International Business Development Of Chinese Footwear Industry Marketing Essay


This Chapter will show literature reappraisals related to my research aims. This paper has reviewed appropriate academic books and articles, and concluded approximately five chief research Fieldss of China footwear industry through a scope of appropriate, relevant secondary research: cultural selling, trade name selling.

China is the universe ‘s most thickly populated state, which is one of the most abundant labour resources states around the universe ; its labour-intensive industries have an absolute advantage over the international community with the rapid economic development tendency. China has become the universe ‘s fabrication works ( Guoshan W. 2009 ) . Those merchandises manufactured in China have reasonably big market portion in the international market, which are demoing more and more fight. Nowadays, the footwear industry has become the cardinal filed of China exports with its alone advantages, doing China go the universe ‘s largest manufacturer of footwear and large export state. “ Over the old ages, footwear has played an of import supporting function in run intoing the domestic vesture ingestion demand, increasing exports and roll uping financess ” ( Jie, L, 2007 ) .

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1. Cultural selling ?-‡a?-a??a?‘cs„a?‚a??e??e”ˆ???c•?

Joan G. Miller ( 2000 ) pointed out that marketing scheme is a procedure that can let an organisation to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest chances to increase gross revenues and accomplish a sustainable competitory advantage. Miehael A ( 2006 ) argued that a selling scheme should be centered on the cardinal construct that client satisfaction is the chief end. The overall scheme of selling: merchandise scheme, pricing scheme, selling channel scheme, publicity scheme. Selling, strategic planning is a procedure of interaction, is a originative and iterative procedure. As an of import scheme, selling scheme aims to heighten the utilization efficiency of endeavor selling resources to enable endeavors to maximise the efficiency of resource usage. c¬¬a?ˆ?®µ???c¤?a?†a?ˆa?›CUSTOMER SATISFACTION ???a»ˆa??i??a?‚a??e??e”ˆ???c•?eˆsa??a?…a?«a“?a?›c­-c•?aˆ‚??”a¦‚a?§a“????c•?i??a»·? ????c•?i??e??e”ˆ?? e?“???c•?i??a??e”ˆ???c•?c­‰aˆ‚

Kotler Philip ( 1997 ) indicated that in the different historical phases and different geographical and cultural of the development of human society, there are matching civilizations, and which ever influence and make up one’s mind people ‘s pattern, in other words, all Acts of the Apostless and activities of homo are profoundly marked by cultural stigma, are cultural behaviour. Lucio Lambert ( 2010 ) argued that under different cultural environment, people would denote different behaviours and wonts ; hence corporate selling activities must besides accommodate to these differences and demo different selling personality originating from the cultural differences. ?­¤?®µa?ˆa§‹??‡a‡?a??a??a?°aYYcs„?-‡a?-a‰????a?‹i???¶?e??eˆ…a?ˆa?ˆa?se??cZ°a‡?a?ˆa?›a??a??cs„?¶?e??a? ???aˆ‚a? a??a»?a??a??a?‹a­?a??e?™e‡?aˆ‚??”a¦‚a?­a›?c”±a?Z?¶?e??e??aS›??‰e™?i??a› ?­¤a?ˆa?›a»‰a»·cs„a•†a“?a??a?­a›?a???-§a­?a??a??e?”a?‚a??i??eˆ?a??a?ˆa?›a?‘e??cs„a›?a®¶e‡?i??a???°‘a?™?›?c?­e?·a?Za??a?Za?„c§?a“?c‰?cs„e???±‚aˆ‚a?¦a¤-i??a?s???a??a??a?Ze??c?ˆcs„a®?c?Zi??a’??¬§c?Za??a??a?Ze??c?ˆcs„a®?c?Za?????a?¤a???¦‚a?µaˆ‚a› ?­¤corporate selling activities must besides accommodate to these differences and demo different selling personality originating from the cultural differences.

