Chapter V: Recommendation
“The Committee ‘s reappraisal of a series of intelligence defects, to include intelligence prior to 9/11 and the pre-war intelligence on Iraq, clearly uncover how critical a diverse intelligence work force is to our national security.”[ 1 ]
1.Looking at the geo political environment bing in the universe today, it is apparent that terrorist act related menaces will go on to dispute the security of the states. Year 2014, saw the outgrowth of a new menace in footings of the ISIS. Events in the India’s vicinity, such as backdown of NATO forces from Afghanistan and internal convulsion inside Pakistan will surely hold direct bearing on India’s security challenges.
2.Nature of struggle is altering invariably and it is traveling towards sub conventional kingdom. Consequently a state needs to convey relevant alterations to its bing security architecture. Terrorism is one of the most outstanding menace to the peaceable being of states today. It is a good established fact that good intelligence machinery plays an of import function in any nation’s battle against panic. Good intelligence constructions non merely helps in forestalling panic related incidents but besides helps in accurate probes post any such incident.
3.For efficaciously contending the terrorist act, all bing intelligence constructions need to work in the close coordination. Flow of information amongst assorted constituents needs to be seamless and uninterrupted. However, presently jointness is clearly missing amongst assorted intelligence bureaus involved in battle against panic in India. There are legion grounds which can be attributed to the same. Primary ground being the deficiency
of an apex organisation to command & amp ; organize the operation of overplus of intelligence bureaus that are exists in India today. Till such clip reforms are undertaken with the purpose of making an apex coordination mechanism, it would be prudent to beef up the bing intelligence architecture and establishments.
4.In this chapter steps that are required to be undertaken to better the jointness amongst assorted intelligence bureaus have been covered. Aim being to make joint intelligence constructions to contend the terrorist act. Measures that are required to be undertaken to beef up the bing intelligence bureaus have besides been highlighted. Execution of these suggestions will travel a long manner to build up intelligence bureaus adequately in their battle against panic.
Creation of Apex Body at National Level
5.Infamous 9/11 panic onslaughts in the US in 2001, established the intelligence failure of the US intelligence community. As a consequence legion reforms with regard to intelligence were instituted. One of the major stairss undertaken as portion of reforms was the creative activity of Director of National Intelligence ( DNI ) . DNI serves as the caput of the intelligence community and acts as the principal adviser to the President, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council.
6. In the instance of Israel besides VARSH ( Committee of the Heads of Services ) act as apex intelligence coordination organic structure. This commission is straight headed by the Prime Minister. All the members who are caput of assorted intelligence bureaus are peers. During the proceedings assorted intelligence issues are discussed with the purpose to guarantee that each bureau is updated about the demands and activities of the others. No member has authorization over the other and it is Prime Minster who is the ultimate caput of the commission.
7.In India, National Security Council ( NSC ) was established in 1999 and Joint Intelligence Committee ( JIC ) was merged into it. After Mumbai panic onslaughts in 2008, JIC and national Security Council Secretariat ( NSCS ) which is secretariat support to the NSC have undergone function redefinition. JIC focal point on immediate or short term intelligence inputs, that excessively terrorism centric whereas NSCS focal point on policy oriented intelligence precedences. However, these alterations are still germinating. Current system has non been effectual, as is apparent from figure of panic related incidents that occur on a regular basis. Reasons for ineffectualness of current system have already been discussed in old chapters.
8.An apex mechanism with full administrative and executive control is the demand of the hr. Such a system could be called as National Intelligence Directorate ( NID ) . It can work straight under Prime Minister and National Security Advisor ( NSA ) . It should hold separate secretariat to back up its operation. All intelligence bureaus apart from describing to their several organisations and ministries should besides be mandated to give existent clip information to NID. No bureau should be allowed to short-circuit NID. Necessary powers are consequently required to be given to NID for its effectual operation. Oversight mechanism and necessary precautions while making such an establishment are required to be put into topographic point. Otherwise, it can turn like ISI in neighboring Pakistan. NID can be created out of the bing JIC. Administrations such as National Technical Research Organisation ( NTRO ) , National Grid ( NATGRID ) and National Counter Terrorism Centre ( NCTC ) ( if created later ) should fall straight under it.
Proposed Layout of National Intelligence Directorate ( NID )
9.Such an organisation could be mandated for the followers: –
( a ) Specifying the function and puting precedences for each intelligence bureau and yearly maintain updating the same as per emerging menaces.
( B ) Approving the resources to be held with each bureau. Decide the procurance and allotment of major systems. Ensure one-year budget allotment is as per the envisaged function and demand.
( degree Celsius ) Making a holistic intelligence image for determination shapers. Ensure that intelligence is provided seasonably to assorted jurisprudence enforcement bureaus.
( vitamin D ) Ensure entree to intelligence within the Intelligence Community.
( vitamin E ) Manage coordination of relationships with the intelligence bureaus of the foreign states.
