March, 2003. The universe remains fascinated to the media. The ambiance is tense particularly amongst western universe and the Muslim. The two universes are about to clash one time once more. United States of America, under the disposal of President George Walker Bush, is ready to occupy Iraq. The Iraq War, which is besides known as the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War every bit good as Operation Iraqi Freedom was supported and assisted by his confederates such as United Kingdom and Australia. Considered as one of the most controversial determinations of all time made, the business was described as unneeded, illegal, unsafe every bit good as immoral by the mass. This is most likely true as the invasion lacked countenances from the United Nations ( UN ) . There is non adequate grounds to turn out allegations made by Bush and his associates. Furthermore, as an honored member of UN, America with her confederates failed to idolize the first and 2nd article of the organisation which strives to keep international peace and security every bit good as to decide international differences by peaceable agencies.
Underliing Allegations: Oil
In order to warrant the invasion, Bush disposal gave several accounts. To get down, they accused Saddam Hussein of holding arms of mass devastation ( WMD ) . For this ground, they further stressed that Iraq was a menace to America and the universe. Consequently, there was a critical demand to demilitarize Iraq. In add-on to that, they described the war as an honorable attempt to continue peace by making a free and comfortable Iraq, liberated from the dictatorship of “ anarchic adult male ” . However, despite all that, legion accusals were directed toward Bush disposal which suggested that the primary motivation of the business was to derive control over Iraqi oil industry.
It is possible for the claim to be true. After all, oil is Iraq ‘s largest industry. Estimated to have a humongous 115 billion barrels, the state holds 2nd largest militias of conventional crude oil on Earth. Iraq is believed to be handily placed atop big reservoirs of undiscovered oil. To do it better, the oil in Iraq is of superior quality. The oil production cost in Iraq is one of the cheapest in the universe because it can be tapped by shallow Wellss. As such, oil companies do non hold to delve deeper to happen the black gold. In add-on to all that, by busying Iraq, America will derive a geopolitical advantage of keeping control over full Iranian Gulf part which owns three fifths of universe ‘s oil supply.
The best support for such claim would be none other than concluding and contemplation. Even before the war, USA already established the guidelines for the denationalization of Iraqi oil industry one time Saddam was removed. Additionally, the Pentagon created a particular military undertaking force whose primary mission was to prehend control of Iraqi oil field at the really beginning of the foray. Even the really first military action of the invasion was really an armed raid on oil installations. Ironically, irrespective of the crystal clear facts and logical thinking, Bush disposal were inexorable in take a firm standing that oil played no function in the Iraq military assault. ( Klare, 2008 )
Propaganda, Publicity and Media:
Harmonizing to Samer Khader, a senior manufacturer of Al Jazeera: “ You can non pay wars without rumors, without media, without propaganda ” . Propaganda can be defined as information, particularly false information, that a authorities or organisation spreads in order to act upon people ‘s sentiments and beliefs ( Macmillan English Dictionary ) . It is really the cardinal scheme to determine people ‘s religion every bit good as their positions. Paradoxically, propaganda plants best in converting people that they are non being manipulated. As media appear to hold the same persuasion power, it comes to be used as a perfect tool for propaganda. Started during the First World War, propaganda sparked argument and raised inquiries about the function of media.
This maneuver was greatly used by Bush, along with his plotter before, during every bit good as after Operation Iraqi Freedom. They were willing to utilize all possible agencies, preponderantly media to carry and act upon the mass. As a affair of fact, what contributed to the success of Bush ‘s propaganda was that it used the intelligence web, which is considered as one of the most sure media to advance his docket. Statements and claims were made through addresss, interviews and imperativeness conferences. Misrepresentation, disinformation, misinformation was applied massively in the media during this clip. The oft-repeated ‘facts ‘ and statements produced by both the White House and Pentagon are really non factual. It was proven that most of them are sentiment, lies, created informations, exaggerated every bit good as omitted information.
