The old chapter provided descriptions of the justification, purpose and range of the research that will be examined in this thesis. Basically, the purpose of this research is to analyse theoretical and empirical support for the cardinal factors of sustainable engineering transportation for little to medium endeavors ( SMEs ) in developing states. This will affect analyzing engineering transportation both conceptually based on theories which are relevant to the cognition and engineering transportation issue and through empirical observation utilizing questionnaires and statistical analysis of the consequences.
This chapter reviews the relevant literature on cognition and engineering sustainability in the context of the research inquiry ; and briefly articulates ( 1 ) Government, concern and university TT plans and coaction of authorities, concern and universities to straight impacts on SMEs engineering capableness ; ( 2 ) The topic of cognition transportation, dwelling of silent cognition and codified cognition sing to adaptability of the SMEs ( 3 ) Factors that influence the procedure of sustainable based cognition and engineering transportation dwelling of adaptability, procedures of invention, fight, profitableness and go oning uptaking engineering development plan of SMEs and their relationship.
This reappraisal introduces anterior research results that have led to the outgrowth of the current inquiry research.
The issues discussed in this chapter are:
( 1 ) The transportation of engineering ( TT ) ;
( 2 ) The elements of TT ;
( 3 ) The function of engineering ;
( 4 ) The function of fight ;
( 5 ) The function of profitableness ; and
( 6 ) The function of authorities, concern and universities in TT.
Technology can be defined as all the cognition, merchandises, procedures, tools, methods, and systems employed in the creative activity of goods or supplying service ( Khalil, 2000 ) . It is common to believe of engineering merely in term of hardware, such as machines, computing machines, or extremely advanced electronic appliances. However, engineering embraces a batch more than merely machines as shown by Khalil ‘s definition ( 2000 ) . Harmonizing to Gaynor ( 1996 ) , engineering can be described in different ways:
Technology is the agencies for carry throughing a undertaking – it includes whatever is needed to change over resources into merchandises or services
Technology includes the cognition and resources that are required to accomplish an aim
Technology is the organic structure of scientific and technology cognition which can be applied in the design of merchandises and / or procedures or in the hunt for new cognition
Chen ( 1994 ) has argued that engineering can be defined in a narrow or a really a wide mode. In a really narrow sense, engineering is proficient information contained in patents or proficient cognition communicable in written signifier ( Enos, 1989 ) . Very frequently, engineering refers to a category of cognition about a specific merchandise or production technique and sometimes includes the proficient accomplishment necessary to utilize a merchandise or a production technique ( Erdilek and Rapoport, 1985 ) . Stewart ( 1977 ) has provided a wide definition of engineering by including all accomplishments, including cognition and processs required for doing, utilizing and making utile things. Technology, hence, includes the package of production – managerial and selling accomplishments, and extends to services – disposal, wellness, instruction and finance. Two cardinal words associated with the definition of engineering are ever cognition and production, and the cardinal construct is knowledge that utile in production ( Chen, 1994 ) ( Dakin and Lindsey 1991 ) .
Therefore, engineering consists of
– Hardware: a physical crystallisation of cognition
– Cognition: an absorptive proof of s series and combination of information available.
In this research, engineering is mentioning to ‘software ‘ footings instead than ‘hardware ‘ footings. Technology in this research discussed on cognition substance associated with how its cognition being managed and transferred
2.3. Technology Transportation
Some research workers argue that engineering transportation does non hold a individual cosmopolitan significance ; for illustration, merely traveling a computing machine from a research lab in Boston to a university in Manila can be defined as engineering transportation ( Kremic, 2003 ) . It means that engineering transportation may merely be the motion of engineering from one location to another or from one usage to another or a combination of the two ( Smith, 1980 ) . Other research workers, Soeder et Al. ( 1990 ) offer the undermentioned definition “ Technology transportation is the managed procedure conveying a engineering from one party to its acceptance by another party. ” Technology transportation may besides be “ nil less than the transportation of the capacity to understand and develop the introduced engineering ” ( Komoda, 1986 ) . This definition describes engineering transportation as a procedure.
