Management education and development programme for South Africa


This subdivision sets the scene for the survey by analyzing the prevailing state of affairs at the clip of its origin. The ground for the survey and the purposes thereof are explained and a motive for the survey provided.

The balance of the subdivision is devoted to an account for the logic of entering the survey in stages as opposed to chapters and supplying the construction of the thesis.

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The existent survey spanned a period of 14 old ages get downing in 1994 at a clip when South Africa was witnessing a wide expanse of unprecedented political alteration and traveling from an institutionalized apartheid construction towards a democracy.

On the 2nd February 1990, President de Klerk announced the unbanning of political administrations and the start of a passage to democracy. While it was possible, from so, to consequence alteration in the political domain by undoing apartheid constructions and re-writing the Constitution, it would turn out far more hard to cover with unacceptable wealth, income and accomplishment disparities brought approximately by inequalities of power and chance. Undoing the effects of apartheid and run intoing the demands and aspirations of the huge bulk of South Africans has been a drawn-out and complicated procedure that will likely still take many old ages to carry through. ( Apartheid and its societal desolation are more to the full discussed in stage 2 – Historical Perspective ) .

At this clip ( 1994 ) , concern leaders were confronted with the demand to specify a typical function for their administrations which were, and still are, runing in an sphere where political alteration, altering consumer profiles and re-entry into planetary markets highlighted the demand to turn to gross racial inequalities in the workplace. This resulted in affirmatory action and black promotion programmes going a strategic issue.

The state of affairs was exacerbated by an ague skills deficit of competent Black people to make full managerial and supervisory stations. The formal sector of the economic system had a famine of black directors with less than five per centum of managerial and supervisory stations occupied by Blacks ( Human, 1990 ) . Surveies suggested that by the twelvemonth 2000, South Africa would necessitate an extra 120000 higher degree directors with Whites merely able to make full 45000 of these places ( CBM, 1993:31 )

As Binedell stated:

“ South African concern has become accustomed to a White, male-dominated hierarchal societal and economic system. Although altering easy, the South African direction category is about entirely white and male and draws from one little sector of the South African societal spectrum ” ( 1993:8 )

In order to thrive, administrations needed to accommodate to the altering socio-political conditions by tackling and incorporating the endowments of black employees into mainstream organizational life.

Executives were faced with turn toing and making an consciousness of these switching paradigms. The African National Congress ( ANC ) led Government ‘s initial scheme seemed to be to trust that the menace of statute law would be sufficient to carry concerns to establish affirmatory action programmes. Many companies were cognizant of the demand for alteration and implemented some signifier of advancement programme, while others, instead than run the hazard of affirmatory action statute law in the hereafter took preemptive action, nevertheless, at this clip most take to disregard the state of affairs.

This increased consciousness of the demand for promotion of Blacks into direction places led to a figure of preparation and development programmes being implemented, with limited success. There was a big growing in preparation suppliers, no uncertainty sparked by an entrepreneurial enterprise to prehend commercial chances that resulted in a immense addition in workshops, seminars and preparation classs being offered to companies by advisers every bit good as a mushrooming group of preparation endeavors. In most cases, immense amounts of money were spent on expensive preparation for a privileged few.

One of the ruins of instruction in a work topographic point at this clip was people ‘s apprehension of how they were involved and for what intent. The unstructured nature of classs, where measuring was based on how many employees completed a class, instead than on whether or non the employees learned, or what they learned, was a common happening in South African work topographic points ( Crawford, 1995:82 ) . This was peculiarly relevant in the early 1990 ‘s when Government provided subsidies and revenue enhancement discounts for developing strategies.

The classs were frequently unequal, being theory based rules of direction which had small or no relevancy to the practical facets or demands of the employee ‘s occupation. They did non take awareness of the demand to develop an instruction procedure that would provide specifically for the demands of the people involved, nor did they turn to the issue of calling waies and they surely did non authorise unskilled people. In fact, the ‘quick-fix ‘ solution they provided frequently resulted in a baffled and defeated, instead than enlightened, employee. This, in bend, resulted in dissatisfied executives who felt that the programmes did non work and that their employees either lacked the ability or the motive and committedness to larn.

