Review Of Related Or Similar Studies And Literatures Management Essay

1. Any organisation either public, private, for net income or non for net income need a leader. The leader will animate the organisation to accomplish its vision, mission and aims. The leader besides will put the strategic way that is alone, valuable and defendable and will ever feeling the state of affairs by looking out ( environment ) , looking in ( internally ) and looking frontward ( future way ) . They besides will supply counsel to farther heighten the effectivity and efficiency of the organisation to the following degree and conveying the organisation to where they have ne’er been. The ground forces as an organisation, to carry through their functions, undertakings and duties besides needs leaders. These leaders exercise their leading through bid, leading and direction doctrine of the organisation. The chief difference between military leading and private or public leading is leaders in the military animating their subsidiary to confront danger that may affect lives. Military leading besides is about direction of force. Therefore, military leading is really important for the military organisation to guarantee they could exert bid, leading and direction throughout the organisation.

2. Malayan Army as portion of the Malaysian Armed Forces besides requires leaders that extremely capable in term of cognition, accomplishments and experiences to animate the soldiers to confront future challenges in carry throughing the ground forces mission, functions and undertakings. These officers will travel through Leadership Development Program to guarantee that they continue maintain abreast of the altering security environment, spread outing functions of the Army particularly on non-military undertakings and the complexness of future wars with extremely advanced engineering and annihilating impacts. Therefore, Leadership Development in the ground forces should get down from the beginning of the procedure of enlisting by acquiring the right endowment as officers, develop their leading traits/qualities, go toing calling and functional classs, deriving operational experience, developing multi accomplishment capableness and maintain abreast of the current and future security environment that more towards non-traditional menaces and the extension of functions and undertakings to back up state edifice and societal development of the state. Since military organisation comprises of adult male, machine and method, it is the leading of the leader that coordinated all of these things together and makes them work to to accomplish the mission.

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3. As mentioned earlier, there are new challenges confronting the Army particularly officers on the spread outing functions on the non-traditional menaces and non-military undertakings. The promotion and demands in Information and Cyber Warfare, Military Operations Other Than War ( MOOTW ) such as anti-terrorism, UN peacekeeping and peace support operations, counter terrorist operations will act upon the Army present security environment. The Army has to continuously accommodating to confront these challenges in order to stay relevant and able to transport out its missions efficaciously and expeditiously in perceptual experiences of the populace as their stakeholder. At the same clip, with no existent conventional menace, there has been an increasing demand from the authorities and populace for the Army to be involved in state edifice or non-military functions. Therefore, a quandary exist where the individuality of professional Army and the civilization between the civilian and military, has posed many challenges by the leader in the Army to maintain military warrior spirit and military imposts and traditions compared to soft accomplishment required on executing these non-military functions.

4. For the Malayan Army to execute their undertakings efficaciously, it needs talented and capable leaders particularly officers to take the service to confront future security challenges and its enlargement functions. The Malayan Army is confronting the quandary from the start of the enlisting procedure to acquire the gifted leaders ( officers ) from the work force available in the state because it has to vie against his sister services, the populace and private sectors. After that, the Malayan Army has to make up one’s mind on the right scheme on Leadership Development for their officers based on the current state of affairs, future challenges and its enlargement functions.

5. Leadership development is really of import in the ground forces because officers as leaders have the of import functions for the transmutation of the ground forces to the hereafter. Contemporary security environment that is volatile, unsure and complex with the focal point on non-traditional functions demand the leaders to go on transforming to the hereafter. With this in head, the Management Research Report ( MRR ) will concentrate on a scheme for bring forthing future leaders through strategic Leadership Development of the Malayan Army officers and by comparing the alone capablenesss of other Army Leadership Development that are relevant to the Malayan Army.


6. The aims of the MRR are as follows:

a. To analyze and analyse the environment of the Malaysia that affects Leadership Development in the Malayan Army.