Naito ( 1989 ) in Hong ( 1994 ) deduced four elements from the procedure of engineering transportation: human resources, information, machinery and material resources, and capital. In the human resources component, the procedure of TT involves the exchange of expertness. The experts transfer their cognition to transferee human resources, in order for the latter to larn “ cognize how ” and administrative accomplishments. The information elements are related to giving information about the development or design of the engineering and correlated corporal accomplishments, such as production accomplishments ( Hong, 1994 ) . In footings of the resource elements, transferor duty is non merely to supply the stuffs ( machinery and equipments ) , but should supply the transferee with the methods ( of development, experiment ) . As for the capital elements, both sides can reassign engineering, either via joint ventures or industrial co-operation ( Hong, 1994 ) .
Of importance is consideration of when the transportation of a engineering is complete. The transportation of a engineering is non complete until the transferee can accommodate, run, maintain and innovates the engineering. In this sense, engineering transportation is non merely the geting of cognition in production, but besides a edifice up of the technological capableness ( Chen 1994 ) . In order to do engineering transportations take root at place, engineering transportation through human engagement must be built on a sustainable footing. Technology transportation of hardware with embodied/embedded cognition, in the instance of developing states, must be able to promote the transferee engineering capableness ( Samli, 1985 ) . The interaction of elements, both hardware and cognition, are proposed as of import factors of effectual TT.
2.3.1. Knowledge transportation
As argued above, engineering transportation is non simply “ hardware “ -transfer, such as machinery and other equipment. TT is besides the transportation of the cognition for implementing proficient alteration ( Kumar et al 1999 ) . The hunt for direction best pattern is widely pursued across industries based on an premise that there is a direct, functional relationship between effectual knowledge direction of invention and finally, competitory advantage ( Kakabadse et al, 2002 ) and even profitableness. Knowledge is considered a cardinal beginning of competitory advantage ( Cohen and Levinthal, 1962 ; Jackson et al.2003 ) . Knowledge itself, may be categorized as expressed cognition and tacit cognition ( Nonaka, Takeuchi, 1995 )
2.3.2. Explicit/Codified Knowledge
Harmonizing to Dutta and Weiss ( 2002 ) , codified cognition is conformable to the printed page, and is easy transmitted. Codification is the procedure by which firm-specific cognition and expertness are put into symbolic signifier ( Marcotte, Niosi, 2000 ) , e.g. written instructions, processs, statistical informations, designs and specification, criterions. In expressed cognition transmittal, normally the job of communicating and cultural transportation is less. This is because fewer personal contacts need to be involved between transferor and transferee. This is used to advantage to cut down transference costs compared with if they have to pass money for preparation or acquisition ( Williamson 1979 ; 1981 ) . But in reassigning codification, the jobs can happen because of a deficiency of acquaintance with utilizing codifying methods or a different manner of codification ( Marcotte, Niosi, 2000 ) . In the procedure of transferring, transferor and transferee are forced to follow a common linguistic communication or communicating codification which can be used to reassign proficient stuff and/or to discourse proficient issues.
2.3.3. Tacit Knowledge
Harmonizing to Popper ( 1972 ) , a definition of tacit cognition is, at best, hard and, at worst, impossible to joint. It is profoundly embedded in personal beliefs, attitudes, values and experiences that give silent cognition its significance. Tacit cognition is hard to joint in authorship and is acquired through personal experience ( Hansen et al. 1999, 115 ) .
By silent cognition, it is possible for the transferee to accept the cognition transportation from the transferor through expertness experience. On the occupation preparation, interaction during meetings at work, interaction with expertness, besides practical experience for illustration civilization and subject atmosphere, are parts of tacit cognition that can be adopted by the receiver. It will increase the ability of the recipient house in pull offing their systems maps. Discipline in system control, selling and stock list, will cut down waste. It will impact the decrease of costs and eventually straight influence profitableness.
