7.2.1 Coordinating through a Single-government Agency
Coordination is widely identified as a significant job with post-disaster Reconstruction. The Indonesian authorities ‘s response in Aceh was the creative activity of BRR. The constitution of BRR as a individual authorities bureau responsible for supervising the execution of the recovery plan provided the necessary mechanisms for organizing the big figure of human-centered bureaus that arrived in the affected parts. As an extension of the cardinal authorities and a single-government bureau, BRR could instantly supply the necessary authorization for non-government givers and authorities implementing bureaus to get down their plans, and to help them prioritising their plans to guarantee effectual recovery planning and sequencing with limited duplicate and without, every bit far as possible, any spreads emerging.
BRR ‘s experience in organizing the many international assistance suppliers that flocked to Aceh to back up the alleviation and Reconstruction attempt provided a form that may hold influenced the United Nations in its organisation of catastrophe alleviation. It has now developed a ‘cluster ‘ system to form assistance bureaus ‘ and other NGOs ‘ alleviation attempts ( da Silva, 2009 ) .
7.2.2 Short-run and Long-run Reconstruction
One of the quandary that faces bureaus working in the wake of a catastrophe is how to unite actions aimed at get the better ofing immediate jobs ( such as deficiency of shelter ) with actions that support longer-term development planning ends ( such as supplying equal lodging in appropriate locations ) . A recent study on lessons learned from Aceh ( district attorney Silva, 2009 ) studies that charity support from Britain helped construct some 14,000 new places but that many of these later had to be retrofitted or even knocked down and reconstruct. A cardinal factor in the design of houses ( and school and other edifices ) in Aceh is that it is an country of high seismal hazard. Whilst charities and other non-government organisations are frequently at the head of post-disaster alleviation, they need to seek adept advice on local conditions. Similarly, authorities Reconstruction attempts should get married short-run alleviation with appropriate long-run planning ends, for illustration through the building and location of lodging.
Developing action programs for long term recovery is needed for the Aceh authorities. This means that there should be developed a recovery and rehabilitation policy for local authorities, including expertness demands for big scale building and realistic timeframes. Action plans can be used as the footing for make up one’s minding on resource coordination duties in the crisis, including informations gaining control and analysis, Global Information Systems and other informational direction engineerings. Local authorities besides needs to carry on a reappraisal of all tsunami ratings and lessons learned and synthesis cardinal elements from all stakeholders. Evaluations need to be followed-up by action programs and so guarantee that follow up action programs are implemented so that short-run and long-run are considered together.
7.2.3 Decentralized Authority
The literature on post-disaster Reconstruction emphasizes the importance of engagement of local communities in decision-making and by deduction the decentalisation of decision-making to local degrees. BRR set the illustration as the first Cardinal Government bureau to be based outside Jakarta. This non-Jakarta-centric attack allowed the bureau to better respond to altering demands. Further, as huge countries were affected by the tsunami, BRR Regional Offices were established to supervise executing of undertakings right where they are being carried out. These regional offices ensured that undertakings followed the bing criterions and ordinances and involved community engagement and the local authorities.
BRR has encouraged its implementing spouses to similarly transportation determination devising in undertaking planning and executing to its squad in the field. For case, the determination of the Asian Development Bank ( ADB ) to switch its bid station from Manila to the temblor and Tsunami exigency Program in Aceh resulted in less constrictions and a important betterment in the execution procedure ( Subekti, 2008 ) .
However, there were some state of affairss where the wider issues of public disposal ( or administration ) convergence with the issues that arise from decentalisation. In Banda Aceh, because of confusion and deficiency of transparence over cardinal policy issues, such as the location and position of the coastal buffer zone, there was some enervation of both the alleviation and recovery stages. This is a clear instance of demand for authorities to hold clear mechanisms which resonate with the rules of good administration.
7.2.4 Regulative Reform
Within a scene where authorities reform remains a work-in-progress and the state is struck by a series of unprecedented natural catastrophes, it is inevitable that certain regulations and ordinances will necessitate to be modified. The authorities was cognizant of this and, by set uping BRR, it minimized the possible disunity associated with side-stepping business-as-usual. Having the demand, the authorization and the necessary political will, BRR institutionalized a figure of regulative reforms – reforms which non merely expedited the recovery plan, but besides contributed to the national authorities ‘s ongoing reform plan, particularly with regard to disaster direction.
