Pros And Cons Of Fdi In Retail Marketing Essay


Indian Retail Industry is standing at its point of inflection, waiting for the roar to take topographic point. The origin of the retail industry dates back to times where retail shops were found in the small town carnival, Melas or in the hebdomadal markets. These shops were extremely unorganised. The adulthood of the retail sector took topographic point with the constitution of retail shops in the vicinity for convenience. With the authorities intercession the retail industry in India took a new form. Mercantile establishments for Public Distribution System, Cooperative shops and Khadi shops were set up. These retail Shops demanded low investings for its constitution.

The retail industry in India gathered a new dimension with the puting up of the different International Brand Outlets, Hyper or Super markets, shopping promenades and departmental shops.

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Future of organized retail in India looks bright. Harmonizing to recent researches it is projected to turn at a rate of about 37 % in 2007 and at a rate of 42 % in 2008. It captured a portion of 10 % of the entire retailing by the terminal of 2010.

The organized retail sector is expected to turn to a value of Rs. 2,00,000 crore ( US $ 45 billion ) and may bring forth 10 to15 million occupations in following 5 old ages. This can go on in two forms- 2.5 million of these people may be associated straight with retailing and the remainder 10 million people may be gainfully employed in related sectors that will be pulled up through the strong forward and backward linkage effects.

However to vie in this sector one needs to hold up-to-date market information for planning and determination devising. The 2nd most of import demand is to pull off costs widely in order to gain at least normal net incomes in face of stiff competition.

FDI in Single Brand Retail:

The Government has non flatly defined the significance of “ Single Brand ” anyplace neither in any of its handbills or nor any presentments.

In single-brand retail, FDI up to 51 per cent is allowed, capable to Foreign Investment Promotion Board ( FIPB ) blessing and capable to the conditions mentioned in following

( a ) Merely individual trade name merchandises would be sold ( i.e. , retail of goods of multi-brand even if produced by the same maker would non be allowed )

( B ) Products should be sold under the same trade name internationally,

( degree Celsius ) single-brand merchandise retail would merely cover merchandises which are branded during fabrication and

( vitamin D ) Any add-on to merchandise classs to be sold under “ single-brand ” would necessitate fresh blessing from the authorities.

FDI in Multi Brand Retail:

FDI in Multi Brand retail implies that a retail shop with a foreign investing can sell multiple trade names under one roof.

In July 2010, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion ( DIPP ) , Ministry of Commerce circulated a treatment paper on leting FDI in multi-brand retail. The paper does n’t propose any upper bound on FDI in multi-brand retail. If implemented, it would open the doors for planetary retail giants to come in and set up their footmarks on the retail landscape of India. Opening up FDI in multi-brand retail will intend that planetary retail merchants including Wal-Mart, Carrefour and Tesco can open shops offering a scope of family points and food market straight to consumers in the same manner as the omnipresent ‘kirana ‘ shop.


SWOT Analysis of Retail Sector:

1. Strengths:

i‚· Major part to GDP: the retail sector in India is vibrating about 33-35 % of GDP as compared to around 20 % in USA.

i‚· High Growth Rate: the retail sector in India enjoys an highly high growing rate of about 46 % .

i‚· High Potential: since the organized part of retail sector is merely 2-3 % , thereby making batch of possible for future participants.

i‚· High Employment Generator: the retail sector employs 7 % of work force in India, which is rite now limited to unorganized sector merely. Once the reforms get implemented this per centum is likely to increase well.

2. Failings ( restriction ) :

i‚· Lack of Competitors: AT Kearney ‘s survey on planetary retailing tendencies found that India is least competitory every bit good as least concentrated markets of the universe.

i‚· Highly Unorganised: The unorganized part of retail sector is merely 97 % as compared to US, which is merely 20 % .

i‚· Low Productivity: Mckinsey survey claims retail productiveness in India is really low as compared to its international equals.

i‚· Shortage of Talented Professionals: the retail trade concern in

India is non considered as reputed profession and is largely carried out by the household members ( self-employment and confined concern ) . Such people are non academically and professionally qualified.

