Today, it may be said that world-wide media transportation does non go on merely one manner which is from the West ( that refers to holding USA as the centre point ) to the other parts of the universe, although it may be said that the media flow is overly biased in favor of the western universe.
1.1 Concept of Contra Flows
Runing on parallel lines with the globalisation of American province that happened in two versions-original and intercrossed, many new multinational and big graduated table webs have come up doing immense part to what is now regarded as ‘Easternization i.e motion from West to East and South-South flows ‘ . The development of these webs, originating from such Southern metropolitan originative centres dwelling of Cairo, Mumbai and Hong Kong, and covering in cultural merchandises stand for what is now regarded as ‘subaltern flows ‘ ( Nederveen Pieterse, 2004:122 ) .
The turning flow of substance from the South to the North globally has been made possible by the easy accessible digital engineering, denationalization and decontrolled broadcast medium and satellite set-ups. Non-Western or Eastern states which chiefly include China, South Korea, Brazil, Japan, and India have shown their of import part and made uninterrupted advancement in the distribution of cultural merchandises. There are many illustrations to demo that South-North and South-South flows are on a rise ( Curtin, 2003: 220 ) .
2. Examples of Contra Flows
The of all time increasing visibleness of Telenovela at the international platform ( Telenovela is a limited-run telecasting series melodrama popular in Latin America ) . In absolute footings, about two billion people across the Earth like watching telenovela. For good or bad grounds, these plans have achieved an of import place in the world-wide market place of ethnicity and the fact that they have succeeded elucidate one of the channels of globalisation traveling in backward way. Many people still argue that Hollywood or the American telecasting and movie industry has taken over and characterizes globalisation ; this turning telenovela phenomenon recommends that there is a possibility of something excess ordinary coming our manner. ( Martinez, 2005: 36 )
2.2 India ‘s Bollywood
India ‘s Bollywood i.e her Hindi movie industry is deserving $ 3.5 billion. In footings of production of movies and figure of viewing audiences, it is the universe ‘s largest industry. In one twelvemonth, over a billion more people purchase tickets for Bollywood films as compared to Hollywood movies. The figure of movies made in India each twelvemonth is much more than films made in Hollywood. With the globalisation of Bollywood, it has been ensured that Indian movies are being watched on a big graduated table by world-wide audience every bit good as larger diasporic 1s: Bollywood movies are publicized in more than 70 states in all and are deriving popularity in the Arab universe, in many African states and in major parts of cardinal and south-east Asia. ( Kaur and Sinha, 2005: 16 )
Airing at regional degree like the pan-Arabic Middle East Broadcasting Centre, popularly recognized as MBC, the Mandarin linguistic communication Phoenix channel, or the one catering to a Chinese Diaspora.
In 2003, the Nipponese life and movie industry, and publication and music sector made concern deserving $ 140 billion.
( Shim, 2006: 27 )
South Korea has surfaced as a main exporter of amusement in footings of movies, well-accepted and popular music, telecasting soap operas and on-line games and applications.
In Britain, channels belonging to South Asiatic market comprising of Zee, Star, Sony, and B4U, have now been made accessible on the digital web provided by Sky, whereas in the United States, services such as Echostar DISH system and DirecTV broadcast a series of programmes for diverse diasporic groups.
( Shim, 2006: 30 )
Since the Qatar-based channel- Al-Jazeera was launched, the whole of news media has been redefined in the Arab universe. This has been a well-known case of contra-flow or south-north flow in the planetary media merchandises. By 2006, this Qatar-based intelligence web running 24/7 has allegedly reached 50 million viewing audiences across the Earth.
The US military action in resistance to Iraq in the twelvemonth 1991 added to doing CNN a globally acclaimed channel.
( Shim, 2006: 43 )
3. Contribution of digital Revolution
3.1 Improved And Efficient Process Of Media Flow
The digital revolution has been globalized which has ensured that the content associating to media is instantly delivered and easy accessible on a big graduated table in a standardised format i.e. in the signifier of text, music, still pictures and gesture images and databases. This information can be accumulated, copied, segregated and manipulated. Companies have already started stating that there is rise of ‘pervasive media ‘ environment. As it was envisaged by an IBM report- From 2004 to 2010, the better affordability, impregnation points, improved velocity for transmittal and tremendous informations storage capacity of digital engineerings emerging on big graduated table will ease new layout and functionalities, taking to generation and intensification of the connectivity of users universally ( IBM, 2004 ) .
