Leadership Styles That Exist In The Department Management Essay

The chief aim of this proposal is to look into the influence that leading behaviours have on absenteeism at Scotiabank ‘s Collections Unit.

The paper will present the organisation, and so a literature survey would place the leading styles that exist in the section and the subject of absenteeism as good.

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The research worker would be carry oning interviews and supplying questionnaires to obtain assorted positions on the bing leading behaviors, every bit Wellss as, ideas on the absenteeism that presently exists as it is a important country of involvement for most organisational leaders. The counterproductive behavior of absenteeism is a turning job that affects houses in different ways.

Leadership can be defined in many different ways but it merely refers to those persons that provide counsel and it encompasses the ability to determine human behavior, so as to accomplish an assigned project ( Armstrong & A ; Stephens, 2005 ) .

It is said that to be a successful leader involves the wherewithal to give way to others, in order to guarantee that undertakings are completed successfully. This involves a great trade of influence and it is of import that leaders understand the consequence they have on others ( Hannagan, 2005 ) .

Leaderships hold the power to actuate and animate staff and they do so via the proviso of inducements such as wagess and even by developing feedback.

The quandary of absenteeism nowadayss distresses that leaders must grok and get the better of as absenteeism is a turning job that affects many concern entities in several ways including loss of gross, emphasis and force per unit area on present staff, interrupted operations every bit good as productiveness and this can be damaging, particularly for industries such as banking industry as it affects the service being provided.

Need for the survey

Employee absenteeism affects the productiveness degrees at SCU and harmonizing to the administration ‘s Human Resources Department, the unit presently has the highest per centum of absenteeism throughout the full Scotiabank web in Trinidad and Tobago.

Absenteeism has been an on-going issue for many old ages and affects administrations in different ways. Excessive absenteeism causes diminished efficiency, decreased client satisfaction and reduced morale among staff members and to battle this issue, organisations must foremost acknowledge what causes it.

The result of this research will turn out to be good to the SCU as it will supply a agency to cut down absenteeism degree, therefore increased presence at work would guarantee higher degrees of production. Further, he research would give direction a better apprehension of what caused absenteeism to be so high in the first case, so that such an issue would non repeat.

Research Questions

What, if any, peculiar leading qualities must be in direction at the Scotiabank Collections Unit, to cut down the degree of absenteeism that exists? . To reply this inquiry leading behavior and absenteeism will be investigated to see if there is a relationship between the two variables therefore the research worker would be carry oning explanatory and analytical research.

Research purpose and aims

Primary Aim

To supply a model aimed at bettering leading behaviors so that decreases in absenteeism degrees are outcomes.

Research Aims

To measure the extent to which leading affects absenteeism

To critically research the bing literature on leading and its interaction with absenteeism and comparison and contrast what occurs at Scotiabank Collections Unit.

To supply recommendations to better leading in a command to cut down absenteeism.

Organizational Background

SCU is a subordinate of the Scotiabank Trinidad and Tobago limited and has been in being for over 30 old ages. This strategic concern unit, is responsible for all debt aggregations in the state every bit good as they handle aggregations for several other subdivisions throughout the Caribbean. They provide easy solutions to assorted clients including little concern and corporate patronage and have developed a repute of quality service.

The SCU maintains the highest degree of unity and professionalism, while offering clients a assortment of options designed to run into the demands of its varied clients, at the different phases of aggregations.

Members of staff include four senior directors, eight supervisors, with a junior staff rank of 60 aggregations officers and six administrative officers. Their mission is to supply exceeding service in retrieving the assets entrusted to them and they believe that, the manner they communicate with debitors, their exceeding persuasive accomplishments and the proviso of alternate funding solutions, are what sets them apart from the competition and ensures they remain the leaders in the industry.

In footings of actuating their staff, the WICL has monthly meetings, where top aggregation officers, who meet their marks, which include the figure of calls made, the figure of contacts made and the figure of payment promises taken, are rewarded with certifications of accomplishment. In these meetings, they besides provide feedback on advancement made with regard to the entire dollar sums collected, month over month.

