The aim of this research is to analyze the assorted factors driving client ‘s to hypermarket in Penang. After set uping the ground of this research, it is of import to explicate the attack and research methodological analysis which is used to accomplish the consequences. The quality of the research is based on the appropriate research methodological analysis.
Research can be described as a systematic and organized attempt to look into a particular job that needs a solution. Research is indispensable for understanding even the basic mundane phenomena that need to be handled in organisations. ( Sekaran, 1992 )
This chapter will be covering the country of theoretical model, research methodological analysis, mensurating instrument and research design.
3.1 Theoretical model
Theoretical model can be defined as a conceptual theoretical account of how one theorizes the relationships among several factors identified as of import to the job. This theory flows logically from the certification of old research in the job country. Integrating one ‘s logical belief with published research is polar in developing a scientific footing for look intoing the research job. ( Sekaran, 1992 )
This survey was conducted to prove the relationship between the independent variables and the dependant variable. By analyzing the relationship, it enables us to cognize which of the independent variables can impact the dependant variable the most and which is less. As such, there are two set of variables being studied in this chapter i.e. dependent variable and independent variable. Figure 3 represent the relationship between the two set of variables.
Customers Choice Of Traveling To Hypermarket
Figure 3 – Theoretical Model
Dependent Variable – Customer ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets as a consequence of clients demands and wants.
Independent Variable – shop image, shop environment, merchandises, monetary value, and publicity.
3.2 Statement of Hypothesis
Based on theoretical model as simplified in Figure 3, a figure of hypothesis statements were derived.
H1: There is a important relationship between shop image and client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets.
H2: There is a important relationship between shop environment and client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets.
H3: There is a important relationship between merchandises and client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets.
H4: There is a important relationship between monetary value and client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets.
H5: There is a important relationship between publicity and client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets.
3.3 Research Design
This research is fundamentally an experimental research to find and look into the cause and consequence relationship between client ‘s pick to traveling hypermarkets and the assorted factors driving client ‘s to hypermarkets in Penang. These variables were neither controlled nor manipulated.
Questionnaires were distributed to persons chiefly to friends, co-workers and relations who have primary duty for family and food market purchases.
3.3.1 Nature of Research
This is an explorative research that requires analytical attack to obtain believable consequences with mention to the variables and statements based on the basic statements by bookmans and academicians that were brought up earlier in Chapter 2.
In order to deduce dependable consequences, several demographic variables were included in the questionnaires such as gender, age, and race, degree of income, matrimonial position, business, and instruction background to move as control variables in this survey. Both primary and secondary informations will be used in this research in order to increase the cogency and dependability of this research. The secondary informations are discussed in Chapter 2 while the primary informations will be collected via questionnaire distribution.
3.3.2 Population and Sample
Population refers to the full group of people, events or things of involvement that the research worker desire to look into. ( Sekaran, 2000 ) In order to derive the relevant information, population and sampling should be taken into consideration.
The targeted respondent for this survey comprise of the people who shops in the hypermarkets every bit good as those who do non. In order to hold a meaningful survey and avoid any prejudices, different standards of classs were selected. Since the nature of survey was explanatory, random sampling was used as this trying method was considered as the fastest and most efficient manner to garner information.
A sample of the size of one hundred respondents ( n=100 ) was chosen for this survey after taking into considerations the given clip frame for finishing this survey and the questionnaire design. Consequently, questionnaire will be applied as the informations aggregation method. With the aid of friends and relations, questionnaires were distributed indiscriminately to the selected respondents. The population and sampling program are as shown in Table 3.1.
Population and sampling
All clients in Penang.
100 clients in Penang.
Estimated that there are around 1.44million population in Penang.
Random trying method.
Table 3.1- Populations and Sampling Plan
The population for this survey comprised all Penang occupants who are presently shacking on Penang. In add-on, this population will represent people from all cultural groups of Malaysia i.e. Malay Chinese, Indian and others. Working and non- working persons are considered a possible respondent for this survey besides.
3.3.3 Structure of the Questionnaire
A structured questionnaire was given to the sample population and it was designed to arouse specific information from respondents. The questionnaires were designed in such a manner that the respondents were able to reply them handily and without mush fuss. In add-on, the questionnaire besides assured respondents rigorous privateness and confidentially.
The questionnaires were developed in clear and simple English, free from ambiguity, in a logical sequence and as such that the respondents will be able to reply the inquiries candidly and honestly.
There will be three subdivisions in the questionnaires. Section A was designed to garner information from respondent in relation to personal demographics such as age, gender, race, matrimonial position, instruction degree, business and income. Section B was structured to mensurate the independent variables from the assorted factors. Last but non least, Section C was designed around the dependent variable of the survey.
