Literature Review Definition Of Well Being Management Essay

Well-being is a huge construct and has been defined otherwise and seen otherwise by assorted writers and organisations and how it should be managed is wholly up to the directors of the organisation ( AMO Model ) .

The CCMD ( 2002 ) describes well-being as fostering a good province of head that helps the employee to hold a good sense of intent, feelings and fulfilment that is watchful and unfastened to new experiences. The theory of well-being by Waterman ( 1993 ) indicates that it is manner above felicity but the realization of human potencies or abilities which help in carry throughing the true nature of an employee.

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There is this belief that good being is a psychological province which Ryan and Deci ( 2000 ) argues that it is in its best when an employee is to the full functioning, to the full engaged and shows self realization and verve. This has been termed as Eudaimonic wellbeing. Though there is another signifier of good being which is Hedonic good being, this is the subjective wellbeing that involves life satisfaction, the presence of positive temper and absence of negative temper.

Employee wellbeing has been a great issue and concern in the heads of employers which they believe now is impacting the public presentation of the work force. Research workers have carried out a research on human resource patterns and the wellbeing of employers.

Employee wellbeing has been linked to employee battle because of its similarities and for every bit long as there is battle in the work force, there would be increased well-being and public presentation.

Harmonizing to Watson ( 2010 ) employee wellbeing can destruct the engagement degree and public presentation in an organisation which shows the connexion between battle and wellbeing. It farther provinces that employee battle and wellbeing either work in isolation or work together. To explicate this farther, see diagram 1 below.

The above diagram explains that when employee wellbeing and battle strongly work together, there would be sustained public presentation, but when engagement and well-being work in isolation, there would be defaults in the organisation ‘s public presentation. Example, an organisation that is happening it hard to be at its best, their employees seek hard to acquire things working for the organisation. Therefore, give uping their personal life issues for the organisation, may merely take the organisation for a short period of clip which is non traveling to be sustainable. However, this would take to employee burnout and detachment where turnover and under-performance becomes the docket of the organisation ( Maslach and Leiter 2008 ) .

An article by Gallup ( 2012 ) , suggests that employee good being has a important impact on the bottom line of an organisation. This is the ground organisations are technology new schemes for deriving a sustained work force. In every bit much as an organisation is active, it is already in the concern of pull offing employee good being.

Employee battle is a critical facet of an employee to accomplish its aims and is another manner of actuating employees to heighten internal and external public presentation index ( CIPD 2011 ) . Employee battle has been defined by different writers, still, it can non be managed, ( Ferguson 2007 ) . The universe is altering and ways to run into up with the demands of the environment which Porter ( 1987 ) suggests that they would certainly happen is the extreme precedence of most large and little organisations despite the industry or sector.

Harmonizing to Cooper and Robertson ( 2001 ) , employee good being when in the positive, is an advantage to any organisation which indicates that the organisation ‘s work force is healthy. For an organisation to be healthy, it means that it is fit to last in the competitory environment where it operates. Currie ( 2001 ) is of the sentiment that if organisations want to be competitory and be positively sustained in the environment ; it must maintain the wellness and wellbeing of its employees as its nucleus which is critical for public presentation sweetening and future endurance and development of any organisation. Furthermore, from an organisations point of position, the positive correlativity between well-being and public presentation of the work force, has been considered by Wright and Cropanzano ( 2004 ) and harmonizing to Samman ( 2007 ) , Page and Vellla-Broadrick ( 2009 ) , it has been reviewed that the importance of good being and how it can be managed and measured has puzzled research workers. Ortiz ( 2006 ) agrees with Armstrong ( 2008 ) that employees are assets of an organisation while Hermanson ( 1964 ) described human assets so as to mensurate and quantify the value of the work force. Additionally, Roselender et al. , ( 2006 ) supports the statement that the well being of an employee when tantrum is an organisational plus.

Determinants OF WELL-BEING ( GENERAL )

The construct of employee wellbeing by Macey and Schneider, 2009 ; Macleod and Brady, 2008 ; Bakker et al. 2008 provinces that employee wellbeing in recent times both in pattern and in research has been making a batch of involvement in the heads of directors. Though employee wellbeing has been defined otherwise by different writers, and there are determiners that impact on wellbeing. Harmonizing to an article by Watson ( 2010 ) , employee wellbeing can be seen as a physical, psychological and societal wellness of an person. All these must be complete in an employee and this is why the direction of many organisations is so concerned about the wellbeing of their employees because it is of great benefit to the organisation and the employee. For the work force, they would experience a sense of balance between their lives at work and at place and for the organisation, high degree of sustainability and battle which will cut down turnover ( Watson 2010 ) . In kernel, its advantage is all about holding the work force on the occupation and ascribing high degree of sustained battle.