3. Opportunities ( benefits ) :

i‚· There will be more organisation in the sector: Organized retail will necessitate more workers. Harmonizing to findings of KPMG, in China, the employment in both retail and sweeping trade increased from 4 % in 1992 to about 7 % in 2001, station reforms and advanced competition in retail sector in that state.

i‚· Healthy Competition will be boosted and there will be a cheque on the monetary values ( rising prices ) : Retail giants such as Walmart, Carrefour, Tesco, Target and other planetary retail companies already have operations in other states for over 30 old ages. Until now, they have non at all become monopolies instead they have managed to maintain a cheque on the nutrient rising prices through their healthy competitory patterns.

i‚· Create transparence in the system: the mediators runing as per mandi norms do non hold transparence in their pricing. Harmonizing to some of the studies, an mean Indian husbandman realises merely tierce of the monetary value, which the concluding consumer wages.

i‚· Mediators and mandi system will be evicted, therefore straight profiting the husbandmans and manufacturers: the monetary values of trade goods will automatically be checked.

i‚· Quality Control and Control over Leakage and Wastage: due to administration of the sector, 40 % of the production does non make the ultimate consumer. Cost witting and extremely competitory retail merchants will seek to avoid these wastages and losingss and it will be their enterprise to do quality merchandises available at lowest monetary values, hence devising nutrient available to weakest and poorest section of Indian society.

i‚· Heavy flow of capital will assist in constructing up the substructure for the turning population: India is already runing in budgetary shortage. Neither the authorities of India nor domestic investors are capable of fulfilling the turning demands ( school, infirmaries, conveyance etc. ) of the of all time turning Indian population. Hence foreign capital influx will enable us to make a heavy capital base.

4. Menaces:

i‚· Current Independent Stores will be compelled to shut:

This will take to monolithic occupation loss as most of the operations in large shops like Walmart are extremely automated necessitating less work force.

i‚· Large participants can knock-out competition: they can afford to lower monetary values in initial phases, become monopoly and so raise prise subsequently.

i‚· India does non necessitate foreign retail merchants: as they can fulfill the whole domestic demand.

i‚· Remember East India Company it entered India as bargainer and so took over politically.

In position of the above analysis, if we try to equilibrate chances and chances attached to the given economic reforms, it will decidedly do good to Indian economic system and accordingly to public at big, if one time implemented. Thus the period for which we delay these reforms will be loss for authorities merely, since bulk of the populace is in favor of reforms. All the above mentioned drawbacks are largely politically created. With the execution of this policy all stakeholders will profit whether it is consumer through quality merchandises at low monetary value, husbandmans through more transparence in trading or Indian corporates with 49 % net income portion staying with Indian companies merely.



It will cut mediators between husbandmans and the retail merchants, thereby assisting them acquire more money for their green goods

It will convey the necessary foreign investing into the state, along with engineering and planetary best-practices

It will assist in cut downing the monetary values at retail degree and unagitated rising prices

Small and medium endeavors will hold a bigger market, along with better engineering and stigmatization

It will bring on better competition in the market, which will ensue as a benefit to both manufacturers and consumers

It will really make employment than displace people engaged in little shops


It will take to closing of 10s of 1000s of mom-and-pop stores across the state and endanger support of 40 million people

Small and medium endeavors will go victims of marauding pricing policies of transnational retail merchants

It may convey down monetary values ab initio, but fuel rising prices once transnational companies get a fastness in the retail market

Farmers may be given compensable monetary values ab initio, but finally they will be at the clemency of large retail merchants

It will disintegrate established supply ironss by promoting monopolies of planetary retail merchants


It can be said that the advantages of leting unrestrained FDI in the retail sector obviously outweigh the disadvantages attached to it and the same can be deduced from the illustrations of successful experiments in states like Thailand and China where excessively the issue of leting FDI in the retail sector was first met with ceaseless protests, but subsequently turned out to be one of the most promising political and economic determinations of their authoritiess and led non merely to the applaudable rise in the degree of employment but besides led to the tremendous development of their state ‘s GDP.

And besides, cipher can coerce a consumer to see a mega shopping composite or a little retailer/sabji mandi. Consumers will shop in conformity with their extreme convenience, where of all time they get the lowest monetary value, max assortment, and a good consumer experience.

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