Globalization, engineering promotions and release have quickly evolved the regulations of success and direction in the of all time altering environment today. Businesss can no longer stay dead in their place state and go on to be profitable at the same clip. As such, many organisations adopt a competitory scheme to relocate their employees to work as exiles overseas. Harmonizing to Dowling et Al ( 1999 ) , the success of this globalised scheme depends critically on engaging the right people, at the right clip and in the right topographic point. It is important to observe that effectual exiles play an of import function in developing new markets, implementing engineering and commanding abroad operations. ( Kantor, 2002 ) A survey by Black, et Al. ( 1999 ) has concluded that globally competent employees are of import ; and the most utile manner to cultivate this type of employees is through international assignments. Many surveies and researches have besides proven that international assignments are of import to the success of planetary organisations. ( Takeuchi, et Al, 2005 ) Hence, the willingness of employees to accept working overseas is a major concern to many organisations today.
Cultivating possible and effectual employees, raising the organisation ‘s planetary position to greater highs, commanding and puting up abroad operations and reassigning information are some of the justifications provided for relocating employees internationally. From the position of an person ( employee ) , international assignments may be a stepping rock for future calling patterned advances and promotions. ( Brett & A ; Stroth, 1995 ; Landau et al. , 1992 ) Harmonizing to Hauser ( 1999 ) , single employees who are willing to relocate and work as exiles overseas are of import assets to the organisation. This is due to the turning tendency towards international assignments. As more and more transnational organisations emphasize and incorporate international assignments into their strategic concern aims, the failure of it could take to terrible amendss to the organisation ‘s concern and attempts placed globally. ( Shaffer et al. , 1998 ) In most instances, the existent cost of international assignment failures extend far beyond pecuniary footings for relocating employees overseas. Hence, the issues and challenges faced by exiles or employees make up one’s minding to take up an expatriate function are as of import to an organisation as their strategic concern aims. It should non be taken lightly as the failure rate of international assignments ranges from 16 to 40 per centum ( Leskowich, 2009 ) , which is an dismaying statistic to the organisations.
Narrowing down from the large image to the local context ; Singapore is a widely distributed metropolis, and for the 4th clip in seven old ages, Singapore has emerged top topographic point as the most globalized state in the universe. ( Kearney, 2011 ) In add-on, the authorities ‘s pressing call for local concerns to “ travel planetary ” purposes to promote more Singaporeans to travel overseas for international assignments. This would assist in the success of local concerns because the exiles gain planetary experience and construct up their competency to advance planetary integrating within the organisation. In the Parliament Reports ( 2008 ) , Deputy Prime Minister Mr. Wong Kan Seng mentioned that there are about 150,000 Singapore citizens and lasting occupants populating and working overseas. This figure is little, and is bit by bit acquiring smaller overtime. Hence, the willingness of Singaporeans in taking up international assignments and the factors which contributed to their determination has become a major concern to Singapore organisations, every bit good as to Singaporeans themselves. If an extended figure of Singaporean employees are unwilling to take up international assignments, the Singaporean organisations will hold to seek options for suited endowments to implement their globalizing schemes. This is particularly worrying to Singaporeans as the authorities continues to welcome foreign endowments into the state, and in immense Numberss. Ultimately, Singaporeans would lose their competitory advantage in the ocean of international foreign endowments.
Numerous surveies have been conducted on factors which lead to exile failures. ( For illustration ; Premature expiration of exiles due to hapless public presentation or inability to set to foreign environments. ) However, factors which influence employees ‘ willingness to work overseas have non been widely explored, particularly in the local context. In position that Singaporeans are an first-class pick of exiles to organisations in footings of accomplishment sets, cognition and expertness ; this forms an interesting research country to look into the issues faced by Singaporeans act uponing their purpose to take on expatriate functions.
1.3 Research Overview and Structure
The intent of this survey aims to research the willingness of Singaporeans to take up international assignments and the factors involved. It would besides put to set up and turn out the being of a strong relationship between household influences and purpose to take up exile functions through supported hypotheses.