Propaganda in Practice
Propaganda served as one of the greatest tools used by Bush and his opposite number to derive supports for the war. Even before the invasion of Iraq, USA ever had the inclination to do the state look under menace. This method was used by the attackers to do others ‘ believe that they acted in ego defence. Such propaganda was rooted in the calamity of September 11 and is still exploited until this really twenty-four hours. Iraq was falsely implicated to Al-Qaeda terrorist act whereas Saddam was said to be after on giving the WMD to Osama Bin Laden. By associating together the September 11 onslaughts and Iraq utilizing fright as the adhesive, it is easy for the authorities to derive supports from the people. American disposal was besides responsible for the self- appointive function as the refinisher of peace and the security guard of the universe. As Iraq was considered as a threat, the military invasion should be viewed as the honorable and epic Acts of the Apostless, worthy of support and encouragement. ( Falk & A ; Lifton, 2006 )
In the beginning, the Press Secretary of White House Ari Fleischer was reported to state that the chief aim of the invasion is the riddance of WMD in Iraq. Saddam Hussein was accused of holding several terrorizing arms chiefly atomic bomb every bit good as biological arms such as splenic fever, botulinus toxin and VX nervus agent. Bush ‘s disposal farther continued their accusal by saying that Iraq has both the scientists and installations to make the WMD. However, sequences of U.S commissioned studies hold failed to corroborate the claim. The allegation was termed as large prevarication after several studies made by CIA ( cardinal intelligence bureau ) and International atomic energy bureau ( IAEA ) concluded to state otherwise.
However, when no WMD was found in Iraq, they changed the aim as to extinguish Saddam himself. In the media, the Iraqi president was described utilizing footings such as ‘lawless adult male ‘ and even ‘tyrant ‘ . The American claims that they strive for the constitution of democratic, free and comfortable Iraq. Subsequently, when the promised democracy failed, it was said that the intercession was important to imply stabilisation of Iraq and get the better ofing islamo-fascism amongst the Arabs. After several turn and alteration, American themselves said that the war appeared every bit though as invented and produced by Disney- it was monumental, full of mottos and images. ( Rutherford, 2004 )
Media, particularly aggregate media is all about pass oning intelligence and information to big Numberss of audiences and consumers. The use of mass media such as telecasting and wireless was proven to hold of import effects. Bing the consumers of media, the populace have certain rights related to the medium. Fink ( 1995 ) and Day ( 2003 ) had helpfully listed and further lucubrate about the primary rules of moral and social values which should be adhered by the media in every manner possible.
First, the most cardinal rule is libertarianism and credibleness. The mass relies on media for true and accurate information. Hence, in order to be credible and worthy of trust, it is the duty of the media to do intelligent and rational determination to happen the truth Any types of hapless ethical discretion such as screening to lie, fiction and covering the truth is a major offense in media which can sabotage regard. Media is obligated to be accurate ; it must clearly able to separate between facts and sentiment every bit good as capable of supplying true, comprehensive and intelligent information. Credible media should besides recognize that facts entirely are non sufficient. They must measure the credibleness of the beginning and widen research to include informations beyond the facts given. This brings about a closely related construct of freedom whereas principled media will stay free from any association as it causes limitation in coverage. Being independent allows the media to cover the intelligence without any struggle of involvement.
Another important construct would be objectiveness and justness. It means that in coverage, media should supply balanced, impartial and just point of views. Under no fortunes should they take a side and inject zealot ‘s position in their presentations. Therefore, unity is of paramount value amongst the people of the media. They must be willing to move on the consequence of their rational and critical probe. As media is an effectual platform to show both sentiments, it is of import for them non to concentrate merely on certain side while disregarding the other. Regardless of their personal values and stand, equal intervention should be given to both sides they are describing about.