Such reform, while indispensable to the recovery plan and welcomed by implementing spouses, demands to be carefully conceived, loosely considered, and implemented within theoretical accounts of best patterns. There is a greater hazard implementing regulative reform within a post-disaster state of affairs because of the manner that short-run and long-run demands can go embroiled ( Subekti, 2008 ) . Clearly the demand to maintain long-run impacts in head when set abouting short-run actions in a recovery or Reconstruction plan applies to a figure of authorities and non-government bureaus and to many Fieldss of enterprise. The impact on physical end products such as lodging has already been identified but it can be seen to use every bit to public policy actions, such as regulative reform.
7.2.5 Future Disaster Risk Reduction should be Integral to the Reconstruction Process
There are two facets to this, both of which became evident in Banda Aceh. The first is that Reconstruction should be seen as merely one phase of the catastrophe direction rhythm, and that there are phases that should be completed before any catastrophe occurs. In the instance of Banda Aceh there had been no pre-disaster planning. This reduced the effectivity of post-disaster Reconstruction attempts. Give that Banda Aceh is in a seismically active country and is capable to other natural jeopardies, such as implosion therapy and storm harm, so local and national authoritiess should be developing programs to cut down the impact of future catastrophes. The 2nd facet is that be aftering for future catastrophe hazard decrease should be an built-in constituent of the existent Reconstruction procedure, at least partly because the impact of a catastrophe provides a window of chance when communities, authoritiess and non-government organisations are acutely witting of what the harm a catastrophe can imply. This requires a scheme which capitalizes on the handiness of financess and political will, and includes societal and fiscal steps associating to awareness raising and readiness. The chance to apologize urban programs to include emptying paths and strategically address services proviso and the location of critical substructure should be considered instead than reconstructing urban communities by reiterating the form of organic growing and locating public edifices as before ( district attorney Silva, 2009 ) .
A sometimes ignored facet of future catastrophe planning is keeping community catastrophe consciousness. Simeulu Island, in Aceh state, is a good illustration of the manner that local cognition and community consciousness can assist extenuate the impact of catastrophes. When the tsunami was coming people moved really rapidly to higher land. Very few people were killed by the tsunami on Simeulu Island. This was because cognition and experience of past tsunamis had been passed from coevals to coevals.
7.2.6 Post-disaster Peace in Aceh
The desolation wrought by a natural catastrophe such as the 2004 tsunami, whilst painful and debilitating, can hold unexpected positive benefits. In Aceh the tsunami helped trigger peace dialogues between the Government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement ( GAM ) which led to a memoranda of understanding on August 15 2005. Every attempt must be made to retain this positive result. Both the Government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement demand to go on to work actively to guarantee the apprehension remains. The lesson that can be derived from this event is that whilst natural catastrophes have serious and detrimental impacts they can besides be used as a accelerator for assisting to turn to other perchance longer-running jobs. Catastrophes can hold the consequence of conveying people with opposing positions together in an attempt to jointly turn to the overpowering troubles faced by wedged communities.
7.2.7 Provision of Toilets and Access to Water is an Essential Part of any Housing Plan
Whilst the focal point on catastrophe deliverance operations is frequently on the proviso of shelter and lodging, the lesson to be learned from Aceh ‘s experience is that lodging and substructure need to be considered together. At its most basic this implies sing lodging together with the proviso of drinkable H2O and human waste disposal installations ; but in the longer term the proviso of other signifiers of physical and societal substructure demand to be considered to back up the proviso of lodging. In Aceh, largely, bureaus provided lavatories and wells themselves as portion of an incorporate shelter, H2O and sanitation plan, with the option to link to shriek H2O supplies where this was available. Where this was outside their country of expertness, they formed partnerships with other NGOs who committed to building lavatories and supplying H2O. However, this was frequently debatable. Partner bureaus had other precedences, and were non ever able to organize proviso of installations and services with completion of the houses ( Silva, 2009 ) .