Work is a important portion of an person ‘s life and as such, employee battle and wellbeing at work are of import constructs. Employee well-being, engagement and public presentation is an of import facet of organisational development, as engaged employees are both cognitively and emotionally connected to their work and workplace ( Harter and Blacksmith, 2010 ) . The relationship between employee features and concern results is assumed to be, yet the empirical research is limited. For case engaged employees systematically produce at high degrees ( Moore, 2005 ) yet the alone part of employee battle is yet to be to the full revealed. This paper attempts to make full that spread.

An early definition of employee battle is ‘an person ‘s engagement and satisfaction which every bit good as enthusiasm for work ‘ ( Harter et Al p.269, 2002 ) .

With mention to the definition of well-being by different writers which in drumhead provinces that without wellbeing, there is a important impact on the organisation ‘s public presentation or the work force, many organisations tend to pretermit this construct due to the fact that they think about the fiscal facet of prosecuting the employee.

Harmonizing to Gallup ( 2012 ) , organisations that strive difficult to win in an environment, are implementing new ways for accomplishing sustainable competitory advantage which is employee wellbeing because it impacts on the public presentation of the organisation. There are assorted determiners of wellbeing. In general, there are different factors that can act upon wellbeing.

Employee battle is different from work battle.Work battle is seen as a positive, fulfilling work related province of head characterized by dedication, soaking up and energy ( Schaufeli et al 2002, pg. 74 ) . Recent research believes that dedication and energy are the chief features of battle. Vigor can be perceived as that high degree of energy and mental resiliency while working and continuity in the face of challenges ( Dulagi, 2012 ) . Dedication can be seen as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride and challenge. Employee battle has been said to be correlated with employee good being, which Ryan and Deci ( 2001 ) believes that well- being is non best captured by hedonistic constructs of felicity entirely. Alternatively, SDT besides employs the construct of eudemonia or wellbeing defined as critical, full and as a complimentary attack. Self finding theory is an organismal psychological science ( Ryan, 1985 ) one of a portion of holistic psychological theories including Jean Piaget and Carl Rogers and therefore assumes that people are active beings with built-in and profoundly evolved inclinations toward psychological growing and development. This can be seen clearly in the phenomenon of intrinsic motivation- the natural inclination manifest from birth to seek out challenges, freshness and chances to larn.

Well-being harmonizing to Wright ( 2005 ) is a cosmopolitan term that is largely used when associating to emotions of persons and research has systematically shown the importance associated with how employee wellbeing is measured and public presentation of occupations ( Wright et al. , 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Wright and Cropanzano ( 2000 ) , people with sophisticated psychological wellbeing at work are more fecund than people with ill-psychological wellbeing. Nonetheless, harmonizing to Harter et al. , 2002 ; Schaufeli et al. , 2006, it can non be seen as a critical facet of prosecuting an employee.


Self-government theory ( SDT ) involves a set of related theories that explain human behaviour by specifying different types of motive that an person may prosecute in for a undertaking or set of activities ( Deci and Ryan, 1985 ) . Specifically, Self-determination theory consists of 3 critical psychological demands which should be apparent for psychological growing. They are as follows: aptitude, independency and affinity.

Deci, E. , & A ; Ryan, R. ( 2002 ) .

Harmonizing to the above digraph, Self-determination theory consists of a set of theories mentioned above which is associated with the behaviour of persons and how they are motivated. It besides consists of the psychological demands that when satisfied gives the working environment a sense of intrinsic motive and human fulfilment ( Deci and Ryan, 1985 ) . In kernel, the satisfaction of these demands is good for high human operation ( Deci and Ryan, 2000 ) .

In an organisational context, the demand for these psychological demands are of import. The demand for aptitude signifies that the person is experiencing effectual in the environment which allows the person to show its exceeding capablenesss ( Ryan and Deci 2002, Deci and Ryan, 2000 ) . Harmonizing to Deci and Ryan ( 2000, 2011, 2002 ) , the demand for independency is when there is the feeling to move with desire from within so as to experience psychologically free. Last, the demand for affinity relates to when the person feels the sense of belonging in the environment ( Ryan and Deci 2002 ; Van den Broeck et al. , 2008 ) .

With mention to this survey, there is grounds that there is a correlativity between the three psychological demands, the employees in general Deci and Ryan, ( 2000 ) , Baars et al. , ( 2004 ) , and wellbeing that is work-related for illustration, organisational committedness, discretional behaviour, motive and occupation satisfaction is indispensable to heighten productiveness and public presentation in an organisation.