As such, the research aims are set as ( I ) to analyze the willingness of Singaporeans to accept international assignments ( two ) to place and look into the chief factors which impact the determination devising procedure. Factors include household, occupation factors, anterior resettlement experience, resettlement finish ( civilization and environment ) and personal traits. The factors designation had been based on a aggregation of international surveies and researches conducted extensively in the United States and Japan on the major factors which affect employees ‘ willingness in going exiles. ( Takeuchi, et Al, 2005 ; Ashamalla, 1998 ) This survey would besides take ( three ) to happen out if household is so the critical factor which affects the ultimate determination of Singaporeans accepting international assignments. On a side note, this survey could help HR directors in puting strategic planetary assignment policies with respects to exile of Singaporeans.
Upon verification of the intent and aims, a qualitative information aggregation approach/ methodological analysis have been used in this survey. A series of interviews were conducted with working professionals in the finance sector to garner information with an purpose of replying the research inquiry ( subject ) . Thereafter, the overall consequences proved that Singaporeans are by and large unwilling to take up expatriate functions and that household ; particularly kids and partner have a important influence on Singaporeans ‘ willingness to accept international assignments. However, other factors besides contributed to the concluding determinations made. Last, restrictions of this survey should be noted of ; specific class of the selected interviewees suggested generalisation of the findings of this survey.
The survey is organized into six chapters as follows:
Chapter 1. Introduction – Provides a background to the subject of the direction research undertaking and sets the scene for the readers. It includes the intent, aims, methodological analysis, brief overview on findings and restrictions of the research survey.
Chapter 2. Literature Review – Reappraisal of current and relevant academic literatures back uping the survey. This subdivision summarizes all collected academic literatures on chosen subject of involvement and development of hypotheses.
Chapter 3. Methodology of Study – Provides a description of the research methodological analysis including techniques used and processs involved in carry oning the research and roll uping informations.
Chapter 4. Research Findings and Analysis – Provides an lineation of analysis on collected information of the research survey. Summarizes research findings and provides treatment on the consequences. Conclusion of hypotheses developed in Chapter 2.0.
Chapter 5. Decision and Limitations – Provides description and sum-up of the decision derived from findings collected in this research survey.
Chapter 6. Recommendations of Study – Provides suggestions for future researches on the footing of this survey.
Following the above brief walk through of the full research survey, the following chapter would concentrate on the reappraisal of relevant and important academic literatures which supports the subject of involvement ; in this instance, it is the “ Factors impacting the willingness of Singaporeans to take up international assignments. ”
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Knowledge of the of import being of international assignments
One of the aims of this survey is to happen out if Singaporeans are willing to take up international assignments. With Singapore being one of the most globalized states in the universe, it is without uncertainty that its citizens are cognizant of the being of international assignments every bit good as the importance of it. Bing cognizant of international assignments keeps employees prepared for future possible chances or challenges of such. Unlike the yesteryear, planetary exile is considered a significant investing to organisations today and holding international experience has become a necessity for employees to progress to senior direction places in their organisations, particularly transnational companies. A survey by Hauser ( 2000 ) showed that 21 per centum of transnational companies said that international experience helps in accelerated publicity of their employees. Therefore, there is an outlook that employees are interested in expatriate functions but it has to be noted that being interested and willingness are two separate capable affairs wholly.
H1. Employees indicated involvement in international assignments.
2.2 Willingness to take up international assignments
Multinational companies are invariably faced with the challenge of choosing suited campaigners for exile functions. International assignments are an of import milepost in conveying the organisations towards the accomplishment of planetary range. ( Yan et al. , 2002 ) On the other side of the narrative, in the position of an employee, Tung ( 1998 ) has said this, “ The emanation of planetary position is important to an employee ‘s calling development and that exile assignments are an expedient mean to get such expertness. ”
However, employees who showed involvement in an international assignment may non be needfully willing to take up the exile function when an chance arises, irrespective of whether the assignment is long or short term. In this context, being interested would intend that the employee has thought about the topic at least one time earlier. To day of the month, most of the academic literatures on international assignments focused on exile failures and the enlisting and choice of exiles by human resource sections. Very few direct research attending has been given to the willingness of employees ( non-US exiles in peculiar ) in taking up international assignments. It is therefore ill-defined if employees embrace this type of international chances positively or negatively. There are many factors which contribute to the willingness of employees in taking up international assignments. Hence, the appraisal of international assignments must travel beyond the enlisting and choice of suited employees which are largely based on their work experience, accomplishments and cognition. The factors would be farther examined in the following subdivision of this chapter.