3.2 Use of Internet
There has been enormous growing on the usage of the Internet as in 1995, merely 3 per cent of the universe ‘s entire population in 1995 which increased to more than 15 per cent of the universe ‘s population in 2005 that means efficaciously there was an addition of about a billion people in absolute footings. These sorts of alterations in engineering have led to a flush in multinational transportation in media merchandises. Though it is claimed that the Northern pudding stones are chiefly responsible for determining up the planetary media background, the planetary media merchandises are now besides fluxing in the other way from the media-poor South to the media-rich North. There is an indicant that in this quickly developing international communicating environment, several new intercontinental webs have come up, get downing from the border to the metropolitan hubs of planetary media ( UNCTAD, 2005: 252 ) .
3.3 Growth of Non-western industries
Encouraged by the kineticss of demand and consumer oriented media, advanced and cultural industries in the Eastern universe have witnessed an unprecedented enlargement in many kinds of media: chiefly Korean and Indian Hindi movies, Arabic intelligence and soap operas of Latin America. Some of the most important and widely accepted changes are placed in a good place in the Asiatic media field. The Chinese movies such as Hidden Dragon ( 2000 ) , Crouching Tiger, Hero ( 2003 ) and The House of Flying Daggers ( 2004 ) , managed to put China nicely on the universe ‘s amusement map while widely acknowledged soldierly art ‘action film ‘ has several followings globally. A profit-making, consumer demand oriented media environment supports flows in multiple waies: like Brazilian telecasting content accomplishing success with Chinese audience ; Bollywood movies holding a immense fan following in the Arab universe. ( UN,2005: 90 )
4. Relation between Global media flow and Contra Flows
Steady commercialisation of media organisations across the Earth has led to creative activity of freshly found personal webs that are chiefly focused on market place and selling grosss. Nationality barely makes any important impact in this market driven media ecology because of the ground that the manufacturers see their audience majorly as consumers for their merchandises and non as citizens which is a good mark for overall development of the industry. This shifting of focal point from a province or nation-oriented position of media to the one which is merely concerned with consumer penchants and multinational markets proved to be a important facet in the growing and rushing up media flows in all waies: from East to West, from North to South, and from South to South, even though it is considered entirely that their volume will be changing as per the size and worth of the market ( Thussu, 2007: 11 )
A different bed of planetary media groups may be including both private and besides public- sponsored transportations. The Indian Hindi movie industry ( more famously called as Bollywood ) and the telenovelas of Latin Americas are the two most sought after illustrations of multinational planetary media flows that map in a commercial market place. ( Miles, 2005:426 )
5. Role of English linguistic communication in beef uping contra flows:
English language-based planetary telecasting intelligence channel, celebrated by the name-Russia Today ( RTTV ) , aimed to offer intelligence chiefly from a ‘Russian position ‘ to give a loyal touch to the channel. It was successfully launched in 2005. The development of another English linguistic communication based set-up of intelligence channel CCTV-9, China Central Television, reiterated the recognition by the Beijing governments of the value added by the English linguistic communication for successful execution of international trade and exchange of thoughts and their attack to convey public diplomatic negotiations of China closer to cosmopolitan audience. These provokers of multinational and planetary media flows in all way non merely have a robust regional being but they are besides working towards ask foring audiences outside their main people. ( Miles, 2005:426 )
5. Globalization of Education with the aid of Global Media
The globalisation of media taking to easy entree to all the information for interested consumers, along with the globalisation of the more important sector i.e. higher instruction, implies that the probe, research and preparation of media lessons faces instant and intense challenges. Furthermore, the construct of globalisation of higher instruction would intend that pupils stipulate internationalisation of instruction and related information. As pupils today are turning out to be nomadic, looking for higher instruction exterior to their ain domestic systems and traditions and for pupils, the media surveies is majorly accepted with pupils across the universe ( Thussu, 2007: 163 ) .