At this clip, productiveness is non at the needed degree and although there are some persons who ne’er take tiffin interruptions and even eat at their desks, many more are seen prosecuting in personal conversations for extended periods, taking longer interruptions than they are supposed to and absenteeism is perceptibly high. Collections officers are required to be on their phones for the full twenty-four hours, seeking to make all delinquent clients, in an effort to acquire the necessary financess to update their histories or arrange suited payment programs. Prosecuting in such alternate activity affects day-to-day productiveness and can be damaging to WICL ‘s public presentation and future success.


Leadership Defined

Leadership can be defined in many different ways and fundamentally refers to the method of way one individual gives to a group towards accomplishing aims ( Covey, 1990 ) . A leader is indispensable to interpret organizational regulations, point out boundaries, change environmental conditions, support positive interaction and supply continuity in an administration.

Most definitions centre on the thought of the person and the executing of the counsel but leading besides encompasses the aptitude to determine human behavior, so as to accomplish an assigned project ( Armstrong & A ; Stephens, 2005 ) . It is said that to be a successful leader involves a great trade of influence and it is of import that an single understands the consequence they have on others ( Hannagan, 2005 ) .

Leadership Approach

In looking at several theories of leading, a common yarn existed and that was, the behavior of the leader and the unrecorded circumstance. Leadership can be analysed in a assortment of ways but due to its complexness it will be examined under six chief headers including Trait attack, Group attack, Behavioural Approach, Situational Leadership, Action-centred leading, and Leadership Styles ( Mullins, 2002 ) .

Traits attack

This consists of the development of a list of features that is believed to be required for successful leading. It encompasses the belief that there are certain persons born to take and no focal point is placed on the existent occupation itself, merely the individual and their familial personality traits ( Mullins, 2002 ) . Trait theories propose that leaders have similar features and the common 1s are the necessary qualities that all leaders must hold. However, it is unlikely that any one property will be related to effectual leading in all fortunes ( Covey, 1990 ) .

Group Approach

On the other manus the Group Approach places accent on the existent map of leading, irrespective of personality etc. and holds the belief that leading can be developed and even learnt. It covers leading duties, the nature of the group and how the behavior of the leader is affected by followings ( Cole, 2003 ) .

Behavioural Approach

This attack deals chiefly with the behavior of leaders and manner dramas an built-in function here as it can act upon the public presentation of the group. There are two classs of leading behavior known as undertaking orientation and relationship orientation and the chief proposition of the behavior theories is that the behavioral manner of the leader can be recognized therefore perchance changed ( Mullins, 2002 ) . This suggests that leaders can be coached to utilize diverse and conceivably more effective leader behavior. Furthermore, this would let the possibility of naming persons to leading functions who have competences in such behaviors.

Situational Approach

Importance is placed on the state of affairs within which leading occurs, in that the circumstance itself would verify the leading manner to be used as it is said that no individual leading manner is appropriate for all state of affairss.

Action-centred leading

This point of view considers the undertakings of leaders, that is, what they existent do and the success of the leader depends on the balance made between their undertakings and the care of both the squad in add-on to each member.

Leadership Manners

As antecedently mentioned, leading technique plays an built-in function in leading and as the name suggests, this deals with the leading manner used and how it impacts followings. The three chief leading manners include Authoritarian or Autocratic manner ( leader makes all the determinations ) , Democratic ( leader-group determination devising ) and Laissez-faire ( leader makes no determinations at all ) .

Leadership Behaviour

Other than the general base points a leader can take, there are a figure of general actions which are besides recognised as being effectual in footings of leading. These can be categorised under three major headers known as Tasks and Relations behaviour, Change-oriented behavior and Participative leading.