Media should ne’er be taken lightly as it serves the baronial map of stewardship. It can be considered as their duty to carry on, supervise and manage certain elements. Acting as a watchdog, they have the power to supervise the powerful people such as the authorities every bit good as to bring out and halt criminalism and malfeasance occurred. Furthermore, the responsibility to function the populace while esteeming and guarding the demand of others is normally associated to the media. Therefore, it is greatly expected of the media to surrogate the populace and help the needy, soothe the stricken, attack societal unfairness and alteration things for the improvement. The powerful medium ought to be cognizant about people ‘s right to cognize. Therefore, they will endeavor to describe any issue as it is with truthfulness, earnestness and truth. However, while falsity is so easy, truth is by and large so hard. Reporting truthfully controversial information will likely do in personal cost every bit good as force per unit area by the affected party.
Other than that, ethical media patterns civility. Hence, they respect and treat consumer as valued having terminals instead than person to be manipulated. The coming treatments will extensively cover the issue of audience use by Bush ‘s disposal every bit good as Pentagon.
Military and the Media
Media played an highly of import function during war. It was believed that images and information shown in the medium may impact war determinations. Such thought was originated during Vietnam War whereas media was blamed for the lost suffered by America. Media ‘s coverage of upset and failure in Vietnam was said to be the chief factors which turned American populace against their ain military. ( Hooper, 1988 ) . Recognizing the importance of public dealingss scheme every bit good as the ability of the media, Pentagon and the White House sees media as possible Alliess in a joint attempt to advance the pattern of war. Bush ‘s disposal is one of the most savvy media operators. In their position, media was viewed non as a watchdog of the authorities or the representative of the populace. Rather, the media is a utile tool or conduit to make the populace. They attempted to favourably determine the world-wide perceptual experience of the Iraqi struggle utilizing every technique available. Their party carefully controls the flow of information sing the invasion so that they will be able to pull off the media while avoiding any harmful coverage.
There are several schemes used by Bush and his military to guarantee that everything will travel swimmingly harmonizing to their program. Their first scheme would be the use of vocabularies in which, positive footings such as ‘war of release ‘ and ‘freedom mission ‘ were used to depict their side. On the other manus, negative footings such as ‘thugs ‘ and ‘apparatus of panic ‘ was used to depict Saddam and Iraq. These covertly affected the perceptual experience of the mass. Second, in order to guarantee uninterrupted control over the information, the armed forces will carry on legion imperativeness conferences. Such meeting will assist the armed forces to find what can be said and conveyed by the media. In other words, it is besides an effectual manner to present message straight to the mass.
Other than that, the armed forces placed most media offices such as BBC, FOX, NBC and CNN in Central Command ( CentCom ) , located in Doha, Qatar. Important to observe, the location is approximately 700 stat mis off from Baghdad. The implicit in ground for the arrangement would be none other than to curtail the coverage and motion of the media. As all the news-gathering organisations were unable to derive the information foremost manus, they have no pick but to trust on the informations and statement released by the military. This state of affairs made it easier for the soldier to modify, omit or pull strings the information before giving it to the imperativeness. Meanwhile, there are several newsmans who are allowed to fall in military units. Although the forces explained that it was done to acquire the existent image of war, the existent ground of the combinations was made so that they become attached to the soldiers. As the sense of chumminess develop, the media lost their sense of objectiveness and go valuable setup of propaganda
Following scheme employed by the Pentagon affect both use every bit good as turning away wholly. In a documental titled Control Room ( 2004 ) , it can be observed how the imperativeness officer of the alliance forces tried to travel everyone ‘s attending off from the cost and amendss done by the war in Iraq. Alternatively of turn toing the issue, Lieutenant Rushing all of a sudden mentioned about Saddam Hussein as a bad cat and should be considered as the biggest menace to Arabs universe. He farther explained that Saddam had killed more Muslim than anyone in the planet. Additionally, the armed forces tried to pull strings facts every bit good and these can be observed via several illustrations. During the early phase of war, public started to oppugn about the decease of the guiltless Iraqi civilians who have nil to make with the war. For the interest of salvaging themselves from the unfavorable judgment, alliance forces started to fault Saddam ‘s government by impeaching them of utilizing the civilians as human shield. Despite their claim, there is non a individual prove to corroborate the allegation. The same use maneuver was used during the footage where the forces enter Baghdad. From the intelligence, audience can see Arab people, presumptively Iraqi, celebrates the autumn of Saddam ‘s imperium. They celebrate and express their gratitude towards alliance forces who ‘free ‘ from the clasp of an evil adult male. Subsequently, it was revealed that the Arabs are really imposters and non the existent Iraqi.