Attempts at developing a comprehensive direction instruction programme by and large appeared to be haphazard and at that place was a demand for a good thought out scheme which would map the route in front and feed on solid research information. There was a deficit of research informations, in this field, relevant to South African administrations. A big per centum of the instruction and preparation programmes available in this state were American. ( Charoux, 1986:7 )

Ultimately, Affirmative Action policies were legislated in 1998 through the Employment Equity Act and the Skills Development Act ( Act 97 of 1988 ) . The execution of employment equity was ab initio perceived as both burdensome and negative by many employers ensuing in a slow start.

The Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment scheme was launched by authorities in March 2003 ( Act 53 of 2003 ) to accomplish the “ vision of an economic system that meets the demands of all South Africans in a more just mode ” . At this point in clip, there are still a big figure of little concerns who have non adopted this attack and who do non to the full follow with Black Economic Authorization demands.

At this clip, 2003, the labor market was still racially divided with White persons ruling most of the skilled businesss and direction places, for illustration Whites held 81,5 % of the top direction occupations and merely 16.9 % of unskilled occupations in South Africa, while inkinesss were concentrated in unskilled and semi-skilled businesss as shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Distribution of workers in occupational groups, per centum by race, 2001-03

Occupational classs




Top direction













Senior direction













Professionals and in-between direction









Skilled proficient and direction


























Beginning: Department of Labour 2001, 2002 and 2003

Whatever the positions, the world now is that South African administrations have to follow with the new statute law. They should ideally impart their energy and concentrate towards guaranting that development enterprises are implemented in a holistic manner, of benefit to both employees and the company as a whole which in bend will profit the whole South African economic system.

As Moleke ( 2006 ) provinces:

“ Equity statute law can merely decide portion of the job. Human resource development requires a holistic attack, with committedness and action from authorities ( including attempts to better instruction and preparation by the Departments of Education and Labour ) , employers ( in altering their human resource direction patterns ) , and single employees ( in turn toing informal favoritism ) . Enterprises by any of these stakeholders entirely will non be effectual without complementary committednesss from the others ” .


In 1994, I was running my ain direction consulting concern and was approached by the Managing Director of a fabrication company with the petition to plan and present a direction programme for four black supervisors who did non hold the educational makings to inscribe for formal direction programmes at a third establishment.

He was of the sentiment that these supervisors had the ability and the possible to be trained as directors, but were being below the belt excluded on the evidences that they had failed to accomplish the necessary educational criterions through fortunes beyond their control.

The Managing Director ‘s theory was substantiated by Human, who stated:

“ It has besides been argued that an frequently arbitrary and by and large excessively high degree of instruction is required for occupations of a lower managerial and supervisory nature when these degrees of instruction have non been proven to hold prognostic cogency with regard to occupation public presentation ” ( 1990:144 ) .

She goes on to state that much of our believing on direction development in South Africa is “ … unhappily, non shaped by the demands in society but instead by the elitist nature of academic activity ” .

The brief was to develop a programme that would set up what cognition, accomplishments, understanding and attitudes are truly necessary for the effectual public presentation of a in-between director and to so do certain that the emerging directors acquired and developed these properties.

It was an exciting challenge and an chance to research new thoughts, constructs and theoretical accounts with a position to personal and organizational development. It was besides a daunting challenge which posed so many inquiries that rapidly had me trawling through related literature, which in many cases created more inquiries than were answered.

The petition raised many issues as I pondered and reflected on understanding ‘management instruction ‘ . The decision was that the mere ownership of cognition and rational accomplishments would be deficient as the director would besides necessitate the self-esteem, values and the assurance to utilize the cognition and accomplishments efficaciously. Furthermore, although directors must get a huge scope of techniques and accomplishment, they are runing in complex, dynamic and frequently unpredictable state of affairss for which specific developing solutions can non ever be provided.

