Low cost bearers have reshaped the air hose industry competitory environment within liberalised markets and have made important impacts in the universe ‘s domestic rider markets, which had antecedently been mostly controlled by full service web bearers ( O’Connell and Williams, 2005 ) . On the other manus, low cost bearers have opened new markets for people who were antecedently denied winging due to finance restraint to pay traditional air hoses ‘ menus. The construct of low cost air hoses allows persons with higher winging power.
The low-cost bearer ( LCC ) revolution had its beginnings in the USA, and since so it has had a dramatic impact on peculiar air conveyance markets. Since so, the construct of LCC has proved to be monetarily and operationally robust for a figure of domestic operations. Low-fare services have been made possible by high aircraft use with rapid turnaround of no in-flight repasts, no frequent circular stat mis and no airdrome lounges.
In the USA, the incursion rate of three major low-cost bearers – Southwest Airlines, JetBlue, and AirTran Corporation was 19.4 per centum in 2007 ( U.S. Department of Transportation, 2008 ) . In 2011, low cost bearers reported an addition of 6.0 per centum net income border, with net incomes of $ 408 million for the 12th back-to-back profitable one-fourth ( U.S Department of Transportation, 2011 ) .
In Southeast Asia, there are several LCC in operation, including ; AirAsia in Malaysia ; Lion Air, and Mandala in Indonesia ; Cebu Pacific and South East Asian Air in the Philippines, Air Asia, One-Two-Go, and Nok Air in Thailand and JetStar Airways, JetStar Asia, SilkAir, Tiger Airways and late launched – Scoot Airlines in Singapore. In Singapore, domestic air travel with LCCs has been continuously increasing since the outgrowth of their budget air hoses in 2004. Low cost bearers have somehow successfully allowed suites for going ; peculiarly short finishs, as more travelers now seek budget menus, besides noted by, ( Page, 2003 ) .
1.2 Purpose and Objectives of Study
Since so, Changi Airport scaled a important milepost in its handling of a record of 48 million rider motions ( Changi Airport Group, 2012 ) . Therefore, there is no uncertainty that with the invention of LCCs, it has boosted the figure of riders going and makes going more low-cost.
Similar to other parts, one factor that makes LCCs a success in footings of figure of riders is its attractive low menu, which attracts about all types of riders. Seeking the factors act uponing the manner choices of travelers and understanding their travel features in chiefly choosing low cost bearers against full service air hoses for going would benefits both LCCs and FSAs service suppliers to better their service or schemes.
The chief intent of this survey is to place the grounds and factors that extremely motor Singapore travelers in their choice of low cost bearers. In effort to supply farther penetration into the nexus between the important factors of manner choice and the high popularity of low cost bearer against full service air hoses, this research presents an empirical research survey with the aims to:
1 ) Investigate Singapore travelers ‘ perceptual experiences on LCC and FSA
2 ) Identify their preferable manner of choices on LCC against FSA
3 ) Examine and research the important factors/criteria that influenced the high popularity of LCC
1.3 Structure of the Study
The debut presents the background survey of the subject ( low cost bearers ) and purpose and aims of research, in this instance ; the increasing tendencies of riders since the outgrowth of low cost bearers. The literature reappraisal describes the theoretical constituent of the survey. It is classified into two parts ; the monetary value and demand and the manner choice. In this subdivision, the monetary value overviews the cost construction of low cost airfares and the conducive factors of demands to the preparation of airfares. Additionally, the demand for low cost air travel including the impacting tendencies to the cost monetary value of airfares is able to excite demand will be analysed.
The methodological analysis divided into secondary and primary informations – is the application of the practical portion of literature reappraisal explaining the procedure in achieving the research objectives through informations aggregation and analysis of the choices of LCCs against FSAs. Afterwards, findings of informations from the research will be executed and analysed further in the treatments through the utilised of XL Data Analyst ( graphical, standard divergence, conjectural informations, etc. ) and in conclusion the decisions.