By and large, it can be said that the two most beliing type of medias of all time existed are Muslim and western media. The disagreements between the two become evident particularly during Iraqi war. The term western media was used to mean the mainstream media which exist in the West, represented by FOX, CNN etc. On the contrary, Muslim media may be used to mention to major media in Muslim states. Suitable representative for it would be none other than Al Jazeera.
In order to understand the development and alteration which has taken topographic point in the western media, it is best to take a measure into history. Media antecedently had been considered as 4th estate which serves the higher map of cheque and balance. They investigated claims made by the authorities and do certain that functionaries are responsible for their actions. Media during that clip, held fast to the aureate tradition of ethical media. Some of their features are loyal to the populace, believe that the populace has the rights to cognize, impartial, accurate and believable. Mr. Reginald Maudling, Governor of BBC in 1971 was reported to state “ we see it as our over-riding duty to describe the scene as it is, in all its calamity ” . As the media report the war as it is- bloody, cruel and messy, soldiers will be showed in bad visible radiation. Consequently, media and military by and large have a turbulency relationship. Sadly, the different attack taken by modern-day western media caused a blow to traditional patterns of the media. ( Hooper, 1988 )
Presents, the media has become so servile that they have lost their ability to react in a principled and independent mode. Their function was reduced from being a 4th estate to mere tools of the authorities. Typically, they blindly reported the limited info received from the military. Critical mainstream media which attempts to equilibrate and analyze the genuineness of statements no longer exists. Some may reason that this is caused by the force per unit areas received. Best media should ne’er be affected by force per unit areas. Still, when faced with quandary, media staffs decided to take safer, least immune way and simply reported the disposal ‘s statement.
The relationship between Muslim and the West was readily bad even before the invasion. Hatred, fright and bias were fueled by the 9/11 calamity. The construct of Islamophobia was everyplace. It may be assumed that the media themselves already developed negative mentalities towards Muslims. This will most perchance lead to biasness in the media whereas the imperativeness continued to lean treatments of Iraq in favor of Bush ‘s position. As a affair of fact, the hoodwinking of America was successful because he had powerful aid from this media. After all, CNN has long served as an reverberation of America. Disoriented, selective and prejudice, the function is now shared by BBC, FOX and other western media. They turn out to be superficial with small a batch of speculations alternatively of intelligence coverage. Every clip they report about the war, supportive tone will be used towards Bush and his cohorts. American soldiers will be shown as agents of release and do-gooder who strove to assist Iraqi in problem.
Similarly, alternatively of describing facts and supported information, the western media contains prejudiced sentiment and misrepresentation. Despite the fact that sequences of U.S commissioned studies hold failed to corroborate the Bush ‘s claim, the media still supported him. This was done by softening the decision and playing around the impression that even if nil can be found, it ne’er proves that the arm ne’er existed before. They went every bit far as suggesting, and doing their ain hypothesis that the WMD might be trucked over to Syria. No affair what, media is in no place to make this. ( Falk & A ; Lifton, ( 2006 ) .
Besides, it is true to state the nationalism and American value may go a elusive force per unit area in finding the way of the media. Any media who decided to travel against war will be considered as anti-patriotic and biased. Since most media are disquieted about being seen as non loyal, they adopted a safer and popular pro-war way. American value is evident in the coverage of war. In America war is n’t hell. It is clean without blood and agony. All the American see was nationalism and the impulse to back up the military personnels. What they are waiting for is the jubilation of triumph. ( Dadge, 2006 ) .