3.3.4 Scale of Measurement
The first Section A will be assemblage of the information on the personal demographics where the interval graduated table of graduated table is used. Both Section B and C will be tested utilizing ordinal scale inquiry inquiries replies. The respondents are required to bespeak the understanding or dissension on each of the statement designed in order to prove the attitudes and the sentiments of the respondents.
Likert Scale method will be used in both Section B and C to demo the grade of impact made from those factors and furthermore, it provides a clear image on the overall response from the respondents. Figure 3.2 shows the Likert 5 point evaluation graduated table.
Figure 3.2-Likert ‘s 5 Indicating Rating Scale
3.4 Statistical Methods
The statistical application used for the analysis is statistical bundle for the societal scientific disciplines ( SPSS ) .Three Essential trials were done to find the dependability, cogency and truth of the informations computed in the SPSS.
The first is the frequence trial to place the bulk of the respondents harmonizing to their demographics. Next is the dependability trial which was conducted utilizing the cronbach coefficient alpha to determine the dependability and internal consistence in this research. Should the Cronbach ‘s alpha be less than 0.5, the factor is non dependable.
This chapter inside informations the theoretical model and research methodological analysis which serves as the purpose to carry through the research aim. An explanatory research is undertaken to work out the research job stated. Data aggregation is expected to take at least one month clip frame through the distribution of the questionnaires. The population of sample consists of one hundred respondents ( n=100 ) selected utilizing the simple random trying method.
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS
This chapter focuses on the consequences that are obtained through the statistical information analysis. The first subdivision provides an overview of informations gathered. Second states the description of the general features of the respondents. Frequency and per centum were used to demo by and large the distribution of profile in regard of the respondents. Subsequently, an analysis on the assorted factors driving client ‘s to hypermarkets and client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets was examined by utilizing dependability analysis followed by the 4th subdivision which provides the inter – correlativity between all the variables that are studied and descriptive statistics that showed the mean and standard divergence of the factors.
4.1 Overview of Data Gathered
Table 4 shows the sample profile of the questionnaire studies which were distributed indiscriminately to client ‘s of the three hypermarkets ( Giant, Tesco and Carrefour ) in Penang regardless of their demographics to obtain dependable and valid consequences. 100 transcripts of questionnaire were given out and the same sum was collected back once more. The research worker found all the questionnaires were wholly answered and applicable for the intent of analysis. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences ( SPSS ) was used to analyse the information.
Number of Questionnaires Distributed
Number of Questionnaires Collected
Number of Questionnaires Used for Analysis
Number of Questionnaire Rejected
Table 4 – Sample profile of Questionnaires
4.2 Data Presentation
Before continuing with the statistical trials, a frequence distribution was obtained to hold a clear image on the sample size and the basic demographics of the respondents. Table 4.1 describes seven ( 7 ) demographic variables which consist of gender, age, race, matrimonial position, business, income ( RM ) and background.
Percentage ( % )
26 – 35
36 – 45
46 – 55
56 and above
Income ( RM )
RM1001 – RM2000
RM2001 – RM3000
RM3001 – RM4000
RM4001 and above
Secondary School Certificate
Bachelor ‘s Degree
Master ‘s Degree
Table 4.1 – Demographic Profile of Respondents
As referred from Table 4.1. The consequences indicated that 40 % of the respondents were male whereas the staying 60 % reflects the sample population of the female respondents.
Talking of bulk, the respondents were largely from the age scope of 26 – 35 old ages old at 42 % . This is followed by below 25 old ages of age and 36 – 45 old ages of age which make up of 30 % and 13 % severally. Whereas the age scope of 46 – 55 consisted of 10 % and eventually the minority age group that was found in this survey were 56 and above that stands at 5 % .
The race diverseness of the respondent ‘s shows that the hypermarkets clients ‘ population size comprised of 42 % Chinese followed by 32 % Malay, 20 % Indian and others race are 6 % . In add-on, it can be seen that 38 % of the respondents are individual while 48 % are married, 11 % are divorced and the staying 3 % are widow.
By and large, the respondents rate their business based on their occupation range and hence, administrative/ direction rank the highest with 38 % followed by others occupation range at 30 % , sales/marketing at 15 % , pupil at 11 % and eventually science/healthcare do up at 6 % merely.
The sample population besides reflects a immense assortment in the monthly income variable. The income scope of RM1000 – RM2000 is the bulk which stands at 28 % . Subsequently, 24 % is made up of respondents who earn RM2001 – RM3000 followed by 20 % for those who earn below RM1000, 15 % for those who earn RM3001 – RM4000 and eventually the minority is the income degree that ranges from RM4001 and supra at 13 % .