This thesis is divided into five chief parts ; the debut, the literature reappraisal, the methodological analysis, the research findings and treatments and the decisions. In the literature review the of import topics which besides have been identified as aims of the survey will be treated and serve as requirements for the practical portion.
PRICE & A ; DEMAND
FINDINGS & A ; DISCUSSIONS
Figure 1: Structure of Study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
Harmonizing to Pompl ( 2002 ) , different air hose concern theoretical accounts are: scheduled, charter, low cost air hoses and cargo bearers. Airlines have traditionally targeted service quality in the concern travel and luxury market for first category travel. However, this traditional scheme has been significantly challenged in many markets that have allowed liberalization of services and new entrants to vie for concern – notably low cost bearers.
As articulated by Barrett ( 2008 ) , the outgrowth of the low cost bearer has had monolithic deductions for the growing of touristry and brought big decreases in monetary value and big additions in the figure of flight seats, as illustrated in figure 1. Since that, the low cost air hoses revolution has impacted traveler for more suites for going. The development of lost cost bearers will be analysed more inside informations below.
THE EMERGENCE OF LOW COST CARRIERS
Increase figure of popularity and seats available
Cut Price Baggage
Low Levy & A ; Taxes
Figure 2: Designation of general subjects ( ain digest )
In this thesis, the theoretical account of low cost air hoses, their relationship with rider transit ( leisure/business travelers ) and their impact on the increasing popularity of rider play a critical function.
For many tourers and recreationalists, conveyance is seen as simply useful or functional ( Duval, 2007 ) . For an illustration, a concern traveler winging from Singapore to London Heathrow may be interested chiefly in procuring a flight that is within his or her budget and instantly accessible at a peculiar clip. A household taking a vacation from London to Singapore may utilize similar decision-making standards. As a consequence, the decision-making standards may be focused on the cost and efficiency of this peculiar manner of conveyance.
2.1 Mode Choices
To explicate mode pick, manner pick properties may be used in a manner pick theoretical account. Several pick theoretical accounts have attempted to explicate single differences in manner penchants. The distinct manner pick theoretical account based on random public-service corporation theory includes specific variables or discernible variables to separate single in penchants. Since 1985, several research workers have focused on heightening the traditional theoretical account with latent variables or unobservable variables such as average comfort and convenience, which can be measured through attitudes towards the chosen and an alternate manner ( Ben-Akiva and Lerman 1985, McFadden 1986, Morikawa and Sasaki 1998 ) .
A figure of research workers have studied factors act uponing mode choice of low-priced and full-services air hoses. Mason ( 2001 ) reported that short-haul concern travelers are going increasingly more monetary value sensitive ( this will be farther discussed in the following subdivision ) . The profile of concern travelers utilizing low cost bearers varies harmonizing to the size of company they work for, the engagement procedure used, the channel used to book flights, and the importance placed on monetary value of travel in peculiar, in flight services and frequent circular strategies. Travelers utilizing LCCs for concern besides use FSA and frailty versa.
Although monetary value seems to be of import to travelers utilizing LCCs, it is besides a primary concern for FSA travellers. Fourie and Lubbe ( 2006 ) conducted research in South Africa to look into factors that may act upon concern travellers in their choice of FSAs and LCCs. The consequences, utilizing the Mann-Whitney U-test, revealed that important factors were frequent circular plans, schedule/ frequence of flights, in-flight repasts and drinks, airdrome sofa installations, and holding a concern category option and a pre-seating option. It was besides found that monetary value is non a important factor in choosing an FSA or LCC. This may be due to the fact that South African Airlines ( SAA ) , a full-service air hose, has been viing strongly on monetary value with LCCs. However, relatively, Air Asia ( 2006 ) conducted a client study on short-haul flight. It revealed that the issues of most client concern are monetary value, frequence and path, and journey clip, while the issues of less concern are frequent circular points, nutrient, and easiness of booking. In add-on, O ‘ Connell and Williams ( 2005 ) have studied riders ‘ perceptual experience of low-priced air hoses and full-service bearers affecting Ryan Air, Aer Lingus, Air Asia, and Malaysia Airlines. It was reported that riders going with FSAs are concerned with dependability, quality, flight agendas, connexions, frequent circular plans, and comfort, while travellers taking LCCs focused entirely on menu.