H2. Employees are by and large unwilling to take up international assignments due to certain factors after careful consideration.
2.3 Factors impacting the willingness of employees to take up international assignments
Attractive salary bundle, alone cultural experience abroad, stepping rock for future calling promotions may all lure employees to accept an chance to relocate and work overseas. However, many instances of exile failures and influence of assorted factors may besides potentially obstruct their willingness of taking up the international assignment. ( Poe, 2002 ) Many surveies ( Hauser, 1999 ; Borstorff et al. , 1997 ; Noe & A ; Barber, 1993 ) were conducted to look into on factors which predict employees ‘ willingness to take on expatriate functions.
In add-on to factors which are demographic ( i.e. age, gender and category ) , household, occupation related factors, anterior resettlement experience, resettlement finish ( civilization and environment ) and personality traits are the 5 chief factors which would impact the willingness of employees to take up international assignments. ( Takeuchi, et Al, 2005 ; Ashamalla, 1998 ) Detailed reappraisal of each factor would be discussed.
Many earlier surveies ( Caligiuri et al. , 1998 ; Shaffer et al. , 1998 ; Fukuda & A ; Chu, 1994 ) have found that household related jobs were the biggest and most critical ground accounting for international assignment failures, viz. premature return from the host state or public presentation poorer than outlooks of the organisations. It is non at all surprising that household has such a important direct and indirect impact on the credence of international assignments since the international assignment affects the household as a whole instead than merely the exile entirely. ( Caligiuri et al. , 1998 ; Guzzo et al. , 1994 ) Particular accent is placed on the exile ‘s partner and kids for the factor of household in this survey.
Research workers have proved that the turning reluctance to accept international assignments stems from considerations of household incommodiousness and breaks, largely on the partners and kids. ( Borstorff et al. , 1997 ; Harvey, 1995 ) Stress from household includes deficiency of support from partners, partner ‘s calling jobs and breaks of their kids ‘s education/schooling. Harmonizing to Black and Gergersen ( 1991 ) , western exiles are normally accompanied by their partners, kids, if non both during international assignments. This consequences in their partners holding to discontinue their current occupation and give up any possible opportunities of calling patterned advance and development. Even though the partners can hold chances in the new environment, the deficiency of societal support web from the exile ‘s organisation may do them to experience lonely and defeated and finally take to dissatisfaction. ( Briody & A ; Chrisman, 1991 ) Studies have found that partners ‘ motive and support to the employees in relocating have a immense influence on their willingness to accept the international chance. ( Brett & A ; Reilly, 1988 ; Black & A ; Stephens, 1989 ; Black & A ; Gregersen, 1990 ) To be more specific, Brett & A ; Stroth ( 1995 ) mentioned that partners ‘ attitudes and willingness to relocate were positively related to employee ‘s willingness to take up international assignments.
As more adult females hold full clip professional callings, it is of import to take into consideration the influence of double income households on willingness to accept expatriate functions. Double income household has been defined as those with twosomes both keeping senior direction places in their several organisations. ( Karambayya & A ; Reilly, 1992 ) Through the observations of Harvey and Buckley ( 1998 ) , there is a higher opportunity of refusal to relocate internationally to work among double income households. Reasons given included break of income, reluctance of partner to give up current occupation, reengagement and calling chances of partner in the resettled finish. Hence, the more involved the partner is in their current occupation, the less willing the employee will be to relocate. On the other manus, single employees who are married and have partners who do non work have lesser restraints on their willingness to accept international assignments. ( Landau et al. , 1992 )
The issue of partner aside, kids of the possible exile is another of import component in the household factor which greatly influences his determination to accept international places. ( Borstorff et al. , 1997 )
These perceptual experiences of possible household emphasis may curtail possible campaigners from taking up international assignments. To farther strengthen this statement, at least for US samples entirely, household ‘s inability ( particularly spouses ) to set in foreign environment is the individual critical cause of employee ‘s involuntariness to work overseas. ( Black, 1988 )
H3. Family is a critical factor in impacting employees ‘ willingness to accept international assignments.
H4. Negative household influence has a negative consequence on the willingness to take up international assignments.