Job Related Factors Employee Turnover Management Essay

The definition of term “ turnover ” is being defined by Price is the ratio of the figure of workers that quit and had to be replaced within a clip period to the mean figure of workers. In simple footings, employee turnover is an action that an hapless performing artist employee leaves the organisations and he or she will be replaced with another more skilled employee or when retired employee will be replaced by a younger one ( Shamsuzzoha & A ; Shumon, 2007 ) . Frequently, directors use to mention turnover as the full procedure that associated with the filling on a vacancy. When peculiar place was vacated, no affair it is voluntary or involuntarily, the new employee is needed to be hired and be trained. This replacing rhythm is known as turnover ( Hom & A ; Griffeth, 1995 ) . Voluntary and nonvoluntary turnover of employees are affecting cost of administrative on advertizement on vacancy, enlisting and choice, preparation and occupation hunt for the both house and the employee ( Cascio, 1991 ) . Employee turnover is really dearly-won as it requires different cost to take in history such as Other than that, cost on orientation and preparation after the procedure of choice for the new employees every bit good. There is no standard ground for why people leave the organisation ( Ongori, 2007 ) . Employee turnover is the rotary motion of workers around the labour market, in between houses, occupations and businesss and besides between the provinces of the employment and unemployment ( Abassi & A ; Hollman, 2000 ) . There are few factors that caused employee turnover. There are, foremost, occupation related factors, 2nd, voluntarily and nonvoluntary turnover, and 3rd, organisational factors. Job related factors

From the past research workers ( Peters, Bhagat, O’Connor, 1981 ; Bluedorn, 1982 ; Kramer, Callister & A ; Turban, 1995 ; Saks, 1996 ; Kalliath & A ; Beck, 2001 ) had researched on what determines people ‘s purpose to discontinue by look intoing the most possible derivation of employees ‘ purpose to discontinue. However, there had been a small consistence in findings due to the diverseness of employed ( Ongori, 2007 ) . There is few ground why people quit from one organisation to another organisation it is because of the sing occupation related emphasis ( occupation emphasis ) , factors that lead to occupation related emphasis ( stressors ) , deficiency of committedness inside the organisation, and besides occupation dissatisfaction that make employees to discontinue from the organisation ( Firth, David, Kathleen, & A ; Claude, 2007 ) . This showed that these are single determination to go forth the organisations. Furthermore, due to personal ground which makes single to discontinue. Whereby, an single sense of powerless in an organisation. Harmonizing to Mano and Shay ( 2004 ) , argue that employee quit from the organisation is due to economic ground. Economic ground is usage to foretell employee turnover in labour market. If an organisations which is big and able to supply employees higher rewards and better benefits, it will able to guarantee the employee is attach with the organisations ( Idson & A ; Feaster, 1990 ) . Role stressor will besides take to employee ‘s turnover. Role ambiguity refers to what others expect employees to execute on the occupation and what employees felt they should make on the occupation. This will do uncertainness on what an person ‘s function in the organisations. The consequence on uncertainness on occupation will be misconstruing what was being expected, with the outlooks or the perceptual experience of an employee towards the occupation will be different ( Ongori, 2007 ) . Due to the ill-defined outlook, deficiency of consensus, with the extensive of occupation force per unit area may do an employee felt that the ignorance from the occupation and less satisfied with the occupation and callings. It will take to less committed to their organisations and finally the purpose of go forthing the organisation is higher ( Tor, Guinmaraes, & A ; Owen, 1997 ) . If functions of employees are non clearly stated by the direction, it would speed up the grade of employee discontinuing from their occupation ( Ongori, 2007 ) .

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Employee turnover in organisation can be divided in to two, voluntary and nonvoluntary turnover. Voluntary turnover is an employee ‘s ain purpose to go forth the organisations, whereby nonvoluntary turnover were the employees had no pick in their expiration ( Mbah & A ; Ikemefuna, 2012 ) . Voluntary turnover may affect with the person ‘s work choice chance and with the occupation runing behaviours. It was use as the most direct independent variable to employee behaviour, and besides dependant variable which a legion preset variables which affect employee voluntary turnover factors ( Allen & A ; Griffeth, 1999 ; Price, 1977 ) . However, nonvoluntary turnover where the employee had to coerce to halt their work in organisations, the ground possibly with the long term illness, decease, traveling overseas, or employer-initiated expiration ( Ongori, 2007 ) . There are some employees who needed to give excess attention on their kids or aged relations and caused nonvoluntary turnover. Nowadays, the ground is no longer see as nonvoluntary turnover as because of authorities ordinances and company policies had created opportunity for the employees to return back to work or with more flexible on the job period ( Simon & A ; Kristian, 2007 ) . Organization ‘s factors