Undertakings and Relations Behaviour

Focus is placed on acquiring the occupation done and leaders within this kingdom are normally rather bossy. Furthermore, a batch of clip is spent on structuring, specifying, planning, deputing and supervising work and small accent is placed on the well being of staff members hence keeping, absenteeism and even motive degrees are affected ( Foot & A ; Hook, 2005 ) .

Change-oriented behavior

Here, the leader tries new procedures, experiments and this leading is flexible but excessively many alterations can be black so it is of import to critically analyze a state of affairs before doing a alteration.

Participative leading

This behavior integrates the squad into the determination devising procedure and is considered the most successful leading manner.

In practically all of the more prevalent premises of leading, there exists the belief that leading is a process affecting influence with a group of people toward the accomplishment of aims. This influence can be both positive and negative and filters into day-to-day operations and affects day-to-day maps, morale and even degrees of absenteeism.

Absenteeism Defined

Absenteeism is nonattendance from a responsibility or an duty and it is viewed as a gage of hapless single public presentation, every bit good as a breach of an mute contract between the employer and the employees ( Torrington, et al. , 2008 )

Types of absenteeism

There are two types of absenteeism:

Innocent absenteeism

This refers to absence due to grounds beyond our control, such as hurt and unwellness etc. It is an happening that can non be resolved or treated by disciplinary steps ( Torrington, et al. , 2008 ) .

Blameworthy Absenteeism

This refers to workers who are losing without blessing and for grounds which are within their control ( Torrington, et al. , 2008 ) .

Absenteeism has demonstrated to be expensive and highly interrupting to companies and leaders, who employ absence scrutinizing and direction, could be more effectual in bettering employee attending. Their attempts could be farther improved if workers are informed about the negative impact that absenteeism has on the morale of their colleagues, the disbursal it brings to the company, the company client service provided, every bit good as productiveness and marks.

Conceptual model

This chapter contained literature refering to leading including attacks, behaviors and traits along with absenteeism.

Figure – Conceptual model of leading

Source – Adapted by the research worker


Research Paradigm

There are varied positions of research which emphasize the design procedure but the major concern is with the outgrowth of theory from which constructs and impressions develop, through the application of thoughts, the examination of informations and the rating of consequences ( Saunders, et al. , 2009 ) . There are different positions that research workers use to carry on probes and the three chief 1s are:

Ontology – The facts and a position of what is, intending, the nature of world

Epistemology – The nature and range of cognition, that is, what is considered to be acceptable cognition

Axiology – The function values play in research

Saunders, et al. , 2009 indicated that the research paradigm encompasses these positions and involves an apprehension of happenings in order to derive an account and there are four chief research paradigms known as Positivistic, Phenomenological, Realism and Pragmatism.

Research attack

Both the phenomenological and positive paradigms will be used because the former is concerned with groking human behavior and the cause of certain actions and is considered the most appropriate one to utilize due to its humanistic nature. Further, it would let the aggregation of qualitative informations. ( Collis & A ; Hussey, 2003 ) .

Qualitative research assesses the significance of individuals reactions to issues analysis are conducted inductively and reading of information is made possible. ( Collis & A ; Hussey, 2003 )

The positive paradigm would supply the needed quantitative informations and would seek for grounds and evidences with small consideration for the subjective place of the entity ( Collis & A ; Hussey, 2003 ) .

Quantitative research trials nonsubjective speculations through an review of the relationship between different variables, which are mensurable utilizing numeral values and deductive testing is done. ( Collis & A ; Hussey, 2003 )

A comparing of the both are seen in Table 3.1

Table – Comparison of the Phenomenological and Positivistic Paradigm

Beginning – ( Collis & A ; Hussey, 2003 ) and adapted by the research worker

Research Scheme

For the intent of this proposal the research worker will utilize the assorted methodological analysis attack, known as Methodological Triangulation since it involves the assemblage of both quantitative and qualitative informations ( Saunders, et al. , 2009 ) . This scheme would let entree to more informations every bit good as different point of views. It would besides guarantee that stakeholder ‘s demands are met as some may prefer empirical grounds as opposed to others who may be satisfied with an account or duologue. It should be noted that due to the short clip allotted to finish the research, a cross-sectional analysis will be done.