2.2 Price and Demand
There is a small uncertainty that the growing in low-priced travel is the consequence of an advanced concern theoretical account that has successfully reduced air menus to a point that there are frequently cheaper than surface conveyance options ( Doganis, 2001 ; Caves & A ; Gosling, 1999 ) . Based on this, the success and increasing influences of low cost bearers may based on several standards, chiefly cost.
Pricing is the lone component of marketing mix that produces gross for the house as mentioned by Lovelock ( 1996 ) . He besides pointed that “ monetary value direction is a critical component in selling and competitory scheme and a cardinal determiner of public presentation ” . Besides the operation effectivity and outstanding efficiency the most deciding endurance of a company is its pricing scheme. Bilotkach ( 2007 ) examined monetary value puting scheme among low cost bearers concluded that low cost bearers had implemented dynamic pricing scheme ; the monetary value of the ticket was fluctuated harmonizing to the demand curve. Poala et Al, ( 2007 ) besides examined low cost air hose concern theoretical account by reasoning that low cost air hose implemented the optimization schemes by utilizing dynamic pricing scheme ticket menus tend to alter based on demand curve. This is besides determined by Wensveen ( 2007 ) , that as the monetary value falls, the corresponding measure demand rises ; instead, as monetary value additions, the corresponding measure demanded falls. This is labelled as the jurisprudence of demand by which people buy more at low monetary value than they do at high monetary value – is reflected in the downward incline of the demand curve in low cost bearers ( figure 3 ) .
Estimated figure of riders
Figure 3: An single air bearer ‘s demand for air transit per month between two metropoliss [ conjectural informations ] ( Beginning from: Wensveen, J.G. ( 2007 ) . Airline Pricing, Demand & amp ; Output Determination, Chapter 10, pp.289 )
Mason ( 2000 ) besides indicated that given the importance of concern travel market to traditional scheduled air hoses, the outgrowth of low air hoses has increased the leaning of concern travelers to utilize low cost, low frills air hoses in short draw markets.
However, as much literature pointed the advantages of low cost air hoses, Duval ( 2007 ) besides noted that full service air hoses ( FSAs ) have differentiated themselves on the footing of service and webs. Therefore, Duval pointed that FSAs may offer assorted categories of service ( e.g. economic system category, concern category and first category, or any combination of three ) and serve major hub or international airdromes. Their scheme that by and large drove FSAs is convenience and service and many FSAs self-praise tremendous grid or hub-and-spoke webs with high degree of connectivity.
For case, rider on-board an FSA could anticipate full repasts and frequently free drinks. Other comfortss provided include pillows, covers, hygiene kits ( including toothbrush, toothpaste, socks, etc ) , complimentary newspapers and entree to forces at either the beginning or finish to assist with farther travel agreements. This may non be seen when a rider on-board a LCC.
However, Barrett ( 2008 ) argued that the low cost air hose offers big menu decreases and point to indicate flights ( domestic travel ) from local airdromes instead than routing over hubs compared to the traditional full service air hoses. Barrett besides cited that in add-on to important menu nest eggs, the low cost air hoses besides a more individualized vacation, generated some consumer service betterments such as avoiding congested hub airdromes, better promptness at non-congested secondary airdromes with less walking distances and less waiting clip for luggage.
With respects to the complex statements between low cost air hoses and full service air hoses, Graf ( 2005 ) concluded that the air hose officeholders, peculiarly in Europe and Asia are progressively following low-priced schemes in add-on to their premium services. Some full services air hoses bring forthing low cost bearers as subordinates in hiking their market schemes. This was seen as the mutual exclusivenesss of low cost and web bearer concern theoretical account within the same air hose grouping. Graf decision can besides be seen in Singapore Airlines ( SIA ) at which the air hose has announced programs to establish a new no-frills, low-fare air hose runing broad organic structure aircraft on medium- and long-haul paths. “ We are seeing a new market section being created and this will supply another growing chance for the SIA Group, ” main executive, Goh Choon Phong ( CNN International, 2012 ) .