Organizational instability had been shown that will hold high grade of high turnover. Employees are more likely to remain when there is predictable work environment and frailty versa ( Zuber, 2001 ) . An organisation where had high degree of inefficiency there will besides hold high degree of employee turnover ( Alexander, Boom, Nuchols, 1994 ) . Therefore, employees will be given to look after which organisations is more stable comparison with the organisations which are non. It is because in a stable organisation, they would able to foretell their calling promotion ( Ongori, 2007 ) . By utilizing quantitative attack to pull off the employees will take to labour turnover. Due to following cost oriented attack to employment cost will increase the labour turnover ( Simon & A ; Kristian, 2007 ) . With the minimising the cost, it will merely take to high turnover rate in organisations ( Ongori, 2007 ) . Therefore, direction should non utilize quantitative attack in pull offing its staff. Furthermore, harmonizing to Labov ( 1997 ) said that organisation with strong communicating system will hold lower turnover rate. It is because employees have a strong demand to be informed in their occupation. If an employee ‘s place is affecting in doing determination, they are less likely to go forth the organisations. Employees which are non openness in sharing information, employee empowerment the opportunities of continuity of employees will be minimum ( Magner, Welker, & A ; Johnson, 1996 ) . Besides that, organisation with hapless forces policies, enlisting policies, supervisory patterns, or grudge processs will do employees decides to discontinue ( Ongori, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Griffeth, Hom, Gaertner ( 2000 ) , said that wage and pay-related variable had the modest consequence on turnover. Their analysis included examine of relationship between wage, individual ‘s public presentation and turnover. It was being concluded that when high performing artists are non rewarded reasonably, there will be high turnover rate.

2.1.3 Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction is regard to one ‘s feeling towards their occupation and different facets on their occupation in the organisations. Job satisfaction can be influenced by assortment of factors, such as wage pattern, relationships between their supervisors, quality of the physical environment in their work ( Hamdia & A ; Tooksoon, 2011 ) . In add-on, occupation satisfaction is by and large believed that, higher occupation satisfaction is associated with the additions of productiveness, lower absenteeism, and with the lower rate of employee turnover ( Hackman & A ; Oldham, 1975 ) . Some workers manifest the purpose to discontinue via lessening of public presentation or increased absenteeism ( Firth, Mellir, Moore & A ; Loquet, 2004 ) . Low absenteeism is linked with high occupation satisfaction ; meanwhile high turnover and absenteeism are associated to associate to occupation dissatisfaction ( Saifuddin, Hongkraclent & A ; Sermril, 2008 ) . The Mobley theoretical account ( Lee, 1988 ) had explain the procedure of how occupation dissatisfaction can take to employee turnover. The theoretical account explained how an employee usually experiences seven consecutive and intermediate phases in between occupation dissatisfaction and turnover. Mobley theorized that occupation dissatisfaction leads an employee ( 1 ) to believe about discontinuing the current occupation, which possibly helps the employee to take in. ( 2 ) To measure the expected utility on seeking for another occupation with the cost that associated with discontinuing the current occupation. From the rating, ( 3 ) purpose to look after alternate occupations may look, which leads the employees ( 4 ) to mean of seeking for alternate occupations and ( 5 ) to the rating of the consensus of any specific options. Base on the 2nd rating, employee would ( 6 ) compare the new options with the current occupation which it can take to ( 7 ) purpose to discontinue, and finally lead to existent employee turnover. Therefore, it is really of import that non merely to the single worker but besides with the endurance of the organisations. It is to forestall employees to felt to go from the organisation ( Zafir, Radzuan & A ; Fazilah, 2011 ) .