Furthermore, the frequence analysis shows that the highest per centum respondents for instruction background is 30 % who are secondary school certification holders, 28 % who are unmarried man ‘s grade holders, 27 % are diploma holders, 8 % are maestro ‘s degree holders and others are at 7 % .
4.3 Findingss and Discussions of the Study
Throughout the undermentioned subdivisions, the consequences obtained from the statistical analysis will be communicated and discussed thereby reflecting the demand to carry on this survey. This survey will lend in the procedure of supplying a better apprehension at greater deepness and strength of the relationship between independent and dependent variables of this research.
4.3.1. Dependability Analysis
The primary informations that was retrieved from the questionnaires were entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences ( SPSS ) package to be tabulated by utilizing Numberss of trials to mensurate and contrasts the information. The first trial is the dependability analysis which could show the propensity and dependableness of informations collected before other trials are performed.
Reliability trial measures the extent to which points in a peculiar set are positively correlated to each other and how the coefficient these points are within a set. By making the dependability analysis, the research worker is able to find the dependableness of the questionnaire distributed in order to get a stable information. It besides analyses the dealingss between points in the questionnaires and therefore do the research worker understands the overall index of the internal consistence of the graduated table.
Harmonizing to Sekaran ( 2000 ) , the Cronbach Alpha of 0.50 is the minimal credence degree of Alpha and Alpha of 0.60 and above constitutes good internal consistence and stableness of the information found in a specific sample of the full population. Table 4.2 shows the dependability trial consequences that are obtained through Statistical Package for Social Sciences ( SPSS ) package.
No. of Items
Item ( s ) Dropped
Table 4.2 – Dependability Test Results
Harmonizing to the informations exhibited in Table 4.2, shop image, merchandises and publicity variable fell on the minimal credence degree of alpha while shop environment and monetary value variable which are at 0.60 and above demonstrate good internal consistence every bit good as stableness of the information. Hence, the informations analyzed is both precise and dependable for farther research intents. Therefore, all the variables fell within the acceptable scope and were suited for farther analysis.
4.3.2 Descriptive Analysis
Table 4.3 presents the agencies and standard divergences for all the studied variables for independent and dependent variables of the questionnaires.
Traveling to Hypermarket
Table 4.3 – Descriptive Analysis
With mentions to Postpone 4.3, the mean for all variables ranges in between 3.55 to 4.02 whereas the standard divergence for all variables ranges in between 0.478 to 0.608. It is found that the lowest mean and standard divergence for independent variables are monetary value and merchandises which step at 3.55 and 0.478 whereas the highest mean and standard divergence for independent variables is store environment and monetary value which step at 4.02 and 0.608. From the consequences, the mean and standard divergence for dependent variable was 3.69 and 0.543 severally.
4.3.3 Correlation Analysis ( Hypothesis Testing )
Beyond cognizing the agencies and standard divergences of the dependant and independent variables, the research worker would wish to cognize farther on how none variable is related to another. In order words, the research worker would wish to see the nature, way and significance of the bivariate relationship for the variables used in the survey.
In this survey, Pearson ‘s Correlation Coefficient is used to place the existent important and being of the inter-relationship between the independent and dependent variables. By and large, correlativity is step of the relation between two or more variables. The important value should be less than 0.05 to be considered as being strongly important. Table 4.4 shows the correlativity analysis of this survey.
Table 4.4 Correlation Analysis
Hypothesis 1: Shop Image vs. Customers Choice of Traveling to Hypermarkets
The relationship between shop images is tested against client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets. The consequences indicate that there is no important relationship between the two variables as the important value is 0.536. Therefore, it is obvious that the relationship between these two variables is undistinguished and hence hypothesis 1 is non accepted.
The consequences are consistent with Lindquist ( 1974 – 1975 ) where he emphasizes that shop image is a complex thing as it consists of everything that people associate with the shop. Image is formed through personal experience with the shop and it can be modified over clip. Not merely will different clients perceive the importance of shop properties otherwise, they will besides hold different perceptual experiences of the shop even if they visit the shop at the same clip. Therefore, it can be suggested that client ‘s will be more likely to shop at the shop when they have a favourable perceptual experience of the shop image or properties.
Hypothesis 2: Shop Environment vs. Customers Choice of Traveling to Hypermarkets
The relationship between shop environments is tested against clients of traveling to hypermarkets. The consequences show that there is a important between the two variables as the important value is 0.03. So, the relationship between the two variables is strong and important. Therefore, hypothesis 2 is accepted.