3.1 Selected Hypothesiss and Research Questions
As the footing for a conceptual model, this survey will use a theory that antecedently has shown in understanding facets of low cost bearers and the high popularity of LCCs among Singapore travelers. As articulated by Graham, Papatheodorom and Forsyth ( 2008 ) , the outgrowth of the low cost bearer has had monolithic deductions for the growing of touristry and brought big decreases in monetary value and big additions in the figure of flight seats. Since that, the low cost air hoses revolution in Singapore impacted a immense addition in the touristry economic system.
The research of the high popularity of LCCs in this survey will be presented in diagrammatic signifier ( as shown in figure 4 ) , farther explained in the Finding and Discussions chapter. It basically examines the undermentioned relationship among the variables ; on the addition of popularity of LCCs among Singapore travelers and the critical factors finding this addition.
With the executing of the conceptual model, several wide research inquiries and many specific hypotheses emerge from the theoretical account model.
3.1.1 Research inquiries:
1 ) Why do low cost bearers are extremely populated among Singapore travelers?
2 ) Why do Singapore travelers prefer to go by budget air hoses to some finishs?
3 ) What are the characteristics seen as to actuate these travelers to go by low cost bearers?
3.1.2 Selected Hypothesiss:
Hypothesis 1: Monetary value ; the critical factor act uponing the high popularity of low cost bearer in Singapore
Hypothesis 2: Handiness of high frequent flight agenda, a possible facet on the addition figure of LCCs riders
Hypothesis 3: Low menu on long draw traveling finishs, a plus factor to the big addition of LCCs flight seats
In the methodological analysis portion, methods that are used to accomplish the research aims and hypotheses will be presented. This includes considerations about secondary and primary informations. The executing of primary informations in the survey is a critical and outstanding research procedure.
3.2 Methodological Considerations
The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the important factors act uponing the higher popularity of low cost bearers against full service air hoses in Singapore. In order to accomplish this purpose, the two capable countries of low cost bearers and the high popularity LCCs among Singapore travelers have to be combined.
Therefore the aims are to look into the perceptual experience of Singapore travelers towards the operation of LCCs and FSAs and analyze the critical factors that act uponing the high manner choices of LCCs against FSAs. These findings will be applied on the practical instance of Singapore Changi Airport and Singapore travelers. Therefore, the research is carried out on the footing of primary and secondary informations beginnings. These two ways of choices will be explained in the undermentioned subdivisions.
3.2.1 Secondary Data
“ Secondary beginnings enable research workers to re-examine touristry phenomena, besides known as ‘retrospectivity ‘ and it is non something primary informations could make ” ( Jennings, 2001, p.68 ) . Secondary informations analysis represents readings, decisions, or extra cognition about the information collected.
Secondary informations is the chief instrument of the literature reappraisal. The research is carried out in the libraries of National Libraries Singapore, Management Development Institute Singapore ( MDIS ) libraries and EBSCO host database. Particularly the on-line archives of EBSCO offered broad assortment of articles in diaries. Research in on-line played a major function every bit good, although there are some restrictions.
Mentioning to the aims examines ; the nexus between the important factors of manner choice and the high popularity of low cost bearer against full service air hoses in Singapore. Several farther chapters from books and survey diaries are dedicated on the literature reappraisal ( as seen in the chapter ) and these chapters henceforth present the theoretical background of the research survey.
3.2.2 Primary Data ( Data Collection )
In order to measure up as a respondent in this survey, the audiences must hold flown on low cost bearers for either domestic path or regional traveling intents. The riders for the sample were selected utilizing convenience sampling technique.
Datas have been collected for 2 yearss on 13th and 20th Oct 2012. Questionnaires were distributed among riders waiting in the depart lounges of Low Cost Carrier Terminal ( T2 ) at Singapore Changi Airport. Surveys distributions were conducted to find the increasing influences of popularity in low cost bearers. Surveies were conducted with both work forces and adult female and participants were of Singapore beginning and were aged 18 old ages to 51 or above old ages old. Respondents were briefed about the aims of carry oning the research and were asked if they can take part voluntarily for a short questionnaires fill-up session. Passengers from the namely terminus are efficient in this class of survey since the footing of their intent at the terminus is to go by Low Cost Airlines.