( g ) Develop policies related to manpower and mechanisms to heighten the capacity for joint operations and to ease staffing of organisations where multiple bureaus are involved such as MAC/S-MAC ( Multi Agency Centre/ State Multi Agency Centre ) .
10.Benefit and advantages that are likely to accrue from creative activity of NID would be as under: –
( a ) Division of country of duties and charter of responsibilities amongst intelligence bureaus by NID will extinguish the fraudulence of functions. NID can besides explicate new functions for each intelligence bureau as per the altering security environment.
( B ) Resource sharing amongst assorted intelligence bureaus is a large issue for inter bureau competition. For a state like ours, it is really of import to optimise existing resources. There is besides need to purchase new dearly-won equipment providentially, forestalling fraudulence. NID will play a polar function in right use of resources as per the envisaged function of each bureau.
( degree Celsius ) Decision shapers at assorted degrees will be able to acquire a holistic intelligence image on all security related issues. As, with creative activity of NID intelligence created by assorted bureaus could be easy shared.
( vitamin D ) There exist legion intelligence bureaus in India. These are required to garner intelligence as per specific demands of several ministries and separate organisations. Besides, overpluss of intelligence bureaus provides an added advantage of multiplicity of acquisition channel. Creation of NID will heighten coordination amongst bing intelligence bureaus.
( vitamin E ) Annual rating of tasking of intelligence bureaus under NID will take to working of Intelligence bureaus as per current demands.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Creation of NID will extinguish issues such as sod wars and inter bureau competition to great extent. NID will move as coordinator amongst assorted bureaus.
( g ) It will add flexibleness to intelligence setup of the state.
( H ) It will better the operation of the organisations where multiple bureaus are involved such as SMAC, NATGRID etc.
11.Creation of NID will non merely better the intelligence mechanism of the state but will besides bring forth the seamless flow of information amongst assorted intelligence bureaus. NID should non be created as a articulatio genus dork reaction. It should be a good thought out crafted establishment. Enough executive, administrative and fiscal powers are required to be given to NID, so that it can put to death its authorization efficaciously. Creation of such an establishment will better jointness amongst intelligence bureaus which is an jussive mood for their successful battle against panic.
Jointness: Armed Forces
12.Armed forces of India play a polar function in battle against terrorist act particularly in the boundary line provinces of J & A ; K and north eastern provinces. Role of assorted intelligence bureaus of armed forces in this battle hence can non be over emphatic. However, these bureaus lack jointness amongst themselves and with that of other civil intelligence bureaus.
13.Defence Intelligence Agency ( DIA ) was created station Kargil with the purpose to better coordination of intelligence attempts amongst three services. It was besides envisaged to be a defense mechanism interface with other intelligence bureaus working across the state. However, public presentation of the bureau is far below the outlooks. For DIA to recognize its possible undermentioned stairss are required to be desperately taken: –
( a ) DIA should hold a major say in specifying the function of each service intelligence bureau. It will forestall fraudulence of attempts.
( B ) It should make up one’s mind the allotment of resources in footings of systems, equipment and engineering. New procurance to done through DIA merely. DIA should command the budget allotment to intelligence bureaus of three services. All this would take to optimisation of resources.
( degree Celsius ) DIA lacks the needed authorization over the intelligence board of directors of three services. This demand to be instituted through institutionalised reforms.
( vitamin D ) Human Intelligence ( HUMINT ) ( Defence Attache Only ) , Signal Intelligence ( SIGINT ) and Imagery Intelligence ( IMINT ) resources are straight placed under DIA. However, HUMINT resources are still controlled by intelligence board of directors of three services. While, same can go on but seamless flow of information demands to be ensured through institutional reforms.
14.For bettering coordination amongst the intelligence board of directors of three services it is compulsory to beef up and authorise the DIA within defense mechanism. Till the clip CDS is non created, HQ IDS ( Headquarters Integrated Defence Staff ) should be given more power with regard to the intelligence setup in the armed forces. Otherwise it would be really hard for the DIA to recognize its envisaged potency.
15.Status of DIA in the overall intelligence setup of the state is non as envisaged. On analysing the opposite numbers in US, Pakistan and Israel stark differences emerge. DIA needs to be empowered both in footings of resources and legal power. Strategic and operational Intelligence required by the armed forces and other determination shapers should be the strong suit of the DIA, as is the instance with the similar intelligence bureau in the Israel. DIA should describe straight to NSA under current system and to NID in the proposed system.
16.Jurisdiction of the DIA should be increased up to 100 Km across the boundary line to enable it to garner strategic intelligence. Such a step will besides assist the armed forces to garner panic related intelligence for its effectual operation in the boundary line countries. Resources such as dedicated orbiters and remote-controlled aerial vehicles ( UAV ) should be placed under DIA for effectual operation.
