if the merchandise is non available in the promenade, consumer tend to act in one of the undermentioned ways,
Consumer does non purchase anything. Those clients are trade name loyal clients and they have the inclination to purchase that specific trade name.
Based on the information collected, on an norm, 30 % of the client are trade name loyal client, who prefer to but the same trade name of biscuit which they are utilizing.
Consumer will take what is available. To run into their immediate demands, certain set of clients buy what is available in the shop.
Based on the information collected, 30 % of the clients tend to purchase what is available in the shops to run into their demand.
Consumer will seek measuring a different brand/substitute. These types of clients are besides trade name loyal clients ; since the merchandise was non available they are interested to measure a different brand/substitute.
Based on the information collected, 30 % of the clients are willing to seek new brands/substitutes.
This survey reveals how concern make determinations like – measure of goods to be produced and its monetary value based on the supply and demand, how to maximize the net incomes. The survey besides reveals how the client behavior varies based on the state of affairs.