A mixture of unfastened and closed structured studies was considered as an appropriate methodological analysis. A sum of 63 questionnaires had being distributed but merely 50 completed questionnaires were useable for farther analysis. This sample size should be considered equal for explorative analysis in detecting going behavior and a larger sample would be needed to formalize the survey ( Bejou et al. , 1998 ) . A sum of 17 inquiries ( as shown in Annex 1 ) were used to mensurate riders ‘ finding factors in taking Low Cost Carriers as their traveling air hoses mode choices.
To suit Graham, Papatheodorom and Forsyth ( 2008 ) who articulated that the outgrowth of the low cost bearer has had monolithic deductions for the growing of touristry and brought big decreases in monetary value and big additions in the figure of flight seats, this present survey has been designed to include 17 points related to the increasing influences of popularity in LCCs. The inquiries are the determiner in replying the research inquiries and possible selected hypotheses ( as examines in subdivision 3.1 ) .
An initial pool of points was generated from extended literature hunt supported by graduated tables of options on the riders ‘ selected low cost air hoses suppliers and the frequent traveling finishs. The first seven inquiries of the studies consisted of riders ‘ demographics and auxiliary information on the preferable LCCs suppliers and finishs. The following five inquiries, focused on the deciding factors act uponing the increased popularity of low cost air hoses. In relation to the selected hypothesis and research design ( as explained in 3.1 ) , the inquiries provides a wider mentality and support to the theory.
4.0 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Profiles of Respondents
The respondent ‘s profiles are summarised in Table 1. The male respondents represented 21 per centums while the female respondents represented 29 per centums of the samples. Majority of the respondents were at the age group between 21-30 old ages old followed by an equal 3 per centums for the minority age group of 41-50 and 51 or above old ages old. Southeast Asia is the widely held finish for most of the respondents and big bulk of 33 per centums of the respondents were found going by Tiger Airways.
( N=100 % )
Age Group ( in Yrs ) :
51 or above
Frequent Traveling Finish:
Frequent Boarding Airlines ( Low-Cost Carriers ) Group:
Table 1: Profile of Respondents
4.2 Dimensions of Low Cost Airlines based on Price
Monetary value ; the critical factor act uponing the increasing popularity of low cost bearers?
The undermentioned consequences showed that low cost bearers ‘ riders displayed high degrees of understandings on the hypothesis ; monetary value is the critical factor act uponing the increasing popularity of low cost bearers. This factor explained 76 per centums of the samples ; consisting 38 out of 50 respondents, agreed to the hypothesis that monetary value is the critical factor for the turning popularity of low cost bearers. Whereas, 24 per centums of the samples ; consisting 12 respondents claimed to be impersonal ( indifferent ; neither agreed nor disagree to the mentioned hypothesis ) . Most riders agreed to the footings that monetary value, is the outstanding standards that most are going by low cost air hoses which this can non be seen in full services air hoses.
Figure 5: Summarize Percentages Analysis Results
4.2.1 Dimension of Low Cost Airlines based on Monetary values ‘ Properties
In conformity to the old summarize consequences, in dislocation, several properties are seen demonstrated by low cost air hoses in carrying higher popularity of riders going from their manners. The undermentioned chart summarized the consequences in per centums, on the monetary value properties on the low cost air hoses. A clear consequences can be seen at such 46 per centums of the riders opted that low airfares remains the highest factors in the increasing influences of popularity in low cost air hoses. Second, functioning 24 per centums of the riders claimed that in add-on to the low airfares presentation, tickets obtained by low cost air hoses are easy accessible. The simple handinesss have avoided riders with trouble-free tickets engagements. On the other manus, merely a smattering of 17 per centums and 13 per centums riders agreed on the low levy and cut monetary value luggage attributes. This may ensue to a decision that some riders do non pay much concern as to whether low cost air hoses do provide cut monetary value luggage ascents.