To confirm this hypothesis, it can be said that a pleasing shop environment which offers comfort to clients will heighten the quality of their visit and therefore increase the client ‘s trueness towards the shop. Furthermore, clients will be more satisfied with the shop if they find that the shop environment is comfy and gratifying. ( Seiders and Tigert, 2000 )
Hypothesis 3: Merchandises vs. Customers Choice of Traveling to Hypermarkets
The variable of merchandises and client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets is both trials for inter-relationship. It was found that there is important relationship between the two variables as the important value is 0.003. The relationship between these two variables is significantly strong. Therefore hypothesis 3 is accepted.
The consequences are similar to Carpenter ( 2008 ) account since clients normally purchase multiple points during a shopping trip, a shop with an extended ware scope provides more pick to the client ‘s and prevents their demand to see another shop. This partially explains why hypermarkets are the most preferable pick as clients are able to take attention of every bit many shopping demands as possible when sing the same shop.
Hypothesis 4: Monetary value vs. Customers Choice of Traveling to Hypermarkets
The relationship between monetary values is tested against client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets. The consequences show that there is a important between the two variables as the important value is 0.000. So, the relationship between the two variables is strong and important. Therefore, hypothesis 4 is accepted.
It is non surprising to happen that pricing scheme is one of the top five precedences in retail direction and many retail merchants are actively engaged in explicating pricing schemes to pull client ‘s to see the shop. This is because some of the hypermarkets merchandise monetary values are comparatively inexpensive compared to supermarkets. ( Bell and Lattin, 1998 )
Hypothesis 5: publicity vs. Customers Choice of Traveling to Hypermarkets
The variable of publicity and client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets is both trials for inter-relationship. It was found that there is a important between the two variables as the important value is 0.000. The relationship between the two variables is strong and important. Therefore, hypothesis 5 is accepted.
The consequences supported the suggestions by Davies ( 2001 ) that gross revenues publicity should be seen as one of many strategic ingredients for developing and prolonging competitory advantage as publicities can heighten trade name trueness. Furthermore, publicity activities such as advertisement through media strongly influence client ‘s to hypermarkets particularly publicizing to inform client ‘s about promotional period like mega gross revenues, carnival gross revenues, lucky draws and others.
4.4 Summary of the Study ‘s Findingss
Table 4.5 shows the sum-up of the hypothesis trial. The overall consequences denote that four hypothesis were found to be accepted while one being rejected.
Statement of Hypothesis
H1: There is no important relationship between shop image and client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets
H2: There is a important relationship between shop environment and client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets
H3: There is a important relationship between merchandises and client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets
H4: There is a important relationship between monetary value and client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets
H5: There is a important relationship between publicity and client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets
Table 4.5 – Consequences of Hypothesis
Throughout Chapter 4, the research worker has observed the analytical trials that were carried out in this research to look into every bit good as hunt for conclusive grounds of cogency, dependability and important relationships between the variables tested. As a consequence, from the concluding trial that was executed, four independent variables viz. store environment, merchandises, monetary value and publicity have important consequence and relationship towards the dependant variable which is client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets while shop image on the other manus does non hold any important consequence or relationship toward the dependant variable.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter explains and provides the decision for this research. First, an overview of the survey will be provided. Thereafter, the sum-up of the major findings, deductions, restrictions of the survey and suggestion for farther research are presented. Finally, the chapter ends with the reasoning comments of the survey.
The chief aim of reasoning this research was to look into client perceptual experience about the assorted factors of driving clients to hypermarket ( a instance survey of hypermarkets in Penang ) .The outgrowth of new retail formats in the last few decennaries has affected the manner clients shop as they now have more picks to make up one’s mind on. Therefore, it is of import for the retail merchants to understand the factors that will impact client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets.
The independent variables which were chosen for this research are store image, shop environment, merchandises, monetary value and publicity. These independent variables were so studied against the dependant variables which clients pick of traveling to hypermarkets.
100 set of questionnaires were distributed and the same entire sum were successfully collected. The Findings of this research revealed that four independent variables had important impact on client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets while one is important. The recognized variables were store environment, merchandises, monetary value and publicity while rejected variables is store image.
5.2 Discussion of Findingss
The intent of this survey was to analyze client perceptual experience about the assorted factors driving clients to hypermarkets ( a instance survey of hypermarkets in Penang ) .Statistical bundle for societal scientific discipline ( SPSS ) was used to prove the independent variables which consist of shop image, shop environment, merchandises, monetary value and publicity in relation to the dependant variables which is client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets.
