Scientific management compatibility with learning organizations

This study considers the rightness of using scientific direction rules in a knowledge-based economic system and its likely consequence in set uping a learning organisation.

Scientific direction is a type of direction that looks at the flow of work and purposes to optimise it in order to increase end product, cut down costs, better rewards, interrupt up the work reasonably, cut down unemployment and advance peace within the workplace ( Thompson, 2008 ) .

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The intent of this essay is to look into scientific direction and determine if it can be used with organisations that wish to follow a learning civilization within the workplace. This is within the context of a knowledge-based economic system and our present twenty-four hours.

This essay shall reason that while scientific direction is still extremely relevant for all concerns today, it may non be appropriate, by itself, for the constitution of a modern larning organisation of today.

A critical treatment of the definition of scientific direction with accent on clip shall be presented. This will be followed by an probe on how the context of concern has changed and besides the key challenges for today ‘s directors.


1. Scientific direction rules

Harmonizing to Thompson ( 2008, p2 ) , Scientific Management originated from a set of rules deduced from experience by Frederick Winslow Taylor and his applied scientists in the 1880s and 1890s. It was focused on forcing development farther in the mill disposal context. Scientific Management is based on industrial rules such as regulations of behavior and is a agency to maximise end product, lower costs, better rewards, just distribution, reduced unemployment and to advance peace within the workplace. As it relies on Torahs instead than policies it is seen as a scientific attack

As detailed by Gilbreth ( 2005 P seven ) , Scientific Management undertakes to procure greater production for the same or less attempt. Employees, when volitionally working in cooperation with direction, derive farther benefits and frailty versa. In foretelling the sum of work an employee can make before they really do it, is the innovation of clip survey. In working out the unit times one must cognize every bit much as possible about the art or trade. One can so work out the clip required to implement the smallest of undertakings and construct up from at that place. In placing the work elements that are least exhausting, one can acquire the most from the employee. Besides the sum of remainder that each sort of activity requires should be calculated so that neither the employee nor employer may be injured. Finally it is most good for all to suit the employee to the right place based on his or her personal properties and abilities.

Taylor ( 1911, p7 ) is inexorable that the redress for inefficient direction, whether for simple single Acts of the Apostless or those of big corporations, lies in systematic direction which has clearly defined Torahs and rules at its foundation. Scientific direction believes that prosperity should be for both the employer and employee. Scientific direction offers additions instead than jeopardizing occupations although some workers do non believe this ( Taylor, p16 ) . When the monetary value of a green goods goes down normally the demand goes up. For illustration in the instance of a shoe mill where many machines now do the occupations antecedently done by manus, the cost of a monetary value of places has decreased. Subsequently people now by and large purchase more places which means there are comparatively more employees within the industry. Hence the work force has increased, non decreased.

Harmonizing to Taylor, the art of direction is defined as cognizing precisely what you want work forces to make and so acquiring them to make it in the best and cheapest manner. A cardinal tool in accomplishing this was the usage of “ clip and gesture surveies where every item of the worker is looked at. Then from this analysis the most economical and productive manner of accomplishing their undertakings can be worked out. In add-on maximal prosperity should be secured for both employer and employee.

2. How the concern universe has changed

Harmonizing to Huber ( 1984 ) post-industrial organisations are modern twenty-four hours larning organisations that have increased demands from a knowledge-based economic system. The organisation must be capable of decision-making, invention and able to get and administer information. If the organisation is nescient of post-industrial engineering, constructions and processes they will neglect or downsize. This is a cardinal difference between the industrial and post-industrial epochs.

In measuring squad larning with a scientific attack, a survey by Zorgios, Vlismas & A ; Venieris ( 2009 ) used mathematical looks to mensurate cost nest eggs of a squad of package developers. The squad represented a close team-working environment within a cognition intensive production environment. They were able to happen empirical grounds to pattern the cost nest eggs of squad based larning within production environments.