Figure 6: Doughnut Chart Analysis Results
4.4 Dimensions of Selection on Low Cost Airlines based on the Two Highly Influencing Factors
Air transit is really sensitive to fluctuations in the economic system. If the economic system is in a recessive period, with higher than normal unemployment and reduced mill orders, both concern and pleasance travelers will be winging less. Hence, from the consequences, monetary value remains to be the deciding factors ; with 66 per centums of riders, at an approximative boundary between 52.9 per centums ( lower boundary ) and 79.1 per centums ( upper boundary ) .
However, every bit much as the low cost air hose offers big menu decreases, point to indicate flights from local airdromes instead than routing over hubs are every bit important. Passengers are allowed to go to specific airdromes which may be happen complex if employed by full service air hoses. Additionally, increasing long draw finishs are presented by low cost air hoses, therefore, 34 per centums of riders, at an approximative boundary between 20.9 per centums and 47.1 per centums selected the finishs factors.
Percentage 95 % Confidence Interval Analysis Results
Significant factors act uponing the increasing popularity of LCCs
Sum of All Categories
Figure 7: Generalize ( Confidence Interval Percent )
4.5 Dimensions of Selection on Low Cost Airlines based on Other Significant Criteria
Other independent variables in the chart consequences were the 13 factors of other important standards supported the lifting popularity of low cost bearers. As seen, I ) Low Airfares, II ) Price Affordability, III ) Cost Effectiveness, and IV ) Financially Conserving ( Budget ) remains the few outstanding standards. Consequence of these variables remains at a high figure of approximated 30 to 35 riders. However, I ) Wider Traveling Opportunities, II ) Convenience, and III ) Destinations every bit good, remains the 2nd most important standards to the topic of increasing popularity in low cost air hoses.
Figure 8: Column Chart Analysis Results
4.6 Dimensions of Low Cost Airlines based on Recommendation
One of the critical constituents to the success and continuance of concern chances in low cost air hoses is the recommendations. Recommendation and repetition riders offered low cost bearers to stay victory in the oncoming old ages of the air transit. The 2-groups trial analysis comprises of two high respond age group of 21-30 and 31-40 old ages old. This age group contained the two highest respondents of riders during the research methodological analysis. Henceforth, consequences shown that 96.3 per centums of age group between 21-30 old ages would really likely recommend and travel by low cost bearers, while 54.5 per centums for 31-40 old ages old. From the wealth information of consequences turn outing monetary value as the chief factors act uponing the increased popularity of low cost bearers, this trial consequences may be concluded that the age group between 21-30 old ages old are monetary value sensitive when it comes to going every bit compared to 31-40 old ages old.
2 Group Percents Differences Test Analysis Consequences
Std Err Diff
Would you go by low cost bearers once more and/or urge this to your families/friends?
Support for the hypothesis that the two per centums are equal?
At 95 % degree of assurance, this hypothesis is…
Figure 9: 2-Group Percentages Test Analysis Consequences
4.7 Findingss Grouping Analysis
As the footing for the findings grouping ( as illustrated in Figure.9 ) , this model will use an apprehension based on the supported hypotheses from the survey. The research of the high popularity in LCCs as presented in the summarisation of the findings ( as farther explained in the old chapter ) will be presented in a diagrammatic signifier. Based on the research and analysis of the findings, the figure examines the following relationship between bunchs of of import factors back uping the increased riders in LCCs and the hypotheses.
Consequences of Research:
H1: Monetary value ; the critical factor act uponing the high popularity of low cost bearer in Singapore
Consequences: Based on the hypothesis, an amounting 76 per centums of respondents agreed to the premise that monetary value is the dominant influences that increased the figure of low cost air hoses riders. Harmonizing to the monetary value features, several other variables in monetary value are analysed ; Low Fare, Easy Bookings, Cut Price Baggage Upgrades and Low Levy & A ; Taxes, consisting 46 per centums of respondent still selected low menus as the critical factor of the increased riders in LCCs. Therefore, after farther analysis, consequences shown: Supported.