Deeper observation of western media will uncover how they covered the offense committed by America. To exemplify, despite the solid proves found, media seemed to maneuver off from concentrating on the oil component of the war. Furthermore, the media carefully selected the beginning and handily avoided inordinate focal point on human effect caused by American firepower. In add-on to that, they seldom discourse how the business served as accelerator for slaughter ( Beck & A ; Downing, 2003 ) . Based on all the points given, it may be assumed that western media had taken a bend from being a respected beginning into nil but unethical media who violates about everything an ideal media should be.
One of the premier differences between the western media and Muslim imperativeness is that the latter is governed by Islamic convention. Islam is non simply a faith ; it is a system of life, covering every facet possible including the media. Moslems are expected to adhere to the construct of amanah ( unity ) , honestness, and justness. For that affair, these constructs are mentioned several times in the sanctum Quran. For illustration: “ And cover non truth with falsity, nor conceal the truth when ye know ( what it is ) ” ( Al-Baqarah, Verse 42 ) . This may be the subscriber which shapes the attack of the media itself.
When person mentioned “ Moslem Media ” , the populace may by and large believe of Al Jazeera. This peculiar Arab orbiter intelligence channel can be assumed to be one of the popular and controversial Muslim media in the universe. Harmonizing to Samer Khader, the senior manufacturer of Aljazeera: The message of Al Jazeera is all about educating the Arab multitudes something called democracy, esteem other sentiment, free debateaˆ¦ no tabu. Everything should be dealt with unity, with openness. It ‘s about seeking to wake the Arab society and increase their consciousness about what is go oning around them ” . In other words, the imperativeness tries their best to carry through the social function both as the supplier of intelligence every bit good as combatant for peoples ‘ right to cognize.
Ever since their constitution in 1996, Al Jazeera claimed to be politicallyA independent telecasting station in theA Middle East. Endeavoring to keep independent column policy, the imperativeness makes every attempt to stay free from the clasps of any political party. Their independency allows them to present a degree ofA freedom of speechA on Television that was antecedently unheard of in many of Arab states. This revolution of the imperativeness addition respects even from the West. Parallel with their political orientation of freedom and independent, the newsmans searched information sing the war on their ain without much trust on western military.
Al Jazeera tried their best to show intelligence from all sides in a portion of the universe. Consequently, viewing audiences who found the coverage in western media to be biased may possibly exchange to Al Jazeera to derive a balanced position sing the war in Iraq. During the warfare, the imperativeness welcomed experts and functionaries from both sides to take part in their life broadcast and supply positions and sentiment. An interview between Samer Khader and Jeffrey Steinberg, political analyst from America, was recorded on tape. Subsequently, it was revealed that the analyst happens to be an militant who went against his ain state. Consequently, the interview is deemed as failure because Al Jazeera cares greatly about pure analysis and do non desire any colored position. What they seek is a balanced invitee who can supply both sides of the event. This shows that the Muslim imperativeness attempts to be balanced and non bias. Justice is an duty in Islam as mentioned in Surah An-Nisa, verse 30: ” If any do that in resentment and unfairness, – shortly shall We project them into the Fire ”
At the clip of war, the western media was occupied with the propaganda of Bush. Therefore, most of the existent intelligence about the war comes from alternate every bit good as Muslim media. Harmonizing to its ‘ spectator, Al Jazeera is the most credible media. This makes the station a clear master in the Arabs universe. Using world and truth as the baseline, the imperativeness reported the ugly truth of war as it is. Al Jazeera went on to aerate really in writing footages from inside Iraq. Some of the illustrations include injured kids, overruning infirmaries, dead organic structures and desolation. What they truly want to make was demoing that war has human cost.