Data Beginnings and Collection Methods

Primary Data

This would affect carry oning original research through studies, where both questionnaires and interviews, would let information to be gathered from persons in the signifier of facts and sentiments.

The studies would be administered in individual to members of staff at the SCU, and they would be advised that the information gathered would be confidential and anon. . Surveys would let respondents to be observed because it would be face-to-face interaction taking topographic point and it would guarantee that equivocal inquiries would be explained. The presence of the interviewer would besides increase the respondents ‘ consciousness and willingness to react.

Interviews would be conducted with cardinal Human Resource Personnel at their several offices in order to happen out more about the absenteeism degree at the SCU. The interview would do it easier to compare replies every bit good as it besides made confidentiality more possible.

The questionnaire will be designed with both open-ended and closed ended inquiries to find the result of this survey and a sum of one 100 ( 60 ) questionnaires will be administered.

The Likert Scale will be used for closed-ended inquiries which will be structured in a manner that would be easy for respondents to finish and grok. In order to guarantee that respondents know the context in which the inquiries were being posed, an explanatory paragraph will be placed before the beginning of the inquiries.

Secondary Datas

Secondary informations is of import because researching other work that has been already done in the peculiar are of involvement saves clip and besides provides a beginning of originative thoughts for recommendations.

Company Documents – Secondary informations will be easy obtained with no cost attached as most resources would come from the SCU via absenteeism studies etc.

Library Research – The library would be easy accessible and would supply dependable and believable resource.

Internet Research – Would besides be conducted on the Internet and this would guarantee information is widely and readily accessible. It would besides be rather cheap as opposed to library visits as there are non costs incurred to publish information.

Sampling Techniques and Procedures

Sample Selection

The population to be used in the survey would be all the junior staff at SCU which includes 60 ( 60 ) persons, and this would supply indispensable informations needed to carry through the aims of the survey.

Sampling Method

The trying method most suited to the survey will be based on the purpose of the research, the population involved, the clip and available financess. Random trying was deemed the most suited method and the choice will be completed via the Microsoft Excel Programme, which would guarantee that every member of the population would hold an equal opportunity of being chosen. It would besides extinguish prejudices since no 1 would be asked to volunteer, and each sample would be made up of members from each subdivision of the population.

Data analysis techniques

Below are the methods that will be used to analyze the informations:

Induction – This will be used to organize hypothesis about event, so comparings will be made to similar event to verify the premise. Finally central/general hypothesis will emerge.

Matrix/Logical Analysis – This will chiefly do usage of flow charts, diagrams etc.

Research Ethical motives

Privacy and confidentiality – Participants will be assured of namelessness.

Research purpose – Participants will be informed of the nature and intent of the research.

Volunteers – No 1 will be forced to take part.

Consent – Blessing will be obtained from the School of Accounting and Management every bit good as SCU.


Figure – Summary of Proposal

Beginning – The Researcher


The clip program for the concluding paper will be six months but the research worker programs to complete good before that period ( see Appendix ) as she has most if non all the resources required to successfully finish it.

The tools required for such an project includes, paper, pressman, ink, earphones, Skype plan, MS Project plan, letters of blessing, pens and pencils, questionnaires.

The research worker expects some clip restraints as she is for good employed and committednesss in work may do the research worker to pass excess hours at the office, but through finding and exceeding clip direction accomplishment, all should travel as planned.

Dependability and Validity

The research will be designed in a transparent and auditable mode taking into consideration the impression of subscriber bias and mistake and perceiver bias and mistake. In footings of cogency the research design will be implemented in such a manner that it is made clear to all and suited attention and assiduity shown in the allocation of controls.

Restrictions of the Study

Methodological triangulation would let research schemes to be developed that would avoid the jobs associated with utilizing merely one method, but it should be noted that the research worker expects that this signifier of research will be quite clip consuming.


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