Some bookmans have pointed out that civilization will make up one’s mind human ingestion in twenty-first century, and the twenty-first century will be the ear of cultural selling. Therefore, the execution of cultural selling would be the chief point of view of corporate selling staff in the hereafter. Cultural selling refers to take the merchandise as the bearer of civilization, through the market exchange into consumer consciousness ; to some extent it reflects the consumer ‘s several of cultural elements to chase of stuff and religious necessity. Miehael A ( 2006 ) said in modern society, the ends for consumers ‘ purchasing behaviours are non merely in order to get the value in usage of merchandise but besides to derive a religious and cultural enjoyment to some extent.i??e?™a??a?°e??a?†a?Se??e??cs„e??-MODERN SOCIETY e‡?cs„?¶?e??eˆ…cs„e?­a?°c›®cs„e«?a?Za?§a“?a±‚e??eˆ?e??a?°a?†c??c?za±‚e??i??e?™a°†a??a»?a??a??a?ˆa??a“?c‰??Z?a??cs„a?‡a…?a??i?‰ The procedure of corporate selling for the merchandises is reflected as the procedure of merchandise bringing to run into the human demands, while in the deep side it is a cultural value bringing and satisfactory procedure. As a new selling tool, cultural selling plays a more of import function and counsel in the development of concern operations, it is already of import agencies for endeavors to seek personality, get differential competitory advantage, it can accomplish the orientation, communicating, and coherence and feedback map by set uping the shared vision between the endeavors and mark consumers. Miehael A ( 2006 ) pointed that its of import constructs is corporate value morality system which is the true significance of corporate competitory advantage, it can back up motive, power, counsel to endeavors ‘ sustainable development in the day-to-day concern direction works in the hereafter.

As a specific construct, selling has been put frontward for about a century. Sternand ( 1992 ) argued that in 1920 ‘s and 1930 ‘s, Western economic crisis is characterized by extra supply, promote the publicity behaviour to some extent, and seldom people draws attending to the relationship between cultural environment and selling. Michael A argued that in the 1950s, it is the long geographic expedition period for such relationship, and the construct of merchandise publicity still occupy the dominant place, and pays more attending on the merchandise quality, functionality and visual aspect from the civilization point of position, and besides reflects the impact on selling caused by societal civilization and political orientation. Smith in 1956 acclamations two constructs of cultural significance, which is a market cleavage theory and consumer group.

Sternand ( 1992 ) argued that in the 1960s, the formation period of marketing theory, there are several typical and outstanding theories on cultural issues, one is Lacer ‘s lifestyle theory, he points out that marketing practicians should pay attending to the impact of life style on the purchaser ; the other is consumer behaviour theory argued by Howard & A ; Shoth, they surveies all factors, including cultural factors, impact on motive, perceptual experience, larning, decision-making behaviour of the purchasing procedure from a psychological point of position, and besides introduces many cultural factors and constructs into the selling theory and pattern.

Sternand argued that in the 1970s, societal selling theory represented by Kotler pays more attending to the combination between the civilization and selling, and argues that selling is a societal and cultural phenomenon, and so marketing enters into societal epoch.

In the 1980s, it is the epoch of marketing globalisation, it can be said that globalisation cause the importance and accent on the cultural selling and cross-cultural selling scheme, its of import theoretical mark is the theoretical committedness of planetary selling standardisation made by Levitt ( 1983 ) . Levitt believes that a figure of well-managed companies switch its concern aims from the customized to clients regulations to the standardised merchandise to the universe, and these merchandises are of advanced, practical, dependable and low cost features.

Saunders, M. , Lewis, P. & A ; Thornhill ( c”???•a??e§„e?? ) , argued that since 1990s, scientific discipline and engineering development have a important impact on corporate selling scheme, different rivals tends to pursuit of homogenous merchandises, and the difference between rivals will be more reflected in the non-products, services and image these facets. Cultural jobs are reflected in all Fieldss of corporate selling scheme.


2. China Footwear Industry Development

Since 1980, with one decennary ‘s development, China became the largest shoe bring forthing county in 1996. Footwear production has remained at over 60 % of universe ‘s one-year sum end product ( Hong L, 2008 ) . In add-on, China besides has abundant labour force, supplying sufficient human resources for footwear industry.

At present, China ‘s footwear makers are up to 3 million, straight using more than 400 million people, and one-year shoe production reached 100 million braces ( Hong L, 2008 ) . In general, China footwear merchandises are of low class and chiefly are Original Equipment Manufacturer theoretical account. Low-end merchandises are the chief export merchandises, so monetary value advantage has become the chief competition agencies. In recent old ages, impacted by a combination of factors from the international petroleum oil monetary values, RMB grasp, lifting labour costs, China ‘s domestic footwear endeavors face greater force per unit area with the industry cost rise, net incomes diminishing, and due to the international fiscal crisis in 2008, the wellness of China footwear industry is dismaying, exceptional those export-oriented footwear endeavors which are traveling through heavier blow than of all time.