2.2 Related theory

Herzberg ‘s two-factor theory divides in to motive and occupation satisfaction into two groups which known as motive factors and hygiene factors ( Riley, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to Frederick Herzberg, “ the motivation factors are the six ‘job content ‘ factors that included accomplishment, acknowledgment, works itself, duty of growing. Whereby, hygiene factors are the ‘job context ‘ factors, which included company policy, supervising, relationship with ace vision, work conditions, relationship with equals, wage, personal life, relationship with subsidiaries, position, and occupation security ( Ruthankoon & A ; Ogunlana, 2003 ) . Below is a list of incentives and hygiene factors from Robbins and Coulter ( 2003 ) .


Hygiene Factors



Work Itself




Company Policy

Relationship with Supervisor



Relationship with Peers

Personal Life

Relationship with Subordinates



Harmonizing to Schermerhorn ( 2003 ) and Merge ( 2004 ) , stated that the theory differentiates the factors between intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors ( or incentives ) , is known as the occupation content factors which define things that people really does on their work, the duty and accomplishments. These factors will take to one ‘s addition degree of occupation satisfaction in the work. The occupation context factors are the extrinsic factors ( or de-motivators ) that employee does non hold much control over. They are more depends on the environment which people work than to the nature of the work itself. Herzberg identifies these factors is the beginnings of occupation dissatisfaction. He reasoned that because the factor doing satisfactions are different from others which caused dissatisfaction. Both of the feeling can non be treated as antonyms of one another. The antonym of occupation satisfaction is non occupation dissatisfaction, but instead, no occupation satisfaction ; in similarity, the antonym of occupation dissatisfaction is non occupation satisfaction, but is no occupation dissatisfaction. In others words it is the presence of demotivators ( occupation dissatisfaction ) and the absence of incentives ( no occupation satisfaction ) that cause employees job-hopping ( Merge, 2004 ) . The differentiation between the two antonym may sound like a drama words, but Herzberg argued that there are the two distinguishable human needs portrayed ( “ Herzberg ‘s Motivation-Hygiene Theory ” , 2002 ) .

Herzberg believed that director who tried to minimise the factors that lead to dissatisfaction ( hygiene factors ) could convey workplace harmoniousness, but non needfully on motive. It is because hygiene factors do non actuate the employees, director would hold to stress the intrinsic factors or incentives to increase occupation satisfaction ( Robbin & A ; Coulter, 2003 ) . Therefore, with the basic premiss of the two-factor theory is that an employer or director is seeking to increase occupation satisfaction and finally occupation public presentation for an employee, they need to turn to those factors that affect one ‘s occupation satisfaction ( Riley, 2005 ) . By utilizing the most direct attack is to work on the intrinsic, occupation content factors. It is to give encouragement and acknowledgment for the employee and allow them felt they are valued within the company, every bit good as the sense of duty and accomplishment. Herzbergs said that, “ the lone manner to actuate an employee is to give them disputing work in which they can felt the duty ” ( Leach & A ; Westbrook, 2000 ) . An employee who holds duty in the work will felt their work is worthwhile and occupation public presentation will be increase. “ Peoples must believe that they are capable of achieving a end before they put on full attempt ( motive ) in to their occupation ” ( Hunsaker, 2005 ) .

2.3 Previous Research

Job satisfaction is the satisfaction with the wage, with the nature of work and with the supervising and have positive pleased feelings on one and as a consequence value to it. The relationship between occupation satisfaction and employee turnover purpose is one of the most exhaustively investigated subjects in the turnover literature. In many past research survey reported that, there is consistent of negative relationship between occupation satisfaction and employee turnover purpose ( Mobbly, 1977 ; Price, 1977 ) . In other survey, Muhammad and his co-worker ( 2011 ) stated that employee turnover had important relationship with occupation satisfaction. As employees felt dissatisfied in their workplace, they will go forth for a better organisation which can fulfill them.

However, with the fact of relationship between occupation satisfaction and employee turnover purpose is non that strong, yet it does n’t propose that satisfaction need non to be measured ( Mobley, 1982 ) . Harmonizing to Mobley ( 1982 ) , said that step on satisfaction must be combined with other type of measuring in order to acquire efficaciously understand turnover. It had been found that occupation satisfaction demand to be history with a little per centum of others aspect such as wage, supervising and with the nature of work.