B. To analyze the comparative analysis of Leadership Development in other ground forces.

c. To analyze army officers ‘ enlisting procedure, preparation, calling development and experience and their needed leading qualities to be developed and the leading development theoretical account and procedure so that they will be capable future leaders of the Army.

d. To place what are the challenges confronting the Malayan Army to develop future leaders and the leading qualities and the right scheme on Leadership Development in order for the officers to execute their functions and undertakings in disputing security environment and the involvement, demands and perceptual experience of assorted stakeholders towards the Army.

e. To place a scheme and offer recommendations on how the Malayan Army has to develop future leaders through Leadership Development to confront future challenges in the military environment and execute their functions and undertakings successfully.

Coverage Proposal

7. The range, restrictions and major country of survey include:

a. The range. The range will merely cover a scheme on Leadership Development in the Malayan Army and the comparing between other ground forcess.

B. Restrictions. There were a few restrictions that have been faced during the behavior of this research. Among them are as the followerss:

( 1 ) There are really limited research documents available on the survey of military Leadership Development particularly in the Malayan environment.

( 2 ) Due to the restriction of clip, an in-depth survey could non be conducted with many Army Leadership Development Programs.

( 3 ) There is a inclination of prejudices due to the personal position of the limited interviewed officers.

c. Major Areas of Study. Major countries of survey are based on the Leadership Development Model and Process.


8. This survey will be conducted through the followerss:

a. Questionnaires. Administration of questionnaires will be taken through field study of officers located within Kuala Lumpur country.

B. Interviews. Interview conducted with functioning senior and staff officers from assorted subdivision and section in the Malayan Army Headquarter, Ministry of Defense.

c. Primary and Secondary Data. This survey is confidential ; the survey will unwrap restricted informations collected from the Malayan Ministry of Defense.


9. Surveies on scheme to develop military leaders, occupation satisfaction and motivational degree of military leaders produced by abroad researches will besides be reviewed in order to associate the significance of these surveies particularly for the comparative analysis of Army Leadership Development. However, the suitableness of these findings will be treated with cautiousness. For case, the vision, mission, aims, functions and duties of the Army from each several state studied and public perceptual experience towards the ground forces are different between states. Therefore, the suitableness of such findings may non be applicable to the Malayan Army environment. The reappraisal and surveies of researches, books and diary based on the Leadership Development theoretical account and Process will be reviewed.

10. Other books, diaries, publications and cyberspace beginnings are reading stuffs and mentions which have the of import information related to this survey and some of the Leadership Development literature reappraisals are as follows:

a. The definition of bid in the armed forces is “ the authorization, which a commanding officer in the military service legitimately exercises over subsidiaries by virtuousness of his rank or assignment[ 1 ]. Command includes the authorization and duty for efficaciously utilizing available resources, be aftering the employment, which include forming, directing, organizing and commanding military forces for the achievement of assigned missions. It besides covers duty for wellness, public assistance, morale and subject of assigned forces ”[ 2 ]. In the military, leaders are given the exercising of bid through their several ranks either as officers or other ranks.

B. Leadership is defined as “ the art of influencing and directing people to accomplish volitionally the squad or organisational end ”[ 3 ]. Where as, direction in the armed forces is defined as “ the procedure of planning, forming, directing and commanding organisational resources in the chase of organisational ends ”[ 4 ]. As a leader, if they are decently developed, they will act upon their subsidiary to accomplish organisation vision, mission and aims.

c. For Leadership Development, the general definition is “ any activity that enhances the quality of leading within an person or organisation. Traditionally, Leadership Development has focused on developing the leading abilities and attitudes of persons ”[ 5 ]. Leader development besides is defined as the “ enlargement of a individual ‘s capacity to be effectual in leading functions and procedures ”[ 6 ]. These functions and procedures are 1s that support in puting way, making alliance and keeping committedness in groups of people sharing common work ”[ 7 ]. Therefore, in order to develop leaders there should be the right scheme for Leadership Development Model and Process for any organisation.

d. For the US Army, “ Leadership begins with what the leader must Be, the values and property that shape a leader ‘s character. Interpersonal, conceptual, proficient and tactical accomplishments compose what a leader must KNOW. Leadership demands competency in a scope of human activities that expand in complexness with place of greater duty. But character and knowledge while perfectly necessary are non plenty. Leadership demands application of action to Make what is demanded most frequently in complex and unsafe conditions. Action is the kernel of leading ”[ 8 ]. BE is out the character of a leader, KNOW is about cognition of military profession and DO is about the right action of a leader to execute.