Harmonizing to imposts ‘ statistics, in 2004, China exported 5.88 billion braces of places deserving 14.6 billion U.S. dollars. In 2005, footwear export was 6.9 billion braces deserving 18.4 billion. In 2006, China footwear export was 7.6 billion, and the value of those was 21 billion dollars. In 2007, 8.17 billion braces with value of 24.14 billion dollars. The following table 2-1 lists the one-year export value and sum of the Chinese footwear industry in 2004-2008.

Table 2-1 2004-2008Chinese footwear industry exports sum and value statistical situationi??a›???????i?‰



a­-a…? – ?Y?c?‹a­-a…?e?¦c»†a†…a®?


Export volume

( Billion braces )

On year-on-year footing

Export value

( Billion

dollars )

on year-on-year footing

Average monetary value of export ( Dollars/Pair )

on year-on-year footing



17.7 %


12.9 %


-4.1 %



17.5 %


26.0 %


7.3 %



10.7 %


14.0 %


3.0 %



6.8 %


14.9 %


7.6 %



0.51 %


17.19 %


16.6 %

Datas beginnings: Li Jianxun, 2009, Study on the international fight of China ‘s footwear merchandises.

China ‘s footwear export construction is optimising with the general trade export turning steadily. In 2008, the export of general trade was 6.1 billion braces, which decreased by 0.74 % on year-on-year footing. Annual export value was 14.4 billion dollars, an addition of 17.45 % . The following table 2-2 lists the statistical state of affairs of Chinese footwear export method in 2004-2008.

Table 2-2 2004-2008 China footwear export method statistical situation??-e?»



a­-a…? – ?Y?c?‹a­-a…?e?¦c»†a†…a®?


General class

Improvement trade

Amount ( Billion Parisi?‰


( Billion dollars )

Amount ( Billion Parisi?‰


( Billion dollars )


























Datas beginnings: Li Jianxun, 2009, Study on the international fight of China ‘s footwear merchandises )

United States, European Union, Japan, Russia and Hong Kong are China ‘s chief export states and parts of footwear. In 2008, the figure of China ‘s footwear exports to the U.S. was 1.95 billion braces ; the export value was of 9.32 billion dollars with 4.78 dollars per brace. Export to EU, 1.44 billion Pariss, 5.37 billion dollars, the mean monetary value was 3.72 $ . Export to Japan, 0.54 billion braces, 2.03 billion dollars, the mean monetary value was 3.73 dollars. Export HongKong, 0.33 billion braces, 1.14 billion dollars, the mean monetary value was 3.46 dollars. The following table 2-3 lists the footwear trade statistics of China ‘s chief export states and parts.

Table 2-3 Footwear trade statistics of China ‘s chief export states and parts

( Unit of measurement: Billion U.S. dollars )


United StateS

European Union


Soviet union

Hong Kong





























— —


Datas beginnings: Li Jianxun, 2009, Study on the international fight of China ‘s footwear merchandises )

3. China footwear export fight analysis

Footwear is one of the of import traditional merchandises of international fight ( Gereffi G. 1999 ) . Since 1980s, the bulk of Footwear makers in developed states are difficult to last because of the increasing labour cost, diminishing net incomes, so China becomes the universe ‘s footwear industry production base. With the acceleration of planetary economic integrating, after China ‘s accession to WTO, planetary footwear environment is contributing for China footwear export with the unfastened export volume and assorted foreign import quotas ( Qunying M. 2007 ) . China footwear endeavors non merely face more chances than of all time, but besides face more powerful opposition and rough competition from Asian and other states, such as Brazil, Mexico, India, Indonesia, and Thailand. These states are the chief rivals of China in the field of in-between and low places. And Italy, Spain and Portugal and other states occupy a dominant place in the high-end places field.