From the research of this determination, shop image is the lone independent variable the does non hold impact on client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets. This may associate to the fact that the retail merchants have non done plenty to pull clients to their shop.Studies indicate that has approximately seven seconds to capture the attending of a passing client. Hence it can be said the undermentioned elements combine to organize a typical image that non merely reaches out and catch the client ‘s attending but makes a positive feeling within those cherished few seconds had non been taken serious consideration.
1. An identifiable shop name.
2. A powerful ocular hallmark.
3. An inviting entryway.
4. A consistent and compelling shop expression.
Shop environment was found to hold important impact on client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets. The grounds behind is because most clients prefer to travel to hypermarkets that offers a safe environment. With CCTV and security guards policing the edifice, it gives the clients sense of security that the hypermarkets are safe for household to hang out particularly those clients that bring little kids along during shopping. In Addition, the location where the hypermarkets located is besides of import. If the hypermarkets are located someplace outskirt from the metropolis, clients will decidedly will non travel as it gives the clients a sense of insecurity.
It is true that every client wants to run into his or her demands and they want a shop that offers everything they need. Therefore, by supplying a broad scope of merchandises is one of the chief concerns for the hypermarkets because it allows clients to measure and take which merchandises that suit and fulfill their demands best. Through this determination, it shows that merchandises have impact on clients ; they may non travel to other retail merchants and will stay loyal. Besides, if the hypermarkets can supply better after gross revenues service, the clients will so be more interested to buy once more those merchandises during their 2nd visit.
We can state that monetary value is one of the most of import factors that contribute to client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets. Harmonizing to Brassington and Pettitt ( 2000 ) , the clients can utilize monetary value as a mean of comparing merchandises, judging comparative value for money or judging merchandise quality. The principle is because clients will compare the monetary values before doing a determination on purchasing certain merchandises. As a consequence, monetary value has important relationship with client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets.
Among the independent variables, publicity is considered an of import tool that influenced client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets in Penang. It is because advertisement communicates all relevant information and publicity activities held by hypermarkets and therefore are able to pull more clients to see their shops. Evidence from the related literature supported that gross revenues publicity were so a cardinal factor lending client traveling to hypermarkets. Hypermarkets are doing greater usage f advertisement and gross revenues publicity because of client ‘s response favourably to them and due to this, the hypermarket presents are acquiring their originative agencies dual up by get downing to utilize assorted promotional channels like cyberspace, treatments forum, oculus degree billboard methods exactas. The seeker further did some interviewed on the clients and found that most of them tends to do purchases under promotional inducements like monetary value decrease, vouchers, free gifts, verifiers, purchases with purchases ( PWP ) and so on.
5.3 Deduction of Findingss
This research contributes to the survey on client perceptual experience about the assorted factors driving clients to hypermarkets ( a instance survey of hypermarkets in Penang ) .Retailers should pay attending on the four factors that have important to act upon client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets every bit good as holding an impact on the client keeping rate while functioning their clients.
Finding from this research can be used by faculty members every bit good as authorities in order to cognize on the economic province of the state. It can besides be used by retail merchants themselves in bettering their concern. In order to improvised, the retail merchants need to make assortment of study and distributes more questionnaires so that they are able to understand what the current demands of clients are.
By better understanding the clients, the retail merchants can be advertise or sell their merchandises utilizing the most effectual method to pull possible clients. The purpose of publicity is to pass on and make consciousness that the concern has a merchandise or service that will fulfill an single demands. Unless the market is made cognizant that the merchandise exists, so all the costs and determinations made in making the merchandise will come to a nothing. Promotion is non merely complex, but represents a important sum of operating disbursals. The hypermarkets will of class be benefited from the survey as they will cognize how to better on their assortments of promotional tools and offerings. Therefore, this will prolong healthy gross revenues performances non merely for short term planning but besides looking frontward to set up a fastness in the long term every bit good.
The hypermarkets must take into consideration the assorted factors driving client ‘s to hypermarket earnestly to be more effectual in pulling more client ‘s and to supply better service as these factors will finally or already hold a important impact on the client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets in future.
5.4.1 Store Image
Store image can be an of import factor if hypermarkets can to the full use their creativity to better their concern. Each client ‘s has a different mentality on hypermarkets and this is how the clients see the hypermarkets in relation to other retailing shops. How to better the shop image is another inquiry to chew over upon. With the coming of advertisement, the sellers of hypermarkets can use advertisement agent as a agency to farther better on the shop image. No uncertainty that shop image is closely related to the convenience of the shop ‘s location and monetary value of its merchandises but the information of the shop is as of import. Hence, more effectual advertisement is needed to make to the targeted clients on order for the shop image to hold impact on clients mind.