11. From this surveies, there is a demand that a right scheme, the right qualities of leading traits and Leadership Development Model and Process must be develop for future leaders of the Malayan Army in the context of Malayan environment and its organisation to execute its functions and undertakings in disputing security environment and assortment of involvement, demands and perceptual experience of assorted stakeholders towards its leaders The Leadership Development besides should include the spread outing functions of the Army on secondary undertakings particularly in support of the authorities for state edifice of the state.

Chapter II



12. The political state of affairs in Malaysia by and large is stable and the current opinion authorities is National Front or Barisan Nasional ( BN ) who is in power since independent with two 3rd bulks in Parliamentary seats as required by The Malayan Constitution. The National Parliamentary Election Result from 1990-2008 is shown in EXHIBIT 1. The stable political clime has helped Malaysia for economic development and attracted foreign investings and eventually the economic growing. For the Malaysian Armed Forces ( MAF ) and the Army, they are unpolitical and has ne’er been in the history conducted any coup-de’-tat, and considered the civilian as “ the political maestro ” . The MAF forces besides have the vote right through advanced vote.

13. The opinion authorities has some plans and enterprises that related and affected the security and Leadership development such as:

a. Formulated Defense Policy that can be based on the rules of peace, stableness, and regional defence cooperation ( but no Defense White Paper ) . Malaysia concentrating on comprehensive security, which is developed, based on its economic system, politic, societal and defence capablenesss[ 9 ]. This attack is term as balance security, which means that it should non develop excessively big on armed forces at the disbursal of state edifice and on the other manus being able to defence herself against any interloper. The other attack is diplomacy. Malayan first line of defence against external menace is through regional duologues and diplomatic negotiations. Military action is ever kept as the last resort to decide any immerging issues.

B. There are besides some extra undertakings for the Army given by the Government such as ; presenting plan to develop leading accomplishments and future coevals leaders such as The National Service Training Program, or “ Program Latihan Khidmat Negara ( PLKN ) ” , which is Malaysia ‘s national service plan[ 10 ]. This plan is an extra undertaking for the Army.

c. The constitution of The Malayan Defense Industry Council ( MDIC ) in 1999 which is tasked with organizing the orderly development of the Malaysia Defense Industry Sector. The Army could profit by take parting in defence industries that increase its capablenesss in military engineering.

d. Establishment of “ Universiti Pertahanan Nasional ( UPNM ) ” or the National Defence University of Malaysia which is a military university. It will the topographic point for basic preparation of the armed Forces officers and provides classs for farther instruction of officers.[ 11 ]

e. Explicating the National Blue Ocean Strategy ( NBOS ) which is a series of plans carried out by the authorities to back up the ‘National Key Result Area ( NKRA ) ‘ which are major policy countries to be addressed under the Government ‘s Transformation Program ( GTP ) . The plans include re-deployment of the Police Field Force from operational countries to patroling responsibilities in towns/cities in attempts to cut down offenses nation-wide where their responsibilities are taken over by the Army, the preparation of Police Constables together with the Army Recruits in the Army Basic Training Centers, the inmate Rehabilitation Program conducted by the Prison Authority with the cooperation on the Malayan Army, the strategic cooperation between MINDEF, Ministry of Rural Development and the Ministry of Home Affairs in transporting out undertakings such as edifice and mending places for the hapless, constructing roads, installing of street visible radiations and linking H2O pipes to remote countries, every bit good as the usage of idle military land for agribusiness[ 12 ]. All of these undertakings are spread outing functions to the Army in support to the authorities state edifice.

f. The Prime Minister established Talent Corporation Malaysia Berhad under the Ministry of Prime Minister Department in January 2011 as a accelerator to heighten talent supply in state.[ 13 ]This constitution could be used y the Army to developed gifted Army Officers.

g. Encouraging participants of Malayan population in the territorial ground forces which is aimed to hold ratio, three territorial ground forces to one habitue soldier which one Territorial Army Regiment in each parliamentary. Some of the MAF officers became politician after they resign and won the election either as the members of the regnant authorities parties or resistance parties. This undertaking create extra load to the Army.

h. Malayan Army Generals besides were given some cardinal assignment in the authorities such as became Minister in Prime Minister Department in Religious Affairs, embassadors, president of corporation of Government Link Corporation ( GLC ) .