There are different definitions of international fight by different bureaus around the universe, which are by and large listed as follows:

President economic reporti??1985i?‰ , United States President Industrial Competitiveness Commission one time defined international fight as the ability to supply good merchandise, good service which improve life criterions of local people in the planetary market under the status of free and good market environment ( Global competition: the New world, study of the president ‘s committee on industrial fight, 1985 ) .e?™?®µ???a…?a?Za›?e™…c«za?‰aS›cs„e??a??aˆ‚a›?e™…c«za?‰aS›a??cs„a??a?sa?”e?????a?›a??cs„a?§a“?i??a??cs„???aS?aˆ‚e?™a?›a?§a“?a’????aS?e??c¬¦a??a?“a?°a??cs„a“?c‰?i?????e«?a??a»¬a??a›?e™…a?‚a??a?Scs„? ‡a‡†aˆ‚

Markuseni??1985i?‰ defined the international fight as that, a state which can do its existent income higher than merchandising spouses by trade is of high fight ( Markusen, J. , 1992 ) .

Cohen and Zymani??1989i?‰ argued that the kernel of the international economic competition is the competition among endeavors in existent footings, the nucleus of the international fight is enterprise international fight, which means the endeavor is able to construct and keep market place while can do net income ( Cohen, Z, 1989 ) .

There are several varied rating methods towards international fight Schmitz ( H, Knorringa P. 2000 ) . Due to the consequences of competition, the international fight rating method can be divided into GDP rating method, Industrial end product buying power para informations rating method, trade competition index method and comparative international fight index rating method. From the determiners of competitiveness point of position, it can be divided into single-factor rating method and comprehensive rating method ( Haisheng L, 2006 ) .

There are besides some bookmans, doing recommendations to better the international fight of China ‘s footwear industry, and these recommendations can be concluded as follows: Lingyi W ( 2006 ) put frontward that it is necessary to set the layout of footwear merchandises, promote the co-ordinated development of all parts ( Lingyi W 2006 ) ; Shanhong W ( 2005 ) argued that to implement trade name scheme, promote industrial upgrading ; strengthen the independent invention and research and development attempts, concentrate on technological advancement and technological invention can better international fight ( Shanhong W 2005 ) ; Qin Z, ( 2008 ) claimed that to beef up forces developing ; better the selling web, to open up a broad scope of international market is contributing to advance international fight ( Qin Z, 2008 ) ; Jianxun L, ( 2009 ) argued that authorities and association should supply policy support, extend the industrial concatenation, bit by bit increase the value-added merchandises and speed up the reform and development of related back uping industry to supply a solid footing for China footwear industry ( Jianxun L, 2009, Dong-sung C. 2000 ) .

4. Analysis on Development Trend and Challenge of China Footwear Industry

4.1 Development Trend

With engineering invention, web development, and globalisation, the formation of globalisation, the public economic system is shortly replaced by the client economic system. Therefore, endeavors must confront the world to go on to run into the possible demand of consumers, including the client ‘s trade name experience, trade velocity, convenience demand, specialisation, customization capablenesss and so on ( Taisheng G, 2005 ) . All alterations in consumer demand will necessarily alter the consumer terminal, which will ensue the alterations in trade name selling channels, so thereby change the company ‘s overall concern theoretical account. In the hereafter, there are five major development tendencies of China footwear industry, that is, graduated table, concatenation development, specialisation, integrating and virtualization ( Gereffi G, Humphrey J. Sturgeon T. 2005 ) .

Since 2005, China ‘s footwear industry faces fast development of graduated table. The country of individual store has been enlarged from 200 square metres to 500 square metres so to 1,000 square metres, its organisation graduated table additions ( Taisheng G, 2005 ) . There are three major grounds: foremost the sustained economic growing, secondly China ‘s accommodation of the domestic industrial construction after come ining the World Trade Organization, alterations in industrial construction and resource allotment tendency which bring economic growing, which is contributing to pull big capital investing. Third, the alterations in economic ingestion degree, ingestion wonts and value constructs. Harmonizing to the China Chain Store & A ; Franchise Association statistics, since the twenty-first century, the ironss one-year growing rate is more than 50 % ( Taisheng G, 2005 ) . Footwear concatenation development is chiefly showed in the undermentioned three facets, trade name monopoly ironss, corporation with world-wide international trade names, and incursion of commercial capital which will advance efficient usage of concatenation resources. Because of the uneven economic development, market demand uncertainness and complexness of concern signifiers and other features, Chinese market is demoing diversified characteristics ( David. 2004 ) . Then China footwear industry will ship on the route of integrating.