2.3.1 Related Literature on Employee turnover purpose factors ( Pay )

Porter and Steers ( 1973 ) and Price ( 1977 ) had said that, ‘pay ‘ is to be systematically and negatively related to turnover. However, harmonizing to Mobley, Griffeth, Hand and Meglino ( 1979 ) had concludes that the findings that refering in wage are non conclusive. Harmonizing to Price ( 1977 ) said that, pay, integrating, general preparation, formal communicating and centralisation form of occupation satisfaction which influence employee turnover. He farther adds on chance moderates the relationship between the occupation satisfaction and turnover. Price and Mueller ( 1981 ) , work together to use the theoretical account and able to develop a causal theoretical account of employee turnover base on their study on turnover among nurses. Employee ‘s engagement in job-related determination, handiness of work related information, gaining good and just compensation and basking chance and publicity are more likely to be satisfied. With high occupation satisfaction will hold the higher purpose to remain at the current employer. Harmonizing to Loquercio ( 2006 ) , had stated that an employee who work hard, and uphold company repute and trueness with the organisations will anticipate employers to hold given just return in the ways of wage or chances for publicity or others. Idson and Feaster ( 1990 ) said that occupations which provide equal inducement will more likely to retain the employees with the organisations. With the big organisations can supply employees with better and opportunities for promotion of higher rewards and it is able to guarantee the organisational fond regard. Harmonizing to Scott ( 1993 ) examine the relationship between wage and employee turnover purpose in Arizona, Federal Bureau of Prisons. The survey was employed quantitative study, with administering questionnaire to 3608 respondent. The determination shows that there is negative relationship between wage and employee turnover purpose in Federal Bureau of Prison. The higher and fair rewarded ( wage ) , the lesser the turnover rate among employees.

2.3.2 Related Literature on Employee turnover purpose factors ( nature of work )

Nature of work is based on the alterations of environment, as the challenges of higher educational degrees are act uponing employees who are those low instruction degrees ( Mbah & A ; Ikemefuna, 2012 ) . Past coevals of employees is those who do n’t hold much chance to hold higher instruction. They are fundamentally school departers and do n’t care about what sort of work they are making. Due to the low degree of instruction, employees will barely to go forth the organisation once they are being employed ( Mbah & A ; Ikemefuna, 2012 ) . Mbah and Ikemefuna ( 2012 ) had examined the relationship between the nature of work and employee turnover purpose. The study employed quantitative and qualitative survey by administering 300 questionnaires to the entire figure of 481 employees in Nigeria, and conducted interview with three Human Resources Executives in order to acquire more in-depth treatment around the inquiries that presented in the questionnaires. The research findings confirm that the higher the satisfaction with nature of work the lower the employee turnover purpose. This means that the satisfaction with the nature of work is negatively related to turnover purpose. This besides corroborates the findings by Ologunde ( 2005 ) ; Koh and God ( 1995 ) which reported that satisfaction with the nature of work is negatively related to turnover purpose with the sample of university instructor in south western Nigeria and employees in the banking industry in Singapore severally.

2.3.3 Related Literature on Employee turnover purpose factors ( supervising )

Supervision is an indispensable to an organisation, with the extended cognition of occupation demands and chance to detect their employee. Supervisors define as a director. In order to do certain employee can hold high public presentation in order to hold high productiveness ( Mudor & A ; Tooksoon, 2011 ) .

Harmonizing to Candle ( 2010 ) had verified on the relationship between supervising and turnover purpose among the private secondary instructors in Wakiso District. The survey employed quantitative study by administering questionnaire to 242 participants out of 380 instructors in Wakiso District. The research findings had shown that the better of supervising will had a low rate of instructor turnover. Base on the responses from the respondents had revealed that there is negative relationship between supervising and employee turnover. subsequently study by Krasek and Theorell ( 1990 ) found that hapless supervising will non merely caused the dissatisfaction in work but besides affect the turnover. Employees who are under hapless supervising by the supervisor will be given to low occupation public presentation and lead to turnover. A good supervising is the potent incentives which can heighten their occupation satisfaction and cut down the turnover rate. In add-on, Harmon, Scotti, Behson, Farias, Petzel, Neuman and Keashly ( 2007 ) , had clarified that the supervising had important correlated with the additions of occupation satisfaction and diminish the turnover purpose among the workers.

2.4 Decision

This chapter focused more on past surveies which provides author with secondary informations such as diaries, articles and mention books. The research context, research theory and old research had serves as a route map for author to go on on the undermentioned chapter in this survey.

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