I. Government determination to direct MAF forces for United Nation ( UN ) Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement missions such as Congo ( Zaire ) ( in 1960 ) , Namibia ( 1989 ) , Cambodia ( 1993 ) , Somalia ( 1993 ) , Bosnia Herzegovina ( 1993 ) and the latest 1 is in Lebanon ( 2010 )[ 14 ]and it is secondary functions to the Army.

J. The authorities has been actively prosecuting & A ; marketing the Malayan Defence Industry though exhibitions such as Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace Exhibition ( LIMA ) . The authorities besides is advancing on Defence Services Asia ( DSA ) exhibition which DSA 2012 was held from April 19th to 22nd at Kuala Lumpur ‘s Putra World Trade Centre ( PWTC ) . These create extra undertakings to the Army in forming the events.


14. Malaysia economic growing from 1990 to 2008 was affected by the economic crisis of USA in 2007-2008 boulder clay now and economic system of Malaysia grew easy. The Malayan Economy recorded strong public presentation in the old twelvemonth before the economic crisis. In 2010, the economic system grew by 5.4 % ( $ 414.4 billion ) and rank 30th in the universe[ 15 ]. The slow economic growing will impact on Malaysia to recognize the vision of going a to the full developed state by the twelvemonth 2020. The rising prices rate is 1.7 % ( 2010 ) and GDP per capita is $ 44,700. Exhibit 2 shows the Malayan GDP by Kind of Economic Activity at Current Prices, 2005- 2010. EXHIBIT 3 shows the Demand for Labor ( New Jobs Vacancies and Placement ) from 2006-2010. Exhibit 4 shows Statistics of Labor Force 2005-2010, EXHIBIT 5 shows Statistic of Labor Force by Educational Attainment 2005-2010. Exhibit 6 shows Statistics of Labor Force by Industries 2005-2010. Exhibit 7 shows Statistic of Labor Force by Age 2005-2010[ 16 ]. All of these exhibits show that Malaysia GDP is worsening because of the affect of the economic downswing confronting the universe. However, there is still a demand for labour in assorted sectors that are viing to acquire the right endowment particularly for their direction leaders.

15. Exhibit 8 shows the Statistics of Registered Job Seekers 2006-2010. There are besides plans by the authorities to upgrade labour accomplishments, the publicity of improved managerial competency and enterprises every bit good as the promotion of scientific discipline and technological expertness become major enterprises towards recognizing the aims of carry throughing the industry demand on labours and there is no miss lucifer between the occupation searchers and industry demand. Increased degree of instruction and preparation towards the development of specialised and managerial accomplishment will non merely assist to raise labour productiveness but will besides assist the economic system to travel towards the head of new engineerings which are knowledge intensive. The efficient use and continues development of human resources will hence be a major policy aims of the state. EXHIBIT 9 shows the Statistics of Population 2006-2010. Current estimations indicate that the Malayan population increased at an mean one-year rate of 2.7 % during the period of 2005-2010. From the information, it shows that Malaysia is sing slow economic growing due to universe recession, batch of occupation chances, batch of occupation searchers, and batch of alumnuss looking for occupation, hot topographic point occupation by industry, instruction degree and age. Based on these, if the economic growing still decelerate, defence budget will be affected and the occupation chances in the private sectors will pull gifted people to the private sectors instead than to the Army.

16. Wagess and Benefits. The Prime Minister of Malaysia has launched Government Transformation Plan ( GTP ) in 2010 to go a high income state by the twelvemonth 2020[ 17 ]. Wagess have ever been the major attractive force to occupation searchers. In this instance, the private sectors will hold the advantage to pull occupation searchers with better rewards and benefit and the Army has to vie with them to pull gifted people to fall in the Army where its rewards are relatively little against those offered by the private sector.