The Gallup ( 2012 ) listed 5 different countries of wellbeing that can impact public presentation which are: calling wellbeing, societal wellbeing, fiscal wellbeing, physical wellbeing and community wellbeing. All these in one manner or the other affects each other and in bend affects public presentation because they do n’t work in isolation. Contrary to these elements mentioned above, Grawitch ( 2010 ) suggests that mental wellbeing should hold been included with all 5 mentioned above because without any of the 5, the mental wellbeing of an person would be in hazard which would impact organisational public presentation.

Determinants OF Wellbeing AT WORK

In an organisational context, the term employee well-being harmonizing to Cooper and Robertson ( 2001 ) impacts on the public presentation of the employee and can take to high productiveness or result which is an added advantage to organisations that encourages a work force that is healthy. For an organisation to be active and healthy, it so shows that it can last in its environment or industry where it operates because for an organisation to be able to last in its sector, it is ineluctable to disregard advancing the well-being and public presentation of its employees which in this instance is critical to increase employee public presentation and this can take to future organisational development ( Currie 2001 ) . In line with this research subject, when employee wellbeing is introduced into any organisation, it is likely to alter the environment and pave manner for invention which can make positive organisational public presentation particularly for organisations that are under-performing. Research has shown that it took ages for organisations to make a relationship that has to make with employment due to the fact that the wellbeing of an employee is seen as their duty ( Guest 2002 ; Cooper and Robertson 2001 ) . Harmonizing to a study by WERS ( 2004 ) , it purports that the legerity of employees in their work environment has been a upseting research of involvement to concerned employers with respects employment dealingss ( Kersley et al. , 2006 ) . The undermentioned determiners of wellbeing at work are listed and discussed below.

Organizational Committedness

The chief purpose that differentiates HRM from other managerial functions is that the organisation ‘s committedness is the chief ground why they exist, which harmonizing to Guest ( 1998 ) is the nucleus intent of the human resource direction. Organizational committedness has been defined by different writers which makes its definition versatile. Some research workers see organisational committedness as the behaviour of persons because they give their best to guarantee the organisation accomplish its intent ( Becker 1960 ; Gechman and Weiner, 1977 ) . Others like March and Simon ( 1958 ) see it as the attitude of the single whereby they engage themselves to the organisation so as to acquire wagess and inducements from the organisation. Meanwhile, Cook and Wall ( 1980 ) refer to organisational committedness as the person ‘s temper in relation to its using organisation which is related to accomplishing the purposes and aims of the organisation. In the distant yesteryear, organisations paid small or no attending to well-being and public presentation of employees, doing them experience de-motivated, but organisations like Cadbury Family and Lever Brothers made certain that well-being and public presentation of employees were their chief purpose which made them bring forth HR patterns that helped heighten employee public presentation and wellbeing ( Newell 2002 ) . In comparing, Currie ( 2001 ) is of the belief that yes, most employers were in favour of employee wellbeing and public presentation but worried about the fiscal facet. Harmonizing to Armstrong ( 2008 ) , employees are the most of import plus of any organisation no affair the circumstance and must be engaged and valued at all times, in add-on the McGregor X and Y theory ( 1961 ) states that actuating the employee in the organisation should be of import in order to better public presentation because they help in advancing the organisation towards accomplishing its purposes and aims. In order to measure the degree of organisational committedness, it can be measured.

Training and Development

Most organisations lack the accomplishments to associate with their workers which means they tend to disregard the most of import portion of their concern which is the employees. As organisations try hard to mensurate up with other rivals in the same environment, they must turn out that they have the thrust, experience, motive of the employees to vie. Harmonizing to Goldstein and Ford ( 2002 ) , preparation is the efficient attack in relation to larning and development so as to derive thoughts, experience and heighten the public presentation of the work force and the organisation. Vemic ( 2007 ) argues that the statement that the preparation and development of the work force does non truly use to merely deriving new thoughts and experience but besides to present the work force to alter, help the work force to besides alter their behaviour and promote the work force to do determinations in the organisation which on the other manus makes them experience valued and motivated. Armstrong ( 2008 ) supports Vemic ( 2007 ) which he states that employees are the most of import plus of an organisation and if they are non motivated and besides allowed the chance to demo their ability, employee turnover would be increased. Furthermore, to work out the job of staff turnover and de-motivation, the public presentation in the organisation needs to be increased and this is why, preparation and development is indispensable thereby assisting to get new accomplishments ( Hill and Lent 2006 ; Hughes & A ; Satterfield 2007 ) . This would move as a predecessor on the public presentation of the occupation ( Kraiger 2002 ) .

Ability and Skills

Heneman and Judge ( 2003 ) , shows grounds that the ability of an single impact strongly on the public presentation of the person. Ability can be seen as the pattern that allows employees who are experienced with the necessary accomplishments needed to set about the occupations with a position that the occupations will be extremely skilled. Harmonizing to Huselid, ( 1995 ) ; Appelbaum et al. , ( 2000 ) , there are 2 chief procedures in which organisations can guarantee the suitableness of their employees are recruited and the procedure of choosing them for the right function.

