Influential factors to buy ethical products

Social duty has become an of import portion of selling where the consumers are cognizant about the betterment and the motion of society ‘s development non merely into their ain state but besides cross the boundary lines. Under the ethical shopping consumer buys the merchandises that contribute to do a alteration of some planetary issues.Consumers express their concerns by purchasing merchandises for their ethical qualities e.g. Fair trade, Green Marketing Environmental, or societal and so on. ( Auger et al. , 2000 cited in Pelsmaker et al 2005, pp-512 )

A dramatic addition of in environmental consciousness has been noticed over the past decennary ( Brown 1992 ; Jones 2003 ; Joergens 2006 ) .Under the ethical consciousness the UK market for the just trade goods has grown tremendously in the past five old ages, driven by an addition in ethical consumerism ( Nicholls, 2002 ) . In the UK 250 merchandises are from 370 certified just trade manufacturer organisations are sold ( Fairtrade 2005 ) and harmonizing to the European Fair Trade association gross revenues of just Trade merchandises exceed 0.5 billon euros, and those gross revenues rapidly turning 22 per centum in 2001 and 2002, and over 42 per centum in 2003. “ Fairtrade has gone from strength to strength in 2004, posting a 51 % addition in gross revenues to ?140 million for the full twelvemonth. while the Fairtrade Foundation ‘s mark was growing of 40 % in 2006, including foodservice, vesture and other merchandises.

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( Attitudes towards Ethical Foods – UK – August 2006 ; Financial Times 2005 ) .

1.2 Fair trade definition

“ Fair trade is merchandises which sell to maximize the return to the provider instead than the border of the purchaser, within an in agreement development construction ” ( Nicholls 2003 ) . Fair Trade is a beginning

of competitory advantage for socially and ethically cognizant organisation.According to Fair trade organisation ( 2005 ) “ The FAIRTRADE Mark is an independent consumer label which appears on merchandises as an independent warrant that disadvantaged manufacturers in the underdeveloped universe are acquiring a better trade ” ( www.fair trade foundation,17.10.07 at 19:45 ) .

For a merchandise to expose the FAIRTRADE Mark it must run into international Fairtrade

criterions. These criterions are set by the international enfranchisement organic structure Fairtrade Labelling Organisations International ( FLO ) . “ Reasonably traded merchandises are those merchandises purchased under just trading understandings, affecting co-operative instead than competitory trading rules, guaranting a just monetary value and just on the job conditions for the manufacturers and providers ”

( Strong, 1997, pp 3 ) .

1.3 Fair trade as ethical shopping

The Fair Trade motion today is a planetary motion. the demand for an alternate trade construct was become known after the 2nd universe war when charity organisations in Western Europe started to construct trade with manufacturers in Europe. “ Aid administrations were among the first to advance just trade by enabling 3rd universe manufacturers to sell their goods – normally handicrafts – straight to the Western consumer, frequently in their charity stores ” ( Lucy Jones, 2004 ) when largely handcrafts were imported in order to back up their economic recovery. After these, another trading organisations known as ‘GEPA ‘ in Germany and ‘Tradecraft ‘ in Great Britain were based in community organisations started a new concern attack to cover with some of the societal jobs worldwide to take the unfavorable judgment of the current administration of international trade appears “ unjust ” . Normally developing states export to developed state markets, they had to confront duty barriers that was four times higher than the assistance what they normally received from rich states in annul. ( Oxfam International ) These new construct gave the manufacturer the possibility to merchandise straight with the companies, to cut down the jobbers to cut downing monetary values for the manufacturer. The development of Fair Trade merchandises started sympathetic retail concerns that used to set just trade merchandise in any corner of at that place store to do consciousness of just trade. ‘The Wild Oats Markets ‘ in the US and the ‘Co-operative Group ‘ in Great Britain were the first concerted concerns. ( Marline Kocken, 2003 ) The add-on of Fair Trade merchandises into mainstream shopping civilization was facilitated by the debut of new construct. on this clip, already established retail merchants ‘Sainsbury ‘s or ‘Starbucks ‘ were optimistic to come in the market. Though, they remain up to this twenty-four hours merely partially Fair Trade. There are about a million little extent maker and workers are engaged in about 3,000 Organizations and their umbrella organisation at least 50 states particularly in the South. In 1000s of Fair Trade stores, supermarkets and many other gross revenues points sold their merchandises under the name construct of Fair Trade as mainstream concern now more cognizant of its societal and environmental duty beyond the states boundary lines.