17. The security environment will determine the Armed Forces, peculiarly the Army. The Malayan Army is confronting uncertainness, volatile, fast altering engineering with the increasing of non-traditional menaces and non-military undertakings. It involves Cyber Warfare, Military Operations Other Than War ( MOOTW ) such as anti-terrorism, UN peacekeeping and peace support operations, counters insurgency operations, and is invariably act uponing the Malayan Army security environment present environment. The Army demand to constantly adapt to confront these challenges so that it remains relevant and able to transport out its missions efficaciously and expeditiously particularly for its officers. At the same clip, with no existent conventional menace, there has been an addition in state edifice or non-military functions in the Army where the populace expected from the Army to execute with more involved and cooperate with private and public bureaus so that it is seen to be portion of the overall state edifice attempt[ 18 ]. Therefore there is a quandary exist where the individuality of professional Army and the civilization between the civilian and military, has posed many challenges to maintain military warrior spirit and military imposts and traditions. The Army has to accept the facts on the demands to carry through the non-military undertakings to maintain its relevance to the populace. The focal point of the Army undertakings now and in the hereafter will probably on carry throughing its secondary undertakings in Human Assistance and Disaster Relief ( HADR ) such as inundation, temblor, hill slide etc. , military civics actions/programs to construct houses, Bridgess etc, public orders responsibilities such as helping the constabulary in societal agitation, public violences etc. , helping the relevant authorities bureaus to discourage multinational offenses such as smuggling of drugs, coffin nails, illegal immigrants, illegal logging activities etc. , and ceremonial responsibilities such as guard of awards to the King and Sultans of Malaysia and for foreign leaders visit etc. These spread outing functions need to be addressed particularly by the leaders through its Leadership Development in order for them to carry through these extra functions in add-on to preparation and fix for war. Therefore there is a demand that proper scheme adapted for Leadership Development for the Malayan Army officers in order for them to make these undertakings successfully.

18. In term of traditional menaces where it is the Army primary functions to support the state land district from external menaces and aggression where it is no existent external menaces. The traditional menaces to Malaysia are either external or internal menaces. For the external menaces, there is no existent menace to state security, nevertheless there are some issues and struggles that the Malaysia has with its neighboring states which that need to be considered by the Army carefully such as:[ 19 ]

a. Overlaping Claims. There will be possible struggles that may originate as a consequence of the overlapping claims on Spratly Island Groups which involve assorted states including Malaysia Any incidents or tenseness between the claimants states in the extremely contested country, which if it is non managed with restraint could take to unfastened struggles.

b. Territorial Disputes. Malaysia has a figure of unsolved territorial differences with its neighbours. These differences if non manage carefully may take to struggles.

c. Security of SLOC. The issues of security and safety of SLOC every bit good as pollution and traffic congestion in the Straits of Malacca caused by the addition in the volume of transportation are great economic importance to Malaysia as a trading state. Any incident which affects the safety, environment or the break of the SLOC in the passs may endanger the economic and security involvement of the state.

d. Denial of Sea Lines of Communication ( SLOC ) between Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are separated by South China Sea and it is the SLOC between Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. Therefore any control of neighbouring states on this SLOC could make struggle.

e. Piracy. Malaysia positions buccaneering in the Malacca Straits, South China Sea and Sulu Sea as an issue to turn to non merely by its governments but in concert with adjacent states and if non manage decently could intensify to conflict.

f. Arms Build-Up. The procurance of high engineering arm system every bit good as the raising capableness of the adjacent states may take to arms-race in the part and may present security job to Malaysia.

g. Racial Sentiment and Water Issues. Racial tenseness and H2O issues between Malaysia and Singapore are still exist and could make struggle.

19. After the terminal of Cold War, the universe is traveling to battling terrorist act, dominated by US and ace powers, they have shifted their involvement to more economic sciences gain despite military. Global and regional co-operation is of import to little state like Malaysia. Through its rank and active engagement in the UN, ASEAN, APEC, OIC, NAM, WTO, FPDA, The Commonwealth and other universe organisations, struggles and common issues can be discuss through the usage of diplomatic negotiations, dialogue and audience in all attempt of job work outing in hunt for peace colony[ 20 ]. The Army besides plays its function on take parting in bilateral and multi sidelong exercisings with other states.