7.2.8 The Role of Local Communities, Volunteers, and the Media
The experience of Banda Aceh reinforces the importance of local communities and voluntaries, peculiarly in catastrophe deliverance state of affairss. Volunteers were truly helpful and utile, particularly in the Fieldss of medical aid, architecture, public assistance support, and logistics specializers. There were 1000s of voluntaries who rushed to the damaged country to back up victims. Such support demands to be tempered by the demand to form and direct the attempts of voluntaries so that precedences are kept and there is non unneeded duplicate. The function of media to give information every bit shortly as possible after the catastrophe was besides really of import in Banda Aceh in order to assist the affected people. The assorted interviews undertaken for this research confirmed this, but they besides indicated that some signifiers of media were more effectual than others. For illustration, wirelesss provided necessary contact between Aceh and the outside universe after the catastrophe. Villagers besides identified the usage of the cyberspace as of import, in supplying information to the remainder of the universe and so maintaining international support. Given the importance of both these signifiers of media there is a instance to be made for the early Restoration of electricity supplies, non merely to supply lighting and cookery and related services but besides to keep such media connexions.
In add-on, wireless was used rather successfully in Aceh to update affected communities on the recovery advancement and to enable community members to inquire inquiries. A assortment of call-in plans focused on both Reconstruction aid and psycho-social support. A cardinal lesson here is the value of utilizing familiar and established media mercantile establishments ( CCP-I, 2009 ) .
Based on these findings the survey makes some recommendations for all the major stakeholders in Aceh ‘s and other post-disaster recovery. The survey besides provides some lessons for other states affected by tsunamis ( or similar natural catastrophes ) and confronting the jobs of post-disaster Reconstruction.
Coordination should be resourced as a specific map with a dedicated budget. In contexts in which the United Nations is required to play a major coordinating function, budgets should be established for specializer coordinators matched to associated competences such as leading, facilitation and coordination accomplishments.
Strengthen accomplishments in sector based coordination, peculiarly when a figure of human-centered histrions is involved, and look towards international bureaus for coherency and coherence.
Governments need to develop a specific coordination scheme with an associated resource program for exigency response state of affairss.
NGOs and other givers should do a particular attempt to organize with local authoritiess. NGOs and other giver suppliers are one of the keys to success in implementing a recovery plan.
Donors and NGOs need to work with the cardinal and local authoritiess in apologizing the giver coordination map through one office. Cardinal Government should explicate the model of coordination among recovery stakeholders. Coordination between and within ministries, between degrees of authorities, and other recovery stakeholders is critical. Effective coordination to guarantee consistence and effectivity among sectoral and regional plans at national and regional degrees is critical, given that facets of Reconstruction, such as lodging, instruction, employment and substructure, touch on many sector duties and ministerial and authorities involvements.
Cardinal authorities should be allocated the equal resources to back up mechanism of coordination in the recovery and Reconstruction stages.
Cardinal authorities should associate the tsunami warning system to other hazard warning systems and beef up the warning systems as portion of an incorporate catastrophe hazard decrease attack. National plans for warning systems should turn to the agencies to convey warnings and should be included in catastrophe direction, public consciousness and community-based activities. Coordination and warning systems should be constituents a national catastrophe direction programs.
There is demand for capacity edifice to organize NGOs and givers and supply counsel for recovery procedures. Local authorities should construct the capacity of local communities and beef up the coordination among the assistance bureaus of recovery attempts
7.3.2 Effective Bureaucracy
National authorities should pay attending to beef uping sufficient national and local capacity to work together over multi international-agency responses. Personal committedness was shown by local functionaries but they were disempowered by the cardinal degree. Differences in resource allotment and policy execution raised inquiries about authorities purposes, peculiarly in conflict-sensitive countries. Government committedness to the surcease of civil struggle demands to flux all the manner through authorities policy devising and execution.
Major communicating and information-sharing jobs occurred between authorities bureaus and with the international community. There is a demand to acknowledge these troubles and to develop a system that would get the better of them, so that there is clear way for stakeholders in the recovery and Reconstruction procedure.
District authorities needs more structural capacity-building support to absorb new forces, fill places and face new challenges from the cardinal and provincial authorities. At national/provincial degree, disparities between the preparation, places and the similar of national and local staff lead to bitterness.
The cardinal authorities should beef up Aceh authorities staff capacity caused by the 30-year separationist struggle, empower the local governments, and go more efficaciously engaged with local communities. This is a clear instance where the chances made available through the unfortunate impact of the catastrophe demand to be seized at a figure of different degrees. The committedness to peace, triggered to some extent by the tsunami catastrophe, needs to flux through to the community in a figure of different ways.