Fair trade is going progressively booming. It is besides deserving adverting the supermarket is bring forthing ain label Fair Trade merchandises such as Tesco, Sainsbury, Marks and Spencer in UK. Fair Trade gross revenues are turning fast worldwide from 21 % in 2002 to more than 40 % in 2003 for Fair Trade labelled merchandises ( FLO, 2003 ) . In Europe gross revenues of just trade have been turning at an norm of 20 % per twelvemonth since 2000. The one-year net retail value of Fair Trade labelled merchandises now exceeds 660 million euro in Europe. In add-on, Fair Trade is acquiring into mainstream merchandises as about 55,000 retail merchants all over Europe offering their clients Fair Trade merchandises. In the UK, Fair trade became a common pattern of market as consumers turn into more ethical. Presently there is ballyhoo that just trade market broadened their being as late gross revenues of Fair-trade goods have risen by about half in a twelvemonth in Britain. Shoppers spent about ?290million on the ethically traded merchandises last twelvemonth. Gross saless are already on class to transcend ?300million this twelvemonth. ( Mark, 2007 ) Now about all retail merchants or mainstream sellers seeking to demo their societal duty or ethical consciousness concentrating on just trade merchandise along with other merchandises. The four chief food market retail merchants ASDA, Safeway, Sainsbury ‘s and Tesco all sell a limited scope of just trade merchandises. ( Peter Jones et Al. , 2003, ) Consumers justify their expected merchandise contain multi properties of merchandise where just trade is included as an property for the ethical consumers. Now consumer ‘s involvement has attracted the supply concatenation which increased demand for just trade merchandises and increased merchandise scope to fulfill it. ( Nicholls 2002 ) Now, just trade is the critical portion in footings of gross revenues growing. Fair trade was deserving ?230m in 2006 which has grown 265 % between 2002 and 2006 merely ( Ormerod, 2007 ) . In this Research Fair trade java is chosen as an object as it is a common and available just trade merchandise in UK and people on a regular basis drink java under the just trade. Fair trade java is one of the longest-established merchandises in the portfolio, and histories for around 4 % of the entire market ( Mintel 2006 ) Manufacturers in the hot drinks market are encompassing this demand for ethical merchandises, as presently most of UK retail merchant ‘s decided to set clean traded java with the other branded javas where client could compare and measure just trade java before purchase. From March 2005 to March 2006, the figure of Fair trade-certified merchandise lines rose 80 % from 850 to more than 1500, harmonizing to the Fair trade Foundation. ( Mintel 2006 ) Fair trade drinks contributed to value gross revenues growing over the reappraisal period and are expected to go on this tendency in the hereafter.


2.1 Research Aims

To look into the influential factors to purchase ethical merchandises particularly just trade merchandises and the step the spread between their purpose and existent behavior

2.2 Research aims

In order to reply this purpose, the undermentioned research aims have been set:

To understand the three belief factors and it consequence on constructing attitude towards ethical


To measure the importance of assorted factors and mensurate the most influential factors

To analyze the spread between the purpose and the existent behavior in buying ethical merchandises

To understanding the chief theory of planned behavior TpB including understanding how this theory tantrum with ethical behavior.

2.3 Hypothesis

From the theory and analyzing the old research the following four hypothesises are determined to run into the purposes and aims of the current survey.

Personal beliefs towards ethical shopping will positively/negatively act upon purpose to purchase just trade merchandises.

Normative beliefs will positively or negatively influence purpose to buying just trade merchandises.

Consumer control belief will act upon to buy or non to buy just trade merchandises.

The purpose to purchase just trade merchandises does non interpret to the existent purchase of just trade merchandise.