This resulted in my premise that managerial potency, or how efficaciously a director will execute, can non be predicted strictly by academic accomplishment and that exciting an asking head will take to growing. This position is supported by Dore ( 1976:53 ) who in his unfavorable judgment of an over concentration upon accomplishment of sheepskin and makings asks:

“ What of imaginativeness, creativeness, honestness, wonder and the finding to acquire to the underside of things, the desire to make a good occupation for its ain interest? These are non the qualities likely to be bred by a drawn-out dosage of qualification-orientated instruction. ”


This exploratory survey addressed the research job: How to plan and present a direction instruction and development programme for four black supervisors who did non hold the educational makings to inscribe for formal direction programmes at a third establishment.

This translated into the undermentioned research inquiries?

Do people without the necessary educational criterions have the possible and the ability to go effectual directors?

What cognition, accomplishments and attitudes are necessary to be an effectual director and how are these cognition, accomplishments and attitudes best acquired in a workplace?


The purpose was to happen a manner of righting the instabilities, ensuing from historical political prejudice, which deprived many Black people of the chance to carry through their managerial potency. This provided a agencies to pacify my ‘white guilt ‘ and choler at the unfairnesss of apartheid, which were some of the motivation factors for undertaking the undertaking in the first topographic point. However, it was impossible to support a direction programme inspired out of a sense of responsibility to ‘make right yesteryear wrongs ‘ , the aim of the programme was to do a meaningful part to four people ‘s lives by supplying personal development chances through a non-traditional direction instruction programme every bit good as a part to direction development, concern betterment and socio-economic transmutation. These aims are in maintaining with the aims for all Da Vinci Institute ‘s doctorial pupils.

In trying a undertaking of this nature, there were many obstructions and jobs to confront that were both complex and sensitive. But, the motive to accept the challenge was based on the premise that direction accomplishments and leading behavior can be developed through relevant preparation and expert guided experience and the strong belief that willing and able non-managerial Black employees can and should be developed to travel into direction places.

From the literature reviews discussed in stages 3 and 6, there appeared to be a wide consensus that larning and organizational alteration require a scope of development, preparation and acquisition attacks ; that the traditional external class, while moderately effectual as a briefing device for advancing consciousness, is hapless at advancing behavioral and organizational alteration ; that alteration is more likely to be achieved via techniques specifically aimed at peculiar larning marks related to the person ‘s practical undertakings and experience ; and that development, preparation and coaching should, when appropriate, take topographic point as stopping point to the work state of affairs as possible.

Aim of the survey

The purpose of the survey was to develop and present a feasible and sustainable method of grownup instruction for the development and promotion of four black female supervisors to direction places, by:

Locating the programme in values of equality and justness with regard for human self-respect ;

Approaching grownup instruction in such a manner that the participants would be involved in their ain acquisition experience ;

Involving the whole administration in the procedure, utilizing a systems attack, and turn toing issues of socialization, civilizations, values, attitudes and perceptual experiences ;

Identifying the practical deductions of presenting the invention into a specific workplace and implementing the programme ; and

Measuring the programme, with peculiar mention to its relevancy to the participants and their alteration in behavior.

This meant that for the invention to win, the company had to accommodate and aline itself both structurally and culturally to altering fortunes and new attacks.

THE Setting

The survey was conducted in a fabrication company in Gauteng, in South Africa. It is the most advanced metropolitan part in the state. Although it covers less than two per centum of South Africa ‘s entire land mass it contributes more than 50 per centum of Gross Domestic Product and accommodates about one one-fourth of the entire population ( De Beer, 1990 ) . The town in which the mill was situated was preponderantly Afrikaans and was a Conservative Party fastness.

The programme was implemented in a fabrication administration. It is a in private owned company that employed about 80 people and had a turnover in surplus of five million Rand per annum in 1994. The fabrication procedure is labour intensive with most phases of production necessitating a skilled labor force.

The chosen trainees were all Black females with formal instruction degrees runing from class 9 to rate 12. All of them were loyal employees who had at least 15 old ages of work experience in the company and all were employed in a supervisory capacity.