The cardinal component for cut downing corruptness in post-disaster state of affairss for a long term procedure is good administration. The authorities needs to set about the planning for allotment of financess for recovery and it should be approved by the legislative assembly. The community should be informed the flow of assistance and other financess until the services/goods are delivered. This incorporates facets of good administration identified by major international organisations such as the UNDP.
One mechanism for back uping greater coordination would be to develop relevant shared databases. The appraisals of recovery should be conducted by multi-agency squads to the extent practicable. The appraisals should be sporadically updated. Common databases within bing authorities constructions can greatly ease coherency.
7.3.3 Community Involvement
Central and local authorities, assistance bureaus and other histrions in the recovery procedure should be cognizant that there may be hapless degrees of community capacity in the Reconstruction and rehabilitation procedures. For illustration, well-funded international bureaus frequently extract human resources from local establishments merely when they are most needful. Consideration should be given to a strong plan of community engagement and local capacity development in ways that will let them to retain their liberty.
Aid bureaus and the authorities of Indonesia should develop methodological analysiss to increase affected communities ‘ engagement in puting precedences, design of plans and monitoring of execution. International action in Banda Aceh was most effectual when enabling, easing and back uping local histrions. International bureaus frequently brushed local capacities aside, even though they subscribe to norms and criterions that call for battle with and answerability to local histrions such as authoritiess, communities and local NGOs. International bureaus frequently ignored local constructions and did non pass on good with local communities nor hold themselves accountable to them. This thrust towards greater engagement of local communities should besides include the development of local community and local authorities capacities.
The importance of the local population being able to take part in the proviso of installations was reinforced in Banda Aceh. The Acehnese needed to be subscribers to instead than holding to wait for the recovery of their houses and colonies. A people-centred and participative rehabilitation and Reconstruction procedure is of import. Engagement in planning, building, and monitoring is of import in the recovery procedure.
There is, nevertheless, a clear demand to set up a community-based attack that provides outreach to all of the Aceh community to be involved in the recovery by placing spreads in small town Reconstruction and fiting these to undertakings and financess. The attack should non trust merely on engagement by community representatives or elites.
There is besides a demand to increase community cognition about natural jeopardies that may impact them. In the instance of Banda Aceh this includes temblors, tsunamis, storms and implosion therapy. For illustration, in relation to earthquakes, there should be increased science-based temblor instruction. Extending formal and informal jeopardy instruction enterprises to adult females is imperative. A agaze point should be advancing literacy, developing appropriate course of study stuffs, and developing instructors and adult females leaders. Training should turn to life-saving jeopardy drills, basic jeopardy scientific discipline, hazard consciousness, and information about edifice appropriate homes. Womans should be respected as able community guardians and catastrophe direction professionals.
7.3.4 Capacity Building
Local authorities should be the focal point of longer term capacity beef uping. The capacity of Aceh ‘s local authorities was identified as an of import issue in catastrophe Reconstruction. The legion employees who worked for BRR and the assorted NGOs came chiefly from exterior of Aceh. The usage of external employees was necessary because the needed workers and expertness were non available in Aceh. In general, immediate efficiency and bringing were prioritized over sustainability and longer term capacity strengthening.
Similar staffing capacity jobs were faced by assistance bureaus. The international bureaus were faced with jobs including high staff turnover, inappropriate occupation profiling, loss of institutional memory, and marked disparities in wage. To turn to these issues demands long term programs to supply inducements to develop and capable staff and to include sequence planning within the organisations.
Cardinal authorities should affect the local authorities setup in every activity of recovery in their small towns or sub-districts. This may affect the payment of particular allowances or honoraria for specific activities.
As noted elsewhere particular consideration demands to be given to keeping the peace agreement affecting the Free Aceh Movement ( GAM ) . The cardinal authorities together with assistance bureaus and local authorities should give precedence to including ex-members of GAM. The restriction of educational degrees of GAM ex-members for the clip being must be put aside in order to assist increase societal harmoniousness. Peace is of import in accomplishing Reconstruction in Aceh. The lesson learned from Aceh is that whilst a catastrophe can assist convey together parties who are in violent dissension understandings forged in the visible radiation of catastrophe conditions need to be nurtured throughout the recovery and Reconstruction stages and beyond.
