Nursing Research

HISTORICAL LANDMARKS AFFECTING NURSING RESEARCH YEAREVENT| 1859Nightingale’s Notes on Nursing published| 1900American Nursing Journal begins publication| 1923Columbia University establishes first doctoral program for nurses| Goldmark Report with recommendations for nursing education published| 1930sAmerican Journal of Nursing publishes clinical cases studies| 1948Brown publishes report on inadequacies of nursing education| 1952The journal Nursing Research begins publication| 955Establishment of nursing research center at Walter Reed Army Institue of Research| 1963International Joursnal of Nursing Studies begins publication| 1971ANA establishes a Commission on Research| 1972ANA establishes its Council of Nurse Researchers| 976Stetler and Marram publish guidelines on assessing research for use in practice| 1978The journals Research in Nursing & Health and Advances in Nursing Science begin publication| 1979Western Journal of Nursing research begins publication| 1982The Conduct and Utilization or Research in Nursing (CURN) project publishes report| 1983Annual Review of Nursing Research begins publication| 1985ANA Cabinet on Nursing Research establishes research priorities| 1986National Center for Nursing Research (NCNR) established within U. S.

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National Institues of Health| 1987The journal Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice begins publication| 1988The journals Applied Nursing Research and Nursing Science Quarterlybegin publication| Conference on Research Priorities (CORP #1) is convened by NCNR| 1989U. S. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) is established| 1992The journal Clinical Nursing Research begins publication| 1993 NCNR becomes a full institute, the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)| CORP #2 is convened to establish priorities for 1995-1999| The Cochrane Collabortaion is established|

The journal Journal of Nursing Measurement begins publication| 1994The journal Qualitative Health Research begins publication| 1997Canadian Health Services Research Foundation is established with federal funding| 1999AHCPR is renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)| 2000NINR issues funding priorities for 2000-2004; annual funding exceeds $100M| The Canadian Institue of Health Research is launched| The journal Biological Research for Nursing begins publication| NURSING RESEARCH MILESTONES —-The early years: From Nightingale to the 1950s—- * Florence Nightingale landmark publication—Notes on Nursing (1859) describes early interest in environmetal factors that promote physical &emotional well-being * research contribution-her data collection and analysis relating to factors affecting soldier mortality and morbidity during the Crimean War * Years later, nursing literature contained little research; maybe due to absence of apprenticeship in nursing * At the turn of the century, pattern of nsg. research was closely aligned to problems affecting nurses. * Studies conducted between 1900 and 1940 concerned nurses’ education. 1923- Committee for the Study of Nursing Education studied educational preparation of nurse teachers, administrators & public health nurses and the clinical experiences of nsg. students. -committee issued Goldmark Report which identified many inadequacies in the backgrounds of the grps. studied; advanced educational preparation was needed. * 1940s-studies about nsg. education continued, spurred on by demand for nsg. personnel during WWII * 1948- Brown reassessed nsg. education at the request of the Nat’l Nsg. Council for War Service * Findings like Goldmark Report-Brown recommended education of nurses in collegiate settings 1950s- Nursing research on a rapidly accelerating upswing * Forces that influenced the upswing of Nsg. Research: * Increase in no. of nurses with advanced educational degrees * Establishment of a nsg. research cener at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research * Increase in the availability of funds from the gov’t and private foundations * Inception of the American Nurses’ Foundation (devoted exclusively to Nsg. Research) * 1952- Nursing Research came into being-to meet need for a journal in which nsg. research findings can be published * Nsg.

Research took a twist not experienced by research in other professions— Nurses studied themselves. —-Nursing Research in the 1960s—- * Knowledge development through research began in earnest in 1960s * Nsg. Leaders began to express concern about lack of research in nsg. practice * Prof’l nsg. organizations—Western Interstate Council for Higher Education in Nsg. – Established priorities for research investigations * Practice-oriented research on different clinical topics began to emerge * Period during which terms like conceptual framework, conceptual model, nsg. rocess, theoretical base of Nursing began to appear in the literature and to influence views about the role of theory in nsg. research. * Nsg. Research began to advance worldwide—the International Journal of Nursing Studies began Publication in 1963; the Canadian Journal of Nursing Research was first published in 1968. —-Nursing Research in the 1970s—- * Growing no. of nurses conducting research studies and the discussions of theoretical & contextual issues surrounding nursing research led to need for additional communication outlets. Additional journals that focus on nsg. research were established: * Advances in Nursing Science * Research in Nursing & Health * Western Journal of Nursing Research * Journal of Advanced Nursing * Shift in emphasis in nsg. research from areas like teaching, curriculum, & the nurses themselves to the improvement of cllient care—indicatiing growing awareness by nurses of the need for a scientific base from which to practice. * Nurses also began to focus on use of research findings in nsg. practice. * No. f nurses with doctorates increased and the availability of both predoctoral and postdoctoral research fellowships facilitated development of advnaced research skills. —-Nursing Research in the 1980s—- * Nsg. research brought to a new level of development; influenced by: * Inc. in no. of nurse researchers * Availability of computers for collection & analysis of info. * Ever-growing recognition that research is an integral part of professional nursing. * More attention was paid to types of questions being asked, methods of collecting and analyzing info. eing used, the linking of research to theory and the use of research findings in practice. * 1st volume of the Annual Review of Nursing Research published in 1983—summarizes current research knowledge on areas of research practice. * Center for Research for Nursing – created in 1983 by the American Nurses’ Association; mission: to develop and coordinate research program to serve as the source of nat’l info. for the profession. * National Center for Nursing Research (NCNR) – established at the National Institutes of Health in 1986; purpose: to promote and financially support research training and research projects related to patient care. Forces that helped shape nsg. research landscape: McMaster medical School in Canada designed a clinical learning strategy called Evidence-Based Medicine that promulgated the view that scientific research findings were far superior to opinions of authorities as bases for clinical decisions. * Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) [later renamed the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality {AHRQ}] established by U. S. gov’t in 1989-charged with supporting research specifically designed to improve health care quality, reduce health costs and enhance pt. afety thus playing a pivotal role in promulgation of EBP. —-Nursing Research in the 1990s—- * National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) – marked promotion of NCNR to full institute status within the NIH in 1993. * Funding for nsg. research has grown. * Research journals established: Qualitative Health Research, Clinical Nursing Research, Clinical Effectiveness, Outcomes management for Nursing Practice * Cochrane Collaboration inaugurated in 1993; an int’l network of institutions and individuals that maintains and updates systematic reviews of hundreds of clinical interventions to facilitate EBP.

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