Discretionary Behavior and Performance

Organizations that are involved in determination devising has hurled from stating their employees what to make which brings in discretional behaviour and it promotes excellence due to the fact that and its criticalness is critical for the success of any organisation. Mathematically, it is seen as Discretionary Behavior = Ability X Motivation X Opportunity ( AMO ) which automatically promotes wellbeing. Purcell et Al ( 2003 ) is of the impression that when there is committedness and motive, there is discretional behaviour. This is to state that employees act in such a manner that they are satisfied with their occupations. Research has revealed that the determinations of line directors and how they implement, enact, control and take their employees impacts positively or negatively on them which form the footing of how they relate with clients. Furthermore, Purcell et Al ( 2003 ) in understanding the nexus between people and public presentation argues that employee discretion that goes the excess stat mi is linked to managerial discretion by directors.


The HRM patterns that might back up the wellbeing of an organisation ‘s work force are as follows: Employee engagement, public presentation compensation, proper preparation, larning and development.

Employee Engagement: When an employee feels involved in the activities traveling on in the organisation, so it is accepted that these employees would non desire to go forth the organisation. Marchington and Wilkinson ( 2005 ) , states that directors should give employees the chance to acquire involved in the organisation, unfastened communicating about issues traveling on in the organisation, and let some signifier of determinations to be made by the employees. With this, they would experience involved and would non desire to go forth the organisation.

Proper preparation, larning and development: Harmonizing to Armstrong ( 2008 ) , employees are the most valuable assets of an organisation and the manner they are managed impact on the public presentation of the organisation ( AMO Model ) . This is why Barney ( 2003 ) suggests that after enlisting and choice, organisations should guarantee their employees are appointed in the right function, so that when necessary preparation and development is carried out, they would hold an thought of what is traveling on in that peculiar facet they are trained for.

Performance Compensation: In some organisations, they compensate their work force after a occupation good done. This is because it would hike the employee ‘s working spirit and besides would do other employees to make good and would prosecute them in transporting out their occupations decently.


Gallup ( 2012 ) listed 5 different countries of wellbeing that can impact public presentation which are: calling wellbeing, societal wellbeing, fiscal wellbeing, physical wellbeing and community wellbeing. All these in one manner or the other affects each other and in bend affects public presentation because they do non work in isolation. Contrary to these elements mentioned above, Grawitch ( 2010 ) suggests that mental wellbeing should hold been included with all 5 mentioned above because without any of the 5 mentioned above, the mental wellbeing of an person would be in hazard which would impact organisational public presentation.

Research has confirmed that wellbeing and battle, leads to higher public presentation Cooper and Robertson ( 2008 ) , and provinces that with well-being and battle in an organisation, there would be high fiscal public presentation, high client satisfaction and employee keeping. Cooper and Robertson ( 2008 ) gathered together informations of about 80,000 utilizing ASSET, to mensurate psychological battle and wellbeing of employees. ASSET is used while mensurating the psychological wellbeing and battle of employees and it besides measures motive and productiveness degrees due to the fact that it involves engagement and psychological wellbeing. This analysis is focused on the factors that conveying together employee productiveness and battle. To reason, the purpose of this analysis is to demo that the battle of employees is linked to productiveness. It was besides found that employee battle and psychological wellbeing put together indicates that there would be an addition in productiveness. Other research workers like Salanova et Al ; , ( 2005 ) argue that employee wellbeing is linked to client satisfaction in the organisation, Xanthopoulou et Al ; , ( 2009 ) argue there is a nexus between employee well-being/engagement on the fiscal facet of an organisation. In all, good being and battle, affects the overall public presentation of the organisation this is why Nahrgang et Al ; ( 2011 ) suggest that without a good working environment, there would be no organisational public presentation. Therefore, it is advisable for the line directors of an organisation to be witting and cautious of how they manage their employees. This harmonizing to Schuster ( 1998 ) suggests that there should be an bing critical correlativity between the wellbeing of the work force and the public presentation of the organisation. Before employee wellbeing can be introduced into the organisation, there should be an overview that it would convey alteration into the organisation and would make room for positive HR patterns that would be able to re-instate the public presentation of the organisation. In this instance, the public presentation of the employees and the organisation would be assured.

The diagram above shows 2 classs of PWB which suggests that with PWB ( sense of intent ) and with PWB ( psychological wellness ) , there would be increased degree of productiveness. It was besides found that the battle of employees is linked with psychological wellbeing and it is a important instrument for achieving high degrees of battle.

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