5.4.2 Shop Environment
As most clients want to obtain what they need as possible due to the alteration in the life style, the shop environment of the hypermarket is really of import. Most of the hypermarkets in Penang are located within the residential country aiming the family clients buying for their ain ingestion. Therefore, the shop environment for hypermarkets should be clean, strategic and easy approachable as most clients prefer something convenient and cognize that the environing environment is safe to convey kids along. Furthermore, clients besides do non hold to go far to acquire shopping done. This is because the client ‘s temper, engagement and shopping experience have important effects on clients shopping behaviour and indirectly do act upon client ‘s perceptual experience towards the shop to hold a 2nd visit in future.
The merchandise scope and quality of the merchandise offered is one of the most of import factors that determine the success of the hypermarkets. No clients would patronage a shop that does non offer what they need and would instead travel elsewhere to buy what they need. To keep their clients, the hypermarkets have to vie with others retailing shops in offering a wider scope of merchandises and non forgetting merchandises with good quality excessively. One ground of promoting the hypermarkets to widen the scope of quality merchandises offered is due to the fact that clients do non hold to travel to other shops seeking for what they want as they can obtain it from one peculiar shop.As our society is going more complex and most of us are preoccupied with so many things in our lives, we look for convenience. Therefore, by offering a wider of good quality merchandises will decidedly run into the demands of the clients to see the shop once more and once more.
5.4.4 Monetary value
Monetary value besides seems to be really of import factor that determine the success of the hypermarkets. Harmonizing to Kothler ( 2003 ) , Customer perceived monetary value as an index of merchandise monetary value. Sometimes, clients perceive that gross revenues with standard monetary value may lend to a god quality of merchandises. Hence, Price plays an of import factor in clients mind when buying a merchandise. With the economic lag, clients are besides witting about disbursement sagely for their day-to-day demands. Therefore, retail merchants need to seek solutions non to monetary value certain merchandises out to the market. Besides, the monetary value offers must be sensible so that clients can afford it. Most clients appreciate Organizations that can offer them improved value for money merchandises. Improve merchandises here mean a merchandise that work better, added benefits to clients and lastingness and non on maintain take downing monetary values to pleased the clients.
Promotion activity no uncertainty is the most sensitive manner to present merchandise massage and crate consciousness to clients. Nevertheless, publicities entirely are non persuasive plenty to influence clients purchasing determinations and generate gross revenues. From the questionnaire distributed, it can be seen that many clients who went to hypermarkets are largely attracted by publicity activities. Most of the publicity activities by hypermarkets are delivered via cusps and newspaper and non much advertisement on media like telecasting and wireless. In add-on, research worker besides found out that there are some lodging countries which did non receive cusps distributed by the hypermarkets therefore clients are incognizant of the publicity activity held. Hence, a combination of advertisement and gross revenues publicity would be the best agencies of accomplishing the communicating effects on trade name consciousness.
5.4.6 Drive-Through Model
The research worker farther recommends the drive- through theoretical account which has been widely used by the celebrated fast nutrient mercantile establishment McDonald to the foreign hypermarkets in Malaysia. Although hypermarkets offers the cheapest trade goods, client still frequent convenience shops where monetary values are higher merely because it is convenient. For this ground, It is extremely recommend for hypermarket to seek utilizing drive-through theoretical account because it allow clients to avoid disbursement excessively much clip seeking for trade goods and therefore greatly cut down line uping clip as client can now order their merchandises at one station and roll up it at the following station utilizing this theoretical account. Not merely that, this drive-through theoretical account has the possible to be rolled out as it can pull off repetition purchases.
How the theoretical account works: The clients will halt their auto at the infinites specified beside the hypermarkets where the booths are located. After halting in one of the parking infinites, clients will so get down taking merchandises utilizing the touch screen. After that, the clients will travel to the service station and so pay their measure. Within proceedingss, the employees of the hypermarket will come out forcing cats loaded with the points and lade them in the client ‘s vehicle. Figure 5 show an illustration of the fake drive- through theoretical account.
Figure 5 – Drive-Through Model
Beginnings: Adapted from Sunny Yoshitomi & A ; Ethan Matthes, 7th March 2006, “ McDonald ‘s Drive- Thru Simulation ” , available at
www.cohortviii.com/~matthes/ … /Yoshitomi_Matthes_Report.pdf-
This drive-through theoretical account was presently been experimented by RT-Mart, Taiwan ‘s second-largest hypermarkets concatenation for its 24th mercantile establishment where it was proven that the client ‘s mean stay in the hypermarkets is merely 10 proceedingss and it ‘s really suited for white collar employees who have small clip for shopping. The ground for the current success is due to Chinese shoppers are most concerned about whether hypermarkets are easy to make, shut their place and whether it is easy to happen the merchandises they want.