20. In term Internal Security, as a whole, the Malaysia ‘s internal security state of affairs is good under control. The chief duty is on the Police Force and the Army in merely aid. The chief job is illegal immigrants that create societal jobs to the society. The Islamic extremist besides could be a menace to societal stableness.

21. Socially there are many issues that could lend to the weakening of integrating of the state and society at big. One of the most of import countries is the deficiency of national individuality which will constantly impact nationalism. The Army besides holding job on pulling people to fall in the Army accept for the Malays. Attitudes of non-Malays towards a military profession are non apprehensible.


22. Technology is the amount of tools, cognition and organisation that allows states to flex resources to run into human demands. Technology has ever been an of import factor to the development of the Army. The promotion of engineering is quickly alterations and for the modernisation and development of the Army is all depend on the Government Defense Budget Allocation that depend on the economic growing or in other term “ either staff of life or butter ” . However, the ground forces has to maintain abreast with the altering te3chnologyy and its capableness as to it is ready to confront the menace that utilizing the latest engineering. The Army besides has to take part in defence industry in Malaysia to derive cognition and experience for its officers.

23. The ground forces in the universe is traveling to be little and nimble Army with the latest engineering. The ground forces must guarantee that it is non missing behind at least in term of cognition if they could non get the latest engineering.


24. National Budget. Malaysia ‘s strong economic growing old twelvemonth before the fiscal crisis and the lag of economic growing in recent old ages affected Malaysia existent GDP in 2011 which was 3.9 % achieved against a background of low rising prices and a healthy overall Federal Government fiscal place. The Federal Government Budget for 2011 as shown on EXHIBIT 10[ 21 ]. The 2011 Budgets set out to pull off Malaysia ‘s success and prolong economic growing in the Tenth Malaysia Plan ( 2010-2015 ) . Entire budget – RM212 billion, 2.8 % higher than the 2010 Budget Operating outgo – RM162.8 billion, Development outgo – RM49.2 billion ; 2010 growing revised to seven per centum compared to six per centum antecedently, fuelled by private investing growing ( 15.2 % ) , private ingestion ( 6.7 % ) and exports ( 11.6 % ) , 2011 growing expected to vibrate between five to six per centum supported by private investing ( 10.2 % ) , private ingestion ( 6.3 % ) and exports ( 6.7 % ) , 2011 per capita income expected to travel up 6.1 % to RM28,000, while income in footings of buying power para will hit US $ 16,000, tempered by moderate rising prices ( 2-3 % ) and low unemployment ( 3.5 % ) , Budget shortage is expected to travel down to 5.4 % of GDP, compared to 2010 figure of 5.6 % , Federal authorities gross is estimated to increase 2.3 per centum to RM165.8 billion in 2011, compared to RM161.1 billion in 2010 and Private investing to spread out 12.5 % to RM86 billion[ 22 ].

25. Defense Budget. Based on the Government budget, the armed forces is non a precedence with little sum of allotment where it will impact is modernisation and development to maintain gait with the fast changing engineering and universe category equipment. One noteworthy characteristic of the Malayan defence budget is its fluctuating nature and it is depending on the economic growing and perceived menace to the security of the state. For a little and developing state that is to a great extent dependent on export earning, the financess available for defence will constantly be based on economic public presentation. The defence budget for 2012 is $ 3.15 billion or 1.9 % of GDP[ 23 ]. Out of this budget 70 % of the allotment goes to salary and allowances. This tendency is non expected to alter really much. The demand for prudent disbursement will go more evident since the chief push of the authorities is towards economic growing and socio economic aims.


26. Based on the Malayan environment on political, economic, security, engineering and authorities budget, there are certain factors that will impact on the Malayan Army and its Leadership Development for the officers. These factors will determine the strategic way of the Malayan Army on its Leadership Development and to guarantee that its officers could accommodate the challenging and demanding alterations of the Malayan environment to carry through its functions and undertakings particularly on its spread outing undertakings and to maintain it relevance from the public perceptual experience.