Chapter: 3 Literature reappraisal and relevant theory

3.1 Definition of attitude

Traditionally, many scholarly ethical researches carried out and just trade has focused on the emotional facets of the behavior where attitude is an of import content to understand the client ethical position.An attitude is an look of people ‘s feelings towards something or objects. Though there are many different definition of attitude the more normally accepted definition than others are found. Harmonizing to Loudon ( 1993, p-422 ) , “ attitude is how positive or negative, favorable or non favorable, or pro or victimize a individual feels towards an object in indistinguishable manner ” we found the definition of L.L. Thurstone cited in Mowen, Minor ( 1998, p-249 ) that “ an attitude is the sum of affect or feeling for or against a stimulation ” .

Harmonizing to Engel ( 2001 ) attitude represent what people like and dislike whereas harmonizing to Solomon ( 2006, p-139 ) attitude is determined by individual ‘s motivations. “ An attitude is an look of interior feelings that reflect whether a individual is favorably or unfavorably predisposed to some abject ” ( Schiffman 1997, p-235 ) but harmonizing to Loudon ( 1993, p-422 ) “ an attitude is a erudite sensitivity to move in a consistent manner towards an object based on feelings and sentiments that consequences from an rating of cognition about the object ” .

From these most normally used definitions we could understand that attitude is based on feelings, motivations, and cognition and perceptual experience of like or dislike. To mensurate the interior feelings towards just trade merchandises the influential factors of attitude would be examined

3.2 Attitudinal theory

Again, there are many theories and theoretical account about attitudes, but some normally used theories are observed to accommodate a concluding theory to transport out the research.

3.2.1 The tri-component attitude theoretical account

The tri-component attitude theoretical account or ABC theoretical account explain the three constituents of attitude where affect, conation and knowledge refers as an of import parts of attitude. Cognitive portion explain the beliefs of individuals towards object.Affect refers to the manner a consumers feels about an object ( Solomon 2006, p-140 ) . Harmonizing to Schiffman ( 1997 ) these emotions and feelings are often treated by consumer research workers to measure the nature and to happen out the favorable or unfavorable judgement of individual towards any object. Whereas in conative portion refers to the inclination or likeliness that an person will set about a specific action or behave in a peculiar manner towards the object.

Though the three constituent theoretical account is of import, their comparative importance will really depending upon a consumer ‘s degree of motive with the respect to the attitude object. So, this theoretical account was non adapted to transport our research as motive was non the issue for this research.

3.2.2 Cognitive disagreement theory

A contrary theory is found called cognitive disagreement by Leon Festinger cited in Loudon ( 1999, p-431 ) where people adapt one construct from two ideas and given up another as a inconsistent.In this cognitive theory, the place of individual disagreement, disagreement and incompatibility towards their beliefs, are discuss where three major ways how persons reduces the disagreement to avoid disagreement or inconsistent are explained.

The major ways are rationalisation, supportive consistence seeking, extinguishing or changing some of the unresolved elements ( Loudon 1993 ) .This theoretical account is more of import to take some peculiar trade name instead than understanding consumer ‘s attitude towards the peculiar merchandise. So, it is considered non to accommodate the theory for this research.

3.2.3 Fishbein ‘s attitude towards object theory

Apart from these attitude theories the multi attribute attitude theoretical accounts are of import to understand the attitude in footings of altering or tautening attitude. This multi attribute attitude theoretical account assumes that a individual attitude towards object ( Ao ) will depend on the beliefs he/she has about several or many properties of the object ( Solomon 2006, p-153 ) once more, consumers manner of changing attitude is to alter the importance consumers attach to assorted properties ( Engel 2001 ) so, the individual justice the merchandise or things or object based on several characteristics and they become calculating to take any peculiar one.