Mil Intelligence ( MI )
17.Indian Army ( IA ) plays a polar function in contending insurgence and terrorist act in the boundary line provinces. For effectual intelligence aggregation in these countries, it is imperative that MI organize its working with that of other intelligence runing in these countries. Concept of Unified Headquarters ( UHQ ) and constitution of S-MAC provide a alone chance for all interest holders to portion intelligence and organize their activities.
18.While these systems are working satisfactorily, there exist occasional jobs. Reasons for the same are: –
( a ) Perceived hegemony of IA.
( B ) Turf wars and inter bureau competition which stems out of the ‘work culture’ of Indian intelligence bureaus.
19.As discussed earlier creative activity of an apex coordination mechanism at national degree will travel a long manner in extinguishing inter bureau competition. All lending bureau in these provinces should be working as peers. However, overall coordination should stay with one bureau. MI is ideal for such a function.
Relevance of NCTC
20.NCTC was proposed to be created by the Indian cardinal authorities as a measure for contending panic efficaciously after Mumbai panic onslaughts in 2008. Idea was taken from
the NCTC of the US, which was created station 9/11 onslaughts. It was to work under Intelligence Bureau ( IB ) . However, the thought didn’t see the visible radiation of the twenty-four hours due to the resistance from main curates of some provinces. Main ground being that NCTC was given power to collar and look into. Furthermore puting it under the IB would change over the agency into an operational organic structure, which would be black for the general civil order.
21.NCTC was an effectual measure in the right way against terrorist act. It would hold coordinated attempts of assorted variety meats involved in battle against panic in India. Idea of NCTC can be still considered by taking the look intoing powers given to it, which is considered to be a menace to the federalism by some of the provinces. It can be a purely intelligence coordination bureau with regard to terrorist act and related criminalism. It can keep the needed database and undertake menace appraisal. It can work straight under proposed NID. MAC can be converted to such an envisaged NCTC.
Strengthening of S-MAC
22.System of MAC under IB and its outgrowth in footings of S-MAC at province degree is conceptually a really good mechanism to organize all intelligence related to terrorist act. However, system could non take off due to assorted grounds as discussed in old chapters. This system has possible to incorporate all intelligence bureaus working in each province. Following stairss are required to be taken for the same: –
( a ) Requisite substructure is missing in S-MAC. This needs to be desperately made up.
( B ) Permanent staff with good wages is required for its effectual operation. Senior most IB functionary in several province should be accountable for its effectual operation.
( degree Celsius ) All representatives of assorted cardinal bureaus, parity military forces and armed forces should lend meaningfully towards its operation.
( vitamin D ) State Police works closely with the local public. Their possible demands to be capitalized.
( vitamin E ) State with sea seashore should hold representatives of section of piscaries and others involved in the coastal security.
23.With the coming of the information age, terrorists are following new methodological analysiss to accomplish their purposes. Exploitation of information to make confusion, which led to exodus of 1000s of individuals belonging to northeasterly provinces from Bangalore in Karnataka in 2012, is a good known fact. In this incident information was used efficaciously by anti national elements by directing anon. SMSs. Number of critical systems such as Power Grid, Railways, Aviation etc map on webs. These are vulnerable to terror onslaughts.
24.Some of the stairss have been announced by the Indian authorities. These include creative activity of Cyber Command, Critical Infrastructure Protection, National Cyber Security Coordination Center ( NCCC ) and Cyber Security Policy 2013. However, their execution is still a large challenge. All intelligence bureaus should upgrade several capablenesss in this field. Central proficient bureau such as NTRO which maps under RAW needs to plan a model to deny cyber infinite to the terrorists collects relevant information and divides duty amongst assorted bureaus.
Strengthening of NATGRID
25.NATGRID enables assorted bureaus to portion informations from legion and varied beginnings. Importance of NATGRID to accomplish better coordination amongst intelligence bureaus and bar of fraudulence of attempts to roll up the bing informations can’t be overemphasized. However, it has made a small advancement since its origin in 2008.
NATGRID needs to be progressed at a faster gait. It will enable each bureau an easy entree to bing informations.
Public Private Partnership
26.Intelligence bureaus must work huge potency of the private sector in the state. It is recommended that usage of private establishments such as IDSA, CLAWS etc, think armored combat vehicles and experts in assorted Fieldss should be resorted to by intelligence bureaus in their operation. Lapp is being done in states like US.
Inter Agency Deputations
27.Earlier armed forces provided personals for commission to assorted civil intelligence bureaus. Same was stopped due to issues like inter bureau competitions and salvaging of ain sod. This should be resumed. This will non merely heighten really much required jointness but will besides assist each other to portion best patterns.
28.Intelligence is an of import constituent of the statesmanship. Same could non hold been truer today when terrorist act is endangering every citizen of the state. Indian intelligence mechanism needs to be overhauled to accomplish the coveted coordination in battle against panic. However, it requires strong national and political will to accomplish the coveted reforms.