4.2 Challengesi??a??a±za?ZLRaˆ‚a±za?Za?­a›?ez‹a?scZ°cS¶???e?°i?‰

In recent old ages, China footwear industry faces rapid development, more and more planetary footwear production bases are located in Asia, while it is bit by bit located in China. Therefore, China footwear enters into a new period of development, which is no uncertainty an first-class chance ( Lingling J, 2008 ) . However, there are besides several chief challenges behind this good intelligence. First, the rapid development of the universe ‘s footwear industry impact on China ‘s footwear industry ; Secondly, internationalisation of China footwear domestic market competition. Third, alterations on China footwear domestic retail modeli??Alessia A, Roberta R. 2006i?‰ . Fourthly, purchaser ‘s market epoch is coming. In add-on, the variegation of consumer demand is besides an obvious challenge.

5. Brand Marketing e??c›®?”????BRANDING

e?™e??a?†cs„a??c”????i?s ” a??a?· ” a??a??a?ˆa??INTERNATIONAL BRAND, e‡‡c”?BRANDING ???c•?a°†???a?…a??a??a°‘cs„???c•?aˆ‚a› a??a“?c‰?????- a›?c•?cs„i??a“?c‰??‰ˆa?§c”Ycs„eµ„a?§a°†????- ??•a?°e®?cs„aˆ‚

As a transnational trade name, it is necessary for AOKANG to put up trade name schemes. The trade name value is unbelievable every bit good.

American Marketing Association defines the trade name that it is a name, operation linguistic communication, grade, symbol or design, or a combined usage, which aims to place the merchandises or services of Sellerss to divide from the rival ‘s merchandises and services. Farquhar argued that trade name can better merchandise value beyond its map ( Xiaoming J, 2008 ) .

Brand Marketing is such a Cognitive procedures to do client understand trade name and merchandise through selling schemes, and it aims to construct high-quality selling construct of endeavor in order to keep and hold on competitory advantage. Brand is non merely the designation of corporate, merchandise, service, but besides is an intangible plus to reflect corporate overall strength and operational degrees, which plays an of import function in the market. By and large talking, trade name selling can be divided into two types: traditional selling and web selling ( Xiaoming J, 2008 ) . Brand personalityi??a“?c‰?a??a?????c”????e?†a?«a“?c‰?cs„i??eˆsa?????e??a?ˆa??a“?c‰?a…·??‰c‰©c?†a±‚e??a’?c??c?za±‚e??i??c‰©c?†a±‚e??a°±???functional kingdom ; c??c?za±‚e???¶‰a?Sa?°a?†symbolic meaning/ a¦‚?z????e®©?¶?e??eˆ…a?§c”Ya“?c‰??¦‚a?µa?¶a?”a?©c”?a“?c‰?aZ»a?±a“??¶?e??eˆ…cs„e?­a?°a??a?”i??a?…e?»a?›eˆ ?›?a¤s ” SYMBOLIC ” a±‚e??cs„a??e??a»Zeˆ?a??a???¶?e??eˆ…a?§c”Ya“?c‰?e?”???aˆ‚if utilizing trade name to impact consumer merchandise response so the functional kingdom is non plenty, it has to make more emotional significance, symbolic significance, to better consumer trade name association i?‰ , trade name communicating, trade name gross revenues, trade name direction consist of trade name selling scheme. There are several methods to analyse trade name value in the academic research and selling industry is fundamentally divided into three types: fiscal method, method based on the client, synthesis of the fiscal method and customer-based method.

Multi-brand scheme refers to the selling scheme which adopts two or more different trade names harmonizing to market positioning in the similar merchandises. Presents, Aokang besides adopts such multi-brand scheme and has already developed its several celebrated footwear trade names. In 1960s, market cleavage theory provides a theoretical footing for the multi-brand scheme. Multi-brand scheme is consistent with the jurisprudence of industrial development.

6. Gross saless Strategy

Chunqin G ( 2005 ) pointed out that immense market potency is pulling more and more makers to come in the field of leather, which intensifies leather market competition ( Chunqin G 2005 ) . Xiaoming J ( 2008 ) besides argued that the leather production engineering is going more advanced, so a figure of footwear endeavors pay more attending to trade name scheme in order to achieve higher market portions and place ( Xiaoming J, 2008 ) . At the same clip, an endeavor besides realizes that it is difficult to last without the trade name support under the current fierce market competition environment. Therefore, an endeavor should follow the gross revenues scheme of “ Higher monetary values for better quality ” to better the visibleness of the company and return its ain trade name repute. ( a??a? e™¤ )



a­-a…? – ?Y?c?‹a­-a…?e?¦c»†a†…a®?

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