27. Politicss. The current opinion authorities had come up with some plans and enterprises that related to the Malayan Army and the analysis are as follows:

a. Defense Policy formulated by the authorities demand to be to the full understood cascaded throughout the Army that could implement the right scheme to guarantee this Defense Policy is adhered to. Therefore, in apprehension of the Defense Policy and to implement it, necessitate critical and originative thought leaders. These capablenesss should be develop through proper scheme of Leadership Development.

B. The debut of National Service Training Program, the debut of NBOS, authorities committedness of directing troop for UN missions and Government publicity on LIMA and DSA are spread outing functions of the Army and necessitate to be addressed instantly. They are extra undertakings that must be conducted to carry through the state demand. There is no specific preparation and development plan for the ground forces leaders on these sorts of undertakings. Therefore, Leadership Development plans should include these extra undertakings to guarantee the leaders understand the demand to carry through these undertakings.

c. The constitution of National Defense University provides the chance for the MAF to develop quality leaders as undergraduates and heightening the academic making of the officers. This university besides provide the helping officers the chance for self-cultivation by heightening their academic making as post-graduates pupil on several Fieldss at grade and maestro degree degree. The chances to heighten instruction of the officers will be good for the leading development plans.

d. The constitution of MIDC provides the chance for the MAF to collaborate with assorted defence industries participants and to carry through the demand of Defense Policy to be self trust. With this cooperation, the defence industry participants could supply the right military equipment for the Armed Forces and at the same clip provide the chance for officers heightening their cognition and capablenesss on modern military equipment and substructures.

e. The authorities besides recognized the demand for gifted people to develop the state and to accomplish the Vision 2020. This acknowledgment besides related to the MAF in term of selected gifted officers could be appointed as curate in the cabinet, president or president in Government Link Company ( GLC ) and besides every bit High Commissioner or Ambassador which was go oning before.

f. The authorities policy to promote the people to fall in the Territorial Army ( TA ) with the ratio three to one ( three TA and one regular ground forces ) exhibit the authorities attempt to carry through the Defense Policy as Total Defense with involved all the people in the state to support the state. This focal point besides could be benefited the Army with a good image and public perceptual experience towards the Army. At the same clip, this policy besides affects its demand to carry through the undertakings to develop them as TA.

28. Economy. The economic growing of the state will impact the ground forces in term of pulling gifted people to fall in the Army and the defence budget allotment that will travel to the Army. There is a stiff competition to pull gifted people to fall in either private, public or the Army. At the same clip, the chance provided by the flourishing economic besides will make keeping job for the MAF. Job searchers have more chances to be selective over occupations available, giving penchant merely to the best occupation, those offer better pecuniary benefit and working conditions. For these grounds, the MAF is forced to vie with other employment sectors in the class of pulling occupation searchers. Current tendency indicate that occupation searchers prefer to be employed in the private or civil sectors foremost and will see a military profession as an option merely if they are unsuccessful or as last resort. For the Leadership Development to be successful in the Army the right and gifted people should be recruited at the beginning with the right standards as military officers and there is job to vie with the private sectors. Proper selling scheme could pull gifted people to fall in the Army.

29. Security. The security environment will determine the Armed Forces, peculiarly the Army. The current and future challenges and extra undertakings to the Army demand to be addressed and invariably adapt to these challenges so that it remains relevant and able to transport out its missions efficaciously and expeditiously. At the same clip, with no existent conventional menace, there has been an addition in state edifice or non-military functions for the Army This is the perceptual experience of the populace that the Army is expected to go more involved and cooperate with private and public bureaus so that it is seen to be portion of the overall state edifice attempt. Therefore there is a demand that proper scheme adapted for Leadership Development that addressed the demand for the preparation for non-military functions for the Army officers in order for them to make these undertakings successfully.

30. Technology. The modernisation and development of the ground forces to maintain face with the quickly alterations engineering is based on the budget allotment given by the authorities and related to the state economic growing and the perceptual experience of the Government and public perceptual experience on menaces to the security. However, the Army must maintain gait with the latest engineering by take parting in defence industry to derive cognition and experience and should be included in its Leadership development Programs.