Their elected wise mans and managers were both White males. The Factory / Production Manager had a sheepskin in Production Management and a figure of old ages of production and direction experience. The General Manager had an undergraduate commercialism grade and many old ages of direction experience, but had non been actively involved in the production procedure.


Through the usage of a diary ( originally conceived of as personal contemplations ) and elaborate field notes, each stage of this thesis was basically written as the procedure evolved and hence this research study provides a chronological sequence of events. For this ground, the survey is recorded in stages “ a clearly distinguishable period or phase in a procedure, in the development of something, or in a sequence of events ” , instead than in structured chapters “ subdivisions of a book ” . ( Definitions conform to Encarta Dictionary )

Over this period of clip my functions changed and evolved from the initial interior decorator of an accelerated human development enterprise to the facilitator of the invention, incorporated with the function of research worker throughout the survey, and eventually to doctorial pupil researching whether the rhythms of intercessions chosen really worked to alter the debatable state of affairs.

To get down, it was necessary to contextualise the research by depicting the workplace state of affairs at the clip, the scene in which the survey took topographic point and sketching the grounds for prosecuting in the survey, which has been done in this stage.

Phase 2 provides the historical position which illuminates the grounds for the disadvantage of Blacks in South Africa. My autobiographical contemplations on the state of affairs provide some of the motive for a survey of this nature.

Phase 3 is based on the literature reappraisal undertaken to derive a better apprehension of the construct of instruction, in peculiar grownup instruction, and course of study design in order to develop a ‘theoretical ‘ place that informed my ‘practice ‘ .

Phase 4 includes the research methodological analysis based on a description and treatment of the peculiar signifier of action research that was used for this survey.

Phase 5 looks at the initial action program for the educational invention and its principle which is contained in the concern proposal papers that was submitted to the company.

Phase 6 records the organizational kineticss of acquiring the procedure started, including a literature reappraisal on direction theories required to inform the course of study design.

Phase 7 outlines the operational kineticss of the procedure, the booby traps encountered and the advancement made, reasoning with contemplations on the invention through critical duologue.

Phase 8 provides the experiential position and an overall rating of the procedure every bit good as contemplations on the ‘growth ‘ of all the participants. It is in this stage that the ‘voice ‘ of the participants can be heard.

Phase 9 goes beyond the initial instance survey and here I consider the deductions of widening the survey and effort to retroflex it in other workplace scenes.

Phase 10 introduces the Da Vinci logic and links this survey to it an effort to formalize it to their TIPS ( direction of engineering, invention, people and systems ) theoretical account.

Phase 11 provides the reasoning position to the survey and sums up the findings of this research.


Given the span of clip taken to finish the survey, a timeline of these events is included below to put the model for the chronological description and treatments in the thesis and to help the reader to contextualise the research in the period that the survey was conducted ( 1994 – 2008 ) and the clip of authorship and subjecting the research study ( 2008 – 2010 ) .


April 1994

Approached by Pull offing Director with petition to plan and present a direction programme.

Phase 1

Conducted an extended literature hunt.

Phase 3

Development of a model for the design and execution of the programme.

Phase 5

June 1994

Research thought Born.

Identified appropriate research methodological analysis.

Phase 4

July 1994

Presented proposal and action program to direction squad.

Proposal accepted.

Phase 5

August 1994

Introductory meetings and workshops.

Curriculum designed.

Programme implemented.

Phase 6

October 1996

Coaching crisis.

Production director removed as manager.

I moved into workplace as 2nd manager.

Phase 7

December 1996

Production director resigned.

Emerging director promoted to production director.

November 1998

Programme successfully completed.

Emerging directors now to the full fledged directors.

Phase 7

December 1998

Exited programme.


Phase 8

May 1999

Attempt to retroflex procedure in a different workplace.

Phase 9

November 1999

Owner of concern emigrates and a new Managing Director is appointed.

March 2000

Programme abandoned due to miss of direction committedness and support.

August 2002

Third effort at implementing procedure.

March 2003

Company put into settlement.

October 2004

Re-implemented programme in initial workplace for sequence planning.

April 2008

Programme successfully completed.

August 2010

Revisited workplace. ‘Where are they now? ‘


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