An illustration of effectual Scientific Management is Henry Ford as discussed by Palmer, Cockton and Cooper ( 2007 ) . By the innovation of the production line within the car industry he was able to standardise and increase the efficiency of the mill. This increased volume, cut costs and increased efficiency. It was so possible to half the clip taken to fabricate a vehicle that resulted in a decreased monetary value to consumers. Ford was so able to pay his employees more than double what they were paid earlier. While the work on a production line is more deadening and boring he paid his workers more despite the high bend over rate for the occupation.

Organizations now must be able to realine their ends all the clip harmonizing to Beer & A ; Eisenstat ( 1996, p597 ) . They should be able to accommodate continuously to altering consumer demands and go learning organisations. Three rules as discussed by Beer & A ; Eisenstat ( 1996, p598 ) that promote such direction are as follows. The alteration should be systemic and based on scheme, emotion and company behaviour. Changes should besides convey out all issues that are concerned and all of the functions and duties should be communicated to the stockholders. All functions and duties should be able to lend to new alterations. This nevertheless is non compatible with the scientific direction attack.

3. Challenges for today ‘s directors.

A critical analysis of scientific direction was detailed by Braverman ( 1974 ) . Simplifying occupations and spliting labour consequences in deskilling of the work force. A modern twenty-four hours illustration of this is the McDonalds eating house. They break undertakings down into constituents such as for illustration French french friess machines, programmed hard currency registries, cooking times and drink dispensers. This is done to better efficiency and creates specialised forces. McDonalds is one illustration of a company that has managed to successfully accommodate scientific direction into the twenty-first century. Harmonizing to Braverman ( 1974 ) without this attack they likely would n’t be every bit dominant as they presently are.

De Geus ( 1998 ) indicates that the lone competitory advantage that companies have other similar companies is their ability to larn faster than their rivals. Martin ( 2007 ) high spots that many executives are detecting that intestine inherent aptitude is what keeps a company vital. In discoursing the engineering market and in peculiar the nomadic phone market, there can be much scientific research done on a peculiar market to work out Numberss but in the terminal 1 must be listening to the market. A company should non fall quarry to concentrate on complicated determination devising package but maintain pointing towards the enigmas and heuristics. Martin ( 2007 ) believes that “ the pendulum ” is singing off from the appendages of “ scientific direction ” .

While there is no individual scheme procedure that will take to a sustainable and competitory advantage ( Feurer and Chaharbaghi, 1997 ) , superior consequences may be achieved if direction can choose from a broad scope of scheme options instead than merely concentrating on a individual 1. To farther advance a dynamic attack to scheme development, power to do determinations should be given to persons down the line instead than provided and dictated by upper direction.

As pointed out by Feurer and Chaharbaghi ( 1997 ) and common to all organisations whether they are non for net income or for net income, successful organisations must concentrate on new constructs, creativeness and scheme invention.


Scientific direction was originally developed in the context of technology and mills. Some modern twenty-four hours illustrations, such as McDonalds, the auto industry, computing machine fabrication, are utilizing scientific direction rules really efficaciously good into the twenty-first century. However the failings of Scientific direction mean that as employees undertakings are made easier, the undertakings are made easier and humans become machine like in their occupations. This can take to workers being anti-motivated and disgruntled. Workers now are non merely merely looking for economic wages. They want to experience portion of the company household and besides be able to be promoted. With the scientific direction attack of Taylor, these wagess are ignored with the accent on devaluating their accomplishments and acquiring them to make insistent simple undertakings.

As markets are invariably altering and companies are more affiliated to information through for illustration the cyberspace, employees are no longer working in stray units but are instead more affiliated to their directors and organisation. Companies must be dynamic and be able to respond rapidly to developments, particularly when consumer demands are invariably altering. Employees sense of accomplishment and societal position are factors which can motive employees sometimes more than merely the pecuniary value of the occupation.

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