31. Budget. Although the defence budget has been deficient in recent old ages, it is non an alibi that the Army has to be low profile and it should go on with its Leadership Development Programs within the available resources and its capablenesss. The perceptual experience of the Government towards the defence can non be hanged but as a professional Army, it has to go on to execute its functions and undertakings successfully irrespective of the sum of defence allotment to the Army. The most of import thing is the human assets that the Army has to develop who is the officers that will take the Army to the hereafter. Therefore, strategic officers Leadership Development Programs have to be adapted in this sort of restriction. How of all time, Malaysia has of import involvement beyond the defence of its district, and the MAF will be called upon in the hereafter, as in the yesteryear, to set about activities and operation elsewhere in the part, or in other parts of the universe, incorporation with neighbours, Alliess and international establishments, peculiarly UN. The Army besides is expected to execute extra undertakings as portion of state edifice and the coveted defence budget allotment is needed to heighten the Army capablenesss in the hereafter.

Chapter III



32. For the comparative survey, this research will concentrate on leading development in the Military peculiarly the Army which is United State of America ‘s Army as a well developed ground forces and Singapore ‘s Army as neighbouring state of Malaysia. This comparative survey will concentrate on their ground forcess Leadership Development Mission, Goal, Model and Programs that make them successful to implement their leading development in their ground forcess. This research is non concentrating on leading development in other public sectors and private sectors as comparing because they are rather different in term of their vision, mission, functions and undertakings.

33. Leadership development by and large will concentrate on developing the leading abilities and attitudes of persons. The successes of leading development are based on three variables: Individual scholars ‘ features, the quality and nature of the leading development programme and echt support for behavioral alteration from leader ‘s supervisors[ 24 ]. Therefore, there is a demand to acquire the right endowment to fall in the army start from the beginning of the choice procedure and these person will be developed throughout their calling in the ground forces.

34. Leadership development besides will non affect on single development but besides at a corporate degree by beef uping the connexion between, and alliance of, the attempts of single leaders and the systems through which they influence organisational operations. Based on these two developments, there is a distinction between leader development and leading development. Leader development focuses on the development of the leader, such as the personal properties desired in a leader, desired ways of behaving, ways of thought or feeling. In contrast, leading development focuses on the development of leading as a procedure. This will include the interpersonal relationships, societal influence procedure, and the squad kineticss between the leader and his/her squad at the couple degree, the contextual factors environing the squad such as the perceptual experience of the organisational clime and the societal web linkages between the squad and other groups in the organisation[ 25 ]. The other facet that needs to be considered in leading development programme is the demand for sequence planning where possible hereafter leaders are identified and will efficaciously take over the current leading.

35. In comparing the leading development of both ground forcess, there are a set of standards that will be compared comprising:

a. Defence Policy.

B. Committedness of the Government to build-up capable ground forces.

c. Army Vision, Mission and Objectives.

d. Army Roles and Tasks

e. Allocation of Defence Budget.

f. Attraction to talented people to fall in the ground forces.

g. Public perceptual experience on the Army.

h. Leadership Development Model.

I. Leadership Development Process.


36. US Army is known as one of the best ground forces in the universe. After the 9/11 terrorist onslaught on World Trade Centre, the US Army is concentrating on war on terrorist act. At the same clip, US Army will go on to full their undertakings based on the vision, mission and aims. There is besides an spread outing undertaking on peacekeeping, state edifice and Operation Other Than War ( OOTW ) . The authorities besides to the full committed to be the constabulary of the universe and will from clip to clip directing the Army to decide any struggles around the universe that affect the state ‘s involvement. The authorities besides provides a clear defence policy to back up the authorities stance on the demand to keep peace and order internally and besides around the universe. With a clear defence policy, the ground forces has a clear way on executing their functions and undertakings. Based on their committedness to be the constabulary of the universe, the authorities to the full supported the modernisation of the ground forces to heighten its capablenesss. The authorities besides allocate $ 664 billion ( 2010 ) or 4.7 % of GDP[ 26 ]for defence budget to the armed forces for their modernisation and development. There is besides a good public perceptual experience on the ground forces based on their professionalism and capableness to carry through its functions and undertakings. The ground forces besides could pull gifted people to fall in the ground forces because of its credibleness and good image to the populace. The US Army has their ain university for officers ‘ instruction and besides has a Centre for Army Leadership[ 27 ]that develops plans and instruction for leading development.

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