5.4.7 Systematic Layout Planning
Last but non least, the research worker would wish to present systematic layout planning developed by Richard Muther and Associate ( 1961 ) to hypermarkets to upgrade shop layout. Shop layout is an of import portion of the shop atmospheric and plays a major function in client ‘s shop experience as shop experience decides clients repeat visit to the shop. Besides, shop layout exposed retail merchant ‘s good and therefore affects the opportunities of client purchasing the good. Therefore, there is a demand for hypermarket to upgrade their systematic layout planning in order to be able to vie with other retail merchant.
By and large, this systematic layout planning combines the quantitative measuring or stuffs motion with non-flow considerations such as noise, exhausts, temperature, supervising, communications, forces comfort and motion. The major advantage of utilizing this layout program is that it clearly paperss the logic of this layout and easy allows input from all degrees of employees.
How to be after plants: Figure 5.1 shows an illustration of hypermarket layout planning that can act upon client ‘s efficient motion through a shop.
Space features and Catchment Analysis – Basically, a shop layout planning exercising start with catchment analysis which consists of roll uping information about the human ecology, competition and other facets that has important impact on the shop layout follow by infinite feature like size of the floor-plate, degrees, agencies of perpendicular conveyance and shop frontage.
Figure5.1 – Hypermarket Layout Planninged.PNG
Beginnings: Adapted from Muther, R. , 1961, ” Systematic Layout planning ” , Industrial Education Institute, Boston
Customer Flow – In a retail scene, the client needs to be exposed to more and more ware as the merchandises is moved by the client himself and this calls for supplying agencies for minimising the attempt in transporting for shopping basket or streetcar. Apart from money spent on purchase, client wants to spread out less of clip and attempts.
Customer flow through the shop determines the infinite required for entry/exit, check-out country such as comfortss like parking, washrooms, lifts, escalators, inclines perfectas.
Activity Relationship – Analyzing the client interaction with the shop environment give inputs on client flow. In a hypermarket visit, a client typically goes through a series of activities like parking, shopping, eating and washrooms perfectas. The sequence of these activities plays a really of import function in layout planning. A layout which meets these client demands in the right sequence shall take to a higher client satisfaction as many a times this activity relationship is non taken into consideration have leads to incorrect arrangement of subdivisions doing incommodiousness to the client.
Circulation Plan – it gives the layout of aisle through which the client moves. It besides gives the agencies and location of perpendicular transit in the shop. The circulation program should be such that the client does non lose out on any subdivision. Shoping streetcars are an indispensable portion of hypermarket shopping and client and clients do non like turn backing, congestion and constrictions.
Adjacency Matrix – Adjacency is really of import in hypermarket shop design as placing of certain classs of merchandises in propinquity or off from each other can take to increase or diminish in sale. Certain classs have to be located near or off from the entryway or be to ease the picking and cartage of the merchandises. For illustration, fruits and veggies should be placed closer to go out to avoid lading other points over it. This prevents likely harm to these points. Sing these facets an contiguity matrix is prepared. The contiguity matrix can so be used for developing infinite relationship diagram for the shop.
Space Allocation – Space available and infinite demand decide the infinite allotment for each class. Every shop has an one-year concern program and to accomplish the one-year concern program for the shop, infinite is allocated to each class sing its gross revenues gross potency. Therefore, merchandises denseness like cocoas or Sweets affects the infinite allocated for assorted classs. Hence, usage of perpendicular highs and better design furniture and fixture can better the allocated infinite.
Space Relationship Diagram – Together with contiguity matrix and infinite allotment, a infinite relationship diagram can be developed where the location can incorporate assorted classs and the infinite allocated to each of the class can be maximized.
Modifying Considerations – There can be many modifying considerations which will hold to be dealt with in layout planning because retail infinite is really expensive and hence premier countries like entryway country and high visibleness country should be used for show and merchandising and other activities like storage, public-service corporations should be located in the back countries for at that place to hold a good motion of client streetcar.
Practical Limitations – The practical restrictions could mostly originate out of the infinite features. If equal figure of lifts or lifts can non be installed, a simple incline has to be built to take attention of client motion across degrees. The incline may set a restraint on the flow of clients which calls for proviso of larger aisles and an easy gradient. Lack of shops frontage can set a restriction on entry/exit infinite itself which has a direct impact on clients line uping at check-out counters. This can be partially taken attention of by presenting check-outs on multiple degrees.