The way of truth is ever a alone and hard one. The same is applicable to Al Jazeera which faces grave troubles for disputing the West. During the force, the West and its buddies recognized the power of Al Jazeera. As such, they tried to command them and went every bit far as to infiltrate and undermine the organisation. Pentagon ‘s finding to watch over the media takes on a more baleful side. Numerous journalists including Al Jazeera ‘s Tarek Ayoub died under leery fortunes. Harmonizing to the interpreter of the armed forces, the decease was caused by ‘friendly fire ‘ . The West claimed to have fires from a nearby edifice. They have no pick but to revenge in return. The claim was proven to be false as the recording and oculus informants revealed that there is no gunfire from the edifice at all. It becomes more doubtful as Al Jazeera had mailed co-ordinates for their offices in Baghdad, Mosul and Basra to the U.S. State Department six hebdomads prior. These should hold clearly identified their location. For the alliance forces that uses super accurate missile, accidents is about impossible. Based on all that, there is merely one account. The violent death was planned and inevitable. It was said to be the armed forces ‘s utmost warning to those who are non siding with them to alter their base and ne’er daring to travel against alliance forces.
What ‘s more, the onslaughts come from more than the physical assault. The West tried to take down the repute and credibleness of Al Jazeera by impeaching them for motivating force, advancing Anti-american sentiment, non being nonsubjective, overstating information, prejudice and supports Saddam every bit good as terrorist act. Despite invariably being under force per unit area, the media remain strong, brave and ne’er allow themselves to be influenced or stopped.
Similar with media from the West, Muslim imperativeness faced the job of quandary as good. Most Al Jazeera staffs portions the same background as the Iraqis- Muslim and Arabs. This caused them to experience the solidarity and sense of brotherhood amongst them, doing it difficult for them non to be emotional and influenced. Personally, one can detect which sides they belong to. For illustration, in one of the docudrama ( Control Room, 2004 ) , viewing audiences may detect how the employees of Arab media make faces, gestures and sarcastic remarks towards the West. However, personal feeling and professionalism do non blend together. Bing a media organisation, they tried to be nonsubjective and professional while conveying the messages to the universe. This are possible as the organisation has house and strong manufacturers and editors such as Samer Khader himself who steadfastly province that we should describe the war as it is, complemented by both positions. Abdullah Scheleifer gave a powerful advice to Muslim journalists on how to confront their quandary: “ your bosom and psyche can be with your people but as a journalist, your premier responsibility is to acquire the information. ” In other words, he reminded the newsmans to maintain their emotion on cheque usage professional attack.
The amplification depicted above shows how beliing the western media and Muslim imperativeness can be. The differences include the chief function both media play during the war. The West acted as a tool of propaganda for war while the E fulfills their social duties and detests belligerencies. As the first was controlled and had to trust on Bush disposal, it contains elements of misrepresentation while the latter strive for truth and confirmed information. Besides, the West tried their best to cover the truth while the Muslim media played a contradictory function of bring outing the world. Naturally, western media showed undeniable disposition and prejudice towards back uping Bush ‘s political orientation. In contrast, the Muslim imperativeness tried to supply a balanced point of view sing war. Despite all the contradictions, there is a similarity every bit good. Both sides received huge force per unit area from assorted beginnings such as the society and authorization. However, what separates the both is the manner they reacted to the force. Muslim imperativeness was determined to stay steadfast and fight what they believe in. On the other manus, the western media selected a safer way to corroborate with the unjust demands and violate media moralss that they held for coevalss.
In twelvemonth 2010, current president of United States of America, Barrack Obama eventually declared long anticipated stoping of the armed intercessions. Iraq war has ended but public trust on media is still yet to mend. The war exposed how manipulative media can be. Till this really twenty-four hours, people still question the existent function of media before, during and after the war. As the harm had been done, there is merely one manner to reconstruct the lost repute. Media of all types need to fall in forces and embracing healthy incredulity towards the title and words of the authorities. Reporters need to be willing to inquiry normally accepted believes, confront others with alternate positions, ask inquiries and look into to supply the most dependable information. It is hoped that one twenty-four hours, they will be able to one time once more, play their function and duty to function the populace.