7.3.5 Recovery Planning
Aceh provides a lesson on the possible impact of deficiency of pre-disaster planning. The procedures of deliverance and Reconstruction besides drew attending to the demand to get married short-run actions with longer-term development planning. Therefore, the Aceh authorities needs to set in topographic point a long term recovery program that includes a significant function for local authorities and the development of local authorities capacity ; but every bit it needs to develop specific catastrophe direction programs aimed at forestalling catastrophes where possible and extenuating their impacts otherwise. Clearly such programs need to widen beyond the 2009 authorization of BRR. Such programs should include mechanisms for educating and raising the consciousness of both affected communities and decision-makers alike of the intrinsic cyclical linkages between environmental direction and catastrophe direction. In such catastrophe direction programs there should be mechanisms to guarantee that assistance bureaus are cognizant that catastrophe hazard decrease must be incorporated into alleviation and post-disaster Reconstruction planning. Disaster direction programs should besides see how they might reenforce wider administration issues, such as human rights protection.
Long-term development programs and catastrophe direction programs should include mechanisms that guarantee that authorities and assistance bureaus are involved in ratings of action programs and can guarantee that follow up action programs are implemented.
The Aceh authorities should keep investing in preparedness plans to assist do the society more resilient. As has already been noted, the best policy for effectual post-disaster recovery is to fix for the event before catastrophe work stoppages. This can be achieved by beef uping the system of catastrophe direction and readiness within authorities and community at all degrees. In add-on catastrophe recovery planning demands to have in higher instruction to fix cardinal professions for the challenge of recovery planning and direction. Public instruction should be designed to heighten catastrophe resiliency and beef up the capacity and capableness of persons, households, schools and the communities, which are ever the most vulnerable to catastrophes, but are besides effectual channels for accomplishing sustainability and prosperity.
One manner of accomplishing this readiness would be to develop a Disaster Management Bill that aimed to beef up the capacities for catastrophe direction, readiness and response of relevant authorities bureaus.
Catastrophe and recovery planning could be aided by better information on natural jeopardies. Both the Indonesian and the Aceh authorities should prosecute a co-ordinated, interdisciplinary attempt to foster the apprehension of temblor anticipation and of temblor impacts, for illustration. An of import component of catastrophe direction planning would be for the Aceh authorities to organize a new recovery task-force or committee drawn from bing governmental bureaus to pull off the recovery and Reconstruction procedures. This new organisation could manage the recovery direction with a particular undertaking force for long term outcomes. Such an bureau is needed to get by with the unprecedented demands that may traverse all sectors when the following natural catastrophe work stoppages Aceh. It should run in close coordination with the bing system authorities and be run by bing functionaries, from within bing line ministries.
One strongly identified issue from the focal point group treatment and interviews was the deficiency of communicating among stakeholders. This job can be illustrated by the research worker ‘s ain experience. The focal point group treatment confirmed this job and most respondents argued that there was a deficiency of effectual communicating among stakeholders.
There is a demand to develop an information web to make “ people in collapsible shelters and shelters ” that proctors advancement of the Reconstruction procedure and handles ailments, brings up controversial issues and thoughts for betterment.
Local authorities should guarantee that its public communications such as telephone, cyberspace and entree to mass-media work and its assorted plans are aligned when they are implemented.
7.4 Future Research
Given the fact that the Tsunami at the same time impacted on several states with differing agreements for decentalisation, it provides an gap for comparative research. Thus it would be merited to set about extra in-depth instance surveies in the five states affected by the Tsunami on 26 December 2004, i.e. Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, India, and Thailand.
Other countries of possible hereafter research – relating to jobs that were identified in the research but for which there were non the clip or resources to follow up in more depth include:
Wayss of better incorporating short-run recovery actions with long term development ;
Measuring the importance of cultural and belief issues and their impacts in catastrophe recovery ;
Whilst BRR was a centralised organisation which coordinated actions, are at that place other constructions or establishments for of bettering coordination in post-disaster crises ; and
The function of the media in recovery and Reconstruction – and which signifiers of media are the most effectual for which sorts of actions.