Develop Zoning Layout Alternatives – alternate zoning layout are developed to increase the contiguity mark, infinite efficiency and other such standards subject to the modifying considerations and practical restrictions. Layout options may besides be developed based on intuition of the operation directors and batch of subjectiveness can crawl into the layout planning procedure. Large figure of layout options makes the undertaking of comparing hard hence, objectiveness methods can come to the deliverance of a layout contriver.
Evaluation – Over the old ages many analytical methods have been proposed to work out the installations layout job and the same can be applied to hypermarket layout planning as given below: –
Mathematical Programming Models – mathematical scheduling theoretical accounts can be formulated to optimise an nonsubjective map. The nonsubjective map can be individual or multiple. For hypermarket, the nonsubjective map can include infinite efficiency, distance travelled, step of service convenience and perfectas.
Line uping Models – A hypermarket will hold many line uping state of affairss, Line uping can go on at the check-out procedures, clients service desk, parking, lifts and many more. Analysis of the system utilizing line uping theory can supply estimations for system variables which can assist layout contriver to take between options.
Simulation Models – Simulation methods allow the layout contriver to carry on experiments under assorted conditions to understand and foretell the behaviour of the system. By carry oning many such experiments, a layout which meets some pre-determined standards can be selected.
Success Rate: Summarily, the cardinal aim of systematic layout planning is to maximise gross revenues with client satisfaction and maximise overall costs as shop layout affect client ‘s perceptual experiences of a retail environment and may trip the likeliness of nearing or avoiding the merchandise or shop. Hence, making superior client experience seems to be one of the cardinal aims in today ‘s retailing environments as client experience encompasses the entire experience including the hunt, purchase and ingestion and after-sales stages of the experiences. However, systematic layout program has yet found application in hypermarket.
5.5 Restrictions of the Study
The research worker do comes across some boundaries during execution of the research and the restrictions are explained below:
1. The findings of research are interpreted within a sample size of 100 respondents taken from Penang which is considered little. A larger sample might bring forth different consequences and different deductions.
2. This survey was conducted within the restriction of clip and state of affairs that affects the survey procedure. In the chief survey, the respondents might establish it hard to afford clip on the topographic point or within two hebdomad to make full in the questionnaire. Therefore, the information provided might non be really dependable.
3. Merely few months were allotted for the research worker to finish the whole research. As the research was conducted within a short period of clip, the alterations over clip were non included as portion of the research.
4. The survey merely focused on five factors ( shop image, shop environment, merchandises, award and publicity ) to analyze client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets. There are still many other factors that can be taken into consideration such as client ‘s behaviour and attitude towards the shop.
5. As the questionnaires were all in English, some respondents who were non English literate were holding jobs understanding the inquiry. It would be better to hold bilingual questionnaires in order to increase truth and dependability.
Despite the above defects, the findings of the research nevertheless successfully provided penetrations into the client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets.
5.6 Suggestions for Future Study
First, alternatively of carry oning the research in a short period of clip, the research worker is advised to take a longer period of clip for the research. The longer the period of survey, the better and more dependable consequences can be obtained from the research. The needed period for one research must at least take about half a twelvemonth to finish.
Second, distribution of questionnaire by difficult transcript must be included every bit good alternatively of chiefly via cyberspace or by electronic mail. Besides, it is recommended that in order for the questionnaire to be able to execute in a more simplified mode, more relevant inquiries can be imposed to the respondents. If possible, interpret it into Malay, Chinese and Tamil. It may assist the respondents who are non good in English to understand what are stated in the questionnaires. Furthermore, it besides allowed low degree of educationalist to hold the chance to reply the questionnaires therefore doing the survey more important.
Third, while roll uping informations for this survey, it was found that the informations aggregation on retail industry is missing. It would profit the direction of the retail industry every bit good as the general populace if the section of statistics could widen the study to include the retail sector on a annual footing.
Last but non least, it is recommended that the hereafter research be extended to cover more countries in order to obtain consequences that are more representative. It could farther improved by analyzing more independent variable that could hold an consequence on the dependant variable.
In decision, the research worker found that there were four independent variables that had important with client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets in Penang. The four independent variables that have important were store environment, merchandises, monetary value and publicity. Meanwhile, shop image were found to be undistinguished with client ‘s pick of traveling to hypermarkets in Penang.
With this, the aim of the survey had been met with success whereby a sum of five hypotheses were developed to formalize the relationship between dependant variable and independent variables. The research worker hope this findings of the survey will able to assist the markets or operators of retail industry in Penang to better understand the best manner to pull clients to their concern in future in future and in long tally.