An accurately internationalized course of study means the incorporation of a planetary component into instruction and conveyance of cognition, research and development. Besides, internationalisation of research and instruction agencies proof and rating of the patterns and perceptual experiences of pupils and research workers from all states across the Earth, similar as it happened in the initial yearss of media surveies from diverse societal groups within national boundaries ( Thussu, 2007: 164 )
Influence of India and China: The economic growing and development and the “ peaceable lifting ” of one of the most influential states in South Asia-India and China, severally, besides known as ancient civilisations demoing tremendous potency to hold an impact on the approaching planetary “ cognition society ” . These states are most likely to hold an consequence on the manner media surveies is conceived. On one manus, India has the typical characteristic of being the proprietor of the universe ‘s busiest intelligence market as it has 56 intelligence channels runing round-the-clock. On the other manus, China has surfaced as the universe ‘s taking user of cyberspace and cellular phone market and the universe ‘s taking marketer of merchandises of IT industry ( Thussu, 2007: 164 )
6. Growth of Television in Global Media:
6.1 Wide Reach Of Television Worldwide
Regardless of alone cosmopolitan growing of the cyberspace, another media i.e. telecasting is the 1 that has proved to be the most universally accepted and dominant of all media. As per the industry estimates, around 2.5 billion people globally spend more than three hours on watching telecasting in a twenty-four hours and the biggest addition is in Asiatic states such as India ( Herman and McChesney,1997: 104 ) . In India, the release of the telecasting market from rigorous Government ordinances and coming of new communicating and engineering expertness in the early old ages of 1990s transformed the face of telecasting and manner it was perceived, which accordingly led to many new entrants in the industry followed by a monolithic growing in the figure of Television channels aired ( Singhal and Rogers, 2001: 42 )
6.2 Advent of Murdoch in Indian News Market
Rupert Murdoch, who is president and CEO of News Corporation, had a considerable influence on the airing mentality in Indian province specially when the stage of alone growing. His pan-Asian web, popularly known as Star ( Satellite Television Asian Region ) has done a complete make-over of the manner Television intelligence and amusement is perceived in the state, and at other topographic points in Asia. Though in initial phases it met with immense success, but programming founded on footing of Hollywood did non corroborate net incomes for Rupert Murdoch in India, because of the ground that merely by a small English-speaking population which is less than 5 per centum of India ‘s population of over 1 billion ) were its viewing audiences. Recognizing the defects of this attack, Murdoch began to chiefly Indianize his webs and so farther restricted their scheduling to travel good with the series and diverseness of cultural and lingual picks covering the full domestic market. ( Thussu, 2007: 4 )
6.3 Success of Murdoch in India
As in instance of amusement, support from a powerful local spouse added as a decisive factor in Murdoch ‘s scheme for deriving success in the field of intelligence. arena More significantly, since Indian broadcast medium ordinance prohibits bulk ownership of intelligence channels. The successful stretch of Television channels of Murdoch in Indian market, that is extremely acclaimed as one of the most aggressive and purely controlled and monitored markets for broadcast medium, has chiefly been made possible because of their schemes for indianizing their content. This has dextrously shown that local sensitivenesss are more important than planetary attack. The localisation of substance and execution and adapting of Indian spoken linguistic communications, covered commixture of assorted Indian linguistic communications with English in order to show a hybridized version of media linguistic communication, today popular as Hinglish. Apart from this, there was besides an unambiguous emphasis being put on the certificates of the channel as a national one i.e. when Star News adopted the thought of advancing themselves to the local audience with the label ‘your ain ‘ channel ( Thussu, 2007: 5 )
7. Growth of Non-Western/Eastern states in planetary media
Nipponese houses, where traditionally the export merchandises chiefly consisted of sketch films and docudramas have now started selling merchandises such as play, soap operas and on-line game-shows.
The manufacturers in Hong Kong, India and Egypt besides strengthened their being in their regional and lingual countries and besides in the assorted diasporic markets ( Sinclair and Cunningham 1996: 16 ) .
The powerful media houses of Mexico and Brazil established new chances in world-wide telecasting market, majorly with the aid of selling up of Telenovelas ( Sinclair 1999: 23 )
Recently, some of the manufacturers in Latin America sold designs and formats to the United States and several other European states.
Assorted European states, following apprehensivenesss about their national civilization and demand to promote growing of “ national ” telecasting have started utilizing quotas that chiefly intend to command the entrance Hollywood plans ( Sinclair and Cunningham 1996: 19 ) .
The Theories associating to media imperialism i.e. sponsoring, know aparting, dividing or unreal infliction of one ‘s civilization in media ) and common “ one-way ” flows defined the first phase in 1960s and 1970s, which can be portrayed by the control of Hollywood productions and upcoming industries in different parts of the universe. Later on, in 1980s and 1990s, arguments about flows in other waies led to a new stage that portrayed the rise and connection of new and approaching manufacturers and exporters, particularly in the 3rd universe. Scholars and research workers back uping globalisation have begun to accept that industries in the South present contra-flows which is opposing western universe ‘s media worldwide domination and are coming up with their ain policies to oppose or sabotage such standardisation.