H2: Handiness of high frequent flight agenda, a possible facet on the addition figure of riders
Consequences: In add-on to low menus, study shown respondents claimed that the high handiness of flight time/schedule in LCCs is one of the other factors that many travel by this air hose supplier. For case, six to seven flights a twenty-four hours allow riders the easy entree of travel even for last infinitesimal engagements. Therefore, research shown: Supported.
H3: Low Fare on long draw going finish, a plus factor to big addition of LCCs flight seats
Consequences: Approximately 34 per centums of respondents agreed to the theory that low cost menus on long draw finishs provide wider chances for riders to go further than regional topographic points. These performed as one of the attractive selling schemes in low cost air hoses which riders may non advantage from the full service air hoses. Hence, with this facet, raised of riders are significantly seen in the low cost bearers. Consequences shown: Supported.
Figure 9: Findingss Grouping ( ain digest )
1 ) AIR TICKETS
Cut Price Baggage Upgrades
Low Levy & A ; Taxes
H1: Monetary value ; the critical factor act uponing the high popularity of low cost bearer in Singapore
Consequences: Yes, supported
H2: Handiness of high frequent flight agenda, a possible facet on the addition figure of riders
Consequences: Yes, supported
H3: Low menu on long draw traveling finishs, a plus factor to big addition of LCCs flight seats
Consequences: Yes, supported
4 ) Demographic
Gender: ( Male/Female )
Age Group: ( 17 to 51 or Above old ages old )
Frequent Finishs: ( Southeast/South Asia, Australia )
Frequent Boarding LCCs Airlines Group: ( AirAsia/Tiger Airways/Jetstar/Scoot Airlines )
2 ) Flight Agenda
High Frequency Time
3 ) Finish
Short /Long Haul Destinations
LONG HAUL DESTINATION
Low COST CARRIERS IN SINGAPORE
LCCS FLIGHT SEATS
AVAILABILITY OF HIGH FREQUENT
LOW LONG HAUL DESTINATIONS
FULL SERVICE AIRLINES
Low COST Carrier
5.0 LIMITATIONS, FUTURE RESEARCH AND CONCLUSIONS
The information beginnings described above contain wealth of information. There is no uncertainty that there are troubles with the informations, as will be discussed below, but the overall quality of the information appears to be satisfactory.
In the practical portion of the survey, the instance survey of the research is limited to Singapore Changi Airport and Singapore travelers. The instance may be regarded as representative for a theodolite finish to some ; as a consequence, some informations may be deficient or distorted. The research may non be able to do the international travelers that may hold travelled through the embarkation of local low cost bearers. International travelers may let broader positions of position towards the topic of the increasing popularity in low cost bearers. However, concentrating on the mainstream group – Singapore travelers allowed the research to be more focal point.
Another restriction to the practical portion is the clip allowed in informations bite. Changi Airport has some ways of regulations and ordinances. Researcher is permitted to roll up informations from specific terminuss ( for this instance, merely Terminal 2 is needed ) and continuance allowed for research is within three to five hours. Data aggregation manners have to be split between the travelers and this short clip, doing restrictions to the sample size of the research. Further research would be required for generalizing better consequence.
This survey besides considered merely domestic riders ( Singapore travelers ) and hence the resulted implicit in dimensions from the domestic riders. Future research should analyze the causality among international riders to better understand their increasing influences in low cost bearers.
However, this survey allows persons and air hose companies ( low cost air hoses, in peculiar ) to see the important standards coercing the increased popularity of riders in LCCs. Full service air hoses may besides see this survey as a support in bettering in the air power industry. An addition in a rival ‘s monetary value, all other being equal will usually motivate some riders to exchange to other air hose. Henceforth, it is obvious that monetary value is the critical factors and to an extent a wise scheme to the leaning of low cost bearers ‘ riders. But the forms of menu puting where a low cost bearer has a monopoly, suggest that riders can bask such an advantage but where there is competition on path it is non clear that this advantage can be sustained.