This behavior theoretical account is focus on persons attitude towards behaviour or moving with regard to an object, instead than the attitude toward the object itself. ( Schiffman 1997, p-239 ) .According to Solomon 2006, salient beliefs, object -attribute linkages and rating is chief three constituents of attitude.This theoretical account assumes that to take some object single evaluate all relevant attributes it could be formal or informal manner and rising them and summing them in high engagement state of affairs.After that he/she unite these three elements and shows the exact attitude towards the object. So, the premise is whatever the merchandise he/she thinks to purchase, they do computation and ranking to acquire best one from different offer.

3.2.4 Criticism of multiattribute /attitude towards object theoretical account

Although this multiattribute or attitude towards object theory is of import for current selling applications there are restrictions besides. The theory ignore the different ingestion state of affairs when consumer favorable characteristics varied by clip and there is a spread between existent clip of given attitude and existent act. Critics argue that in this clip many unexpected can step in to besides act upon behavior. Again, this attitude towards object theory did non state when single change their positive state of affairs because of merchandise high cost or inaccessibility.Critics besides claims that these theory avoid the perceptual experience of others and disregard the persons societal demand ( Loudon,1993 ) .

So, it was considered non to taken Fishbein attitude to object theory to transport out the research as it was non to the full suit for our research aims.

3.3 Rationalization to accommodate the theory for the research

The revised theory of Fishbein attitude towards object theoretical account, the theory of reasoned action by Fishbein / Ajzen, 1980 was reviewed. As the theoretical account is still non perfect ( Solomon 2006, p-155 ) and the intent of research is to happen out the influential factors towards just trade merchandises the revised theory of Fishbein attitude towards object theoretical account was non considered to transport out the research, but the theory of planned behavior ( Ajzen 1999 ) in short TpB is considered to accommodate to for the current research.The theory of planned behavior is the altered version of theory of reasoned action ( Fishbein, Ajzen,1980 ) .

Aizen added perceived control constituent in the theory of planed behavior ( TpB ) and argues that sensed behavioral control is existent behavioral control to do purpose which was ignored in Fishbein early theoretical account ( Reasoned action 1980 ) .

3.4Analysis of the altered theoretical account

In the theory of planned behavior three intervening factors are draws and people ‘s purpose and existent behavior are besides discussed. This theory of planed behavior TpB explains three beliefs and three influential factors which make purpose to reflect on existent behavior.







Attitude towards the behavior



Perceived behavioral control


Actual behavior

Actual Behavioural control

Beginning: Icek Aizen ( Ajzen ) Homepage (,31 August 2007:09.00 )

( See appendix 1-page 1 )

From the above diagram of the theory of planned behavior ( TpB ) model the three types of beliefs can be categorized in three different intercessions which make purpose to move harmonizing to different beliefs. The Theory of planned behavior ( TpB ) theoretical account constituents are briefly described to understand the relationship of each constituent and to understand the importance of the theoretical account.

3.4.1 Behavioral belief

A behavioral belief is a first constituent of this theoretical account where behavioral beliefs link the behavior of involvement to anticipate results ( Aizen 1999 ) .According to Engel 2001 Beliefs can be defined as subjective judgement about the relationship between two or more things.

3.4.2Normative belief

Normative beliefs is 2nd constituent of the theory of planned behavior ( TpB ) where normative beliefs refer to the sensed behavioral outlooks from some of import referent such as persons or groups as the individual ‘s partner, household, friends, co-workers are influential to do a determination. ( Aizen 2006 )

3.4.3 Control belief

Control belief is a 3rd constituent describes with the sensed presence of factors that could help or blockade public presentation of behavior ( Aizen 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Ajzen control belief is an existent behavioural control.

2.4.4 Purpose

After three different beliefs the forth constituent of theory of planned behavior is purpose. “ Intention is an indicant of a individual ‘s preparedness to execute a given behavior, and it is considered to be the immediate ancestor of behavior ” . ( Aizen 2006 ) Purpose could be different such as purchase purpose, repurchase purpose, shopping purpose, passing purpose and so on ( Engel 2001 ) but in theory of planned behavior ( TpB ) described general purpose of people.

3.4.5 Behaviors

The last and concluding constituent of this theory is behaviour.The discernible response in a given state of affairs with regard to a given mark is described as behavior. “ Single behavioral observations can be aggregated across contexts and times to bring forth a more loosely representative step of behavior ” . ( Aizen 2006 ) In the behavior components what people already have done is described to acquire their concluding attitude towards object.

3.5 An scrutiny of theory of planned behavior /TpB theoretical account

Though antecedently many researches was done based on TPB theoretical account but utilizing three factors in straight just trade merchandises are limited. Although the theoretical account is really utile for many researches.Surprisingly, the different portion of theoretical account have been emphasized in different research surveies.For illustration Summers, ( 2006 ) revealed that attitude toward executing the behavior, subjective norm, contention perceptual experience ( societal credence ) , were important forecasters of purchase purpose.

Harmonizing to summers, ( 2006 ) people ‘s behavioral purpose is determined by three factors. First is the person ‘s belief towards the merchandise, Second is the of the societal force per unit areas placed on them to execute or non execute the behavior referred to as the subjective norm.The tierce is perceptual experience of ego control and histrion control referred as perceived control. “ The comparative importance of these three factors in behavior is likely to change from one to another and from one population to another ” . ( Aizen 1999 ) So, the researches about comparative importance of these three factors are reviewed.

3.5.1 Personal belief

Carolyn ( 1996 ) reported that the environmentally -aware consumer has become ethically cognizant to believe in just -trade merchandise. Shaw et Al ( 1999 ) studied about beliefs and complete belief is of import to go an ethical. Shaw et Al ( 1999 ) shared that belief is the most of import portion in Theory of planned behavior ( TpB ) .PB as they think belief portion was neglected in old researches.They carried the research presuming belief is a cardinal function to an attitude and they have focused on personal feelings to turn out their premise. Harmonizing to Shaw ( 1999 ) from all the influencing factors environing beliefs play a important function in existent behavior as he argued this consequence occurs straight through buying schemes, which stem from influences on ethical beliefs, and a desire to move on those formed beliefs.

The same sentiment was found by Magnusson et Al ( 2001 ) , they have found that the bulk demonstrated positive attitudes towards purchasing the four organic mark nutrients where personal beliefs work as an of import factor to do positive attitudes and they even did non utilize the other constituents of the theory of planed behavior theoretical account in their research.

Personal beliefs aid consumers to compare the merchandises available in market and in consumers purchase determination beliefs buttocks to acquire positive or negative attitude towards merchandises. Consumers frequently express a positive attitude and willingness to purchase just trade merchandises, but these merchandises have low market portions because most consumers consider several merchandise properties jointly when doing a purchase determination, such as monetary value, quality, handiness, trade name cognition and perchance ethical quality attributes Carrigan and Attalla ( 2001 ) . Sometimes consumer do non truly care about the ethical shopping or purchasing just trade merchandises because they do non strongly believe that purchasing just trade could do the betterment of the populating criterion of other states people.

3.5.2 Normative belief

However, in another past surveies harmonizing to Tarkiainen et Al ( 2005 ) the normative beliefs are chief influential or of import factor in the theory of planned behavior ( TPB ) . They have concluded that the subjective norms affected the behavioral purposes indirectly via attitude formation. ( Kalafatis, et al. , 1999 ) in their green selling research besides included subjective norms are of import factors than others portion of the theory of planned behavior ( TPB ) in where the interesting point is found as they argue that in the UK, social influences play a deciding portion in organizing purpose to buy environment friendly merchandises.

So, the importance of subjective norms became comparatively stronger than personal beliefs to do ethical consumers concern about ethical shopping. The subjective norms are found of import in research on altering imbibing behavior besides ( Jargon, et al. , 2005 ) .

So, it could be argued in the current research that subjective norms could play an of import function to alter client ‘s attitudes towards just trade merchandises and to purchase specifically just trade merchandises. Again, harmonizing to Bonne et Al ( 1999 ) the influence of the subjective or normative beliefs is important portion of their research where they disputed devouring halal meat contribute to foretelling the intended ingestion of halal meat among Muslims and normative beliefs spread the information about the halal meat and group belief of devouring halal meat.

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