2.4. The function of Technology Transfer
In period of rapid alteration, and high fight, engineering plays a critical function in back uping a house ‘s public presentation. By promoting transferee engineering capableness during engineering transportation plan, engineering is considered to do the procedure of transmutation inside production system go more effectual and efficient through hardware and direction of engineering. Ultimately, the opportunity to develop low cost production, better public presentation merchandises and sooner handiness, will impact on an SME ‘s fight.
By repairing the method of production, stock list control, stuff handling, quality confidence, engineering may supply direct and indirect benefits to doing a company more competitory.
2.4.1. Technology Transfer Impact on Technology Capability
Technology transportation is believed as a cutoff to develop engineering capableness ( Liebrenz, 1982 ) . Particularly, in the instance of SMEs in developing states, the SMEs face a deficiency of human resource engineering capableness, research and development, and capital. Technology transportation plans will help the SMEs to heighten their engineering capablenesss.
The procedure of improved engineering capableness can be achieved through engineering larning procedure ( Kemmis, 2004, ; Padmadinata, 2006 ) . The of import stairss of the acquisition procedure are version and invention of engineering ( Kemmis 2004, Rogers, 2003 ) . The procedure of engineering adaptability and invention considered will better engineering capableness.
1. Technology version
When the engineering transportation to an organisation encourages its employees to continually larn from each other, the employees are likely to possess the information and cognition needed to accommodate whenever organisational fortunes so require. Furthermore when employees are cognizant of ongoing and possible alterations, they are less likely to be caught by surprise. Awareness of new thoughts and engagement in free-flowing treatments non merely fix employees to react to alterations but besides do them more likely to accept alteration. Thus cognition is likely to breed greater adaptability among employees
When Buckman Laboratories, a in private owned U.S forte chemical house with approximately 1,300 employees, was named “ the 2000 Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise, ” Chairman Bob Buckman remarked that the company ‘s cognition attempt was intended to continually expose its employees to new thoughts and enable them to larn from these thoughts ( Business Wire, 2000 ) . He besides emphasized that the employees were prepared for alteration as a consequence of being in touch with the latest thoughts and developments.
2. Technology Process Innovation
Organizations can progressively trust on engineering transportation across persons to bring forth advanced solutions to jobs every bit good as to develop more advanced organisational procedures. Knowledge direction has been found to enable riskier brainstorming ( Storck and Hill, 2000 ) , and thereby heighten procedure invention. J.P. Morgan recognized the impact cognition can hold on procedure invention when the undermentioned statement appeared in bold in their introduction one-year study ( Stewart, 2001 ) : ” The power of rational capital is the ability to engender thoughts that ignite value. ”
Buckman Laboratories, discussed earlier in this subdivision, linked its R & A ; D forces and proficient specializers to its field-based selling, gross revenues, and proficient support staff to guarantee that new merchandises were developed with the clients ‘ demands in head and those clients ‘ demands were rapidly and accurately communicated to the merchandise development group ( Zack, 1999 ) . As a consequence, new cognition and penetration were efficaciously exploited in the market place, taking to better merchandises. In add-on, the regular interaction with clients generated cognition to steer future developments.
2.4.2. Technology Transportation and Competitiveness
Porter ( 1985 ) has stated that engineering transportation will be valuable if it is capable of bettering a house ‘s fight. Porter ( 1985 ) argued that engineering affects competitory advantage if it has a important function in bettering to relative cost place or distinction. Since engineering develops engineering capableness, and is embodied in every value adding activity, e.g. logistics, operations, and service, and involved in linking operations activities, engineering will impact both cost and distinction.
Harmonizing to Dakin and Lindsey ( 1991 ) , engineering alteration is one of the chief drivers of competition. It plays a major function in industrial structural alteration, every bit good as in making new industries ( Porter, 1985 ) . Many industries have grown out of technological alterations that they were able to work ( Hamel and Prahalad, 1990 in Tidd, 2000 ) . Invention is of import to a house seeking to prolong its fight ( Khalil, 2000 ) . For illustration, by engineering betterment, the application of fabrication hardware, subject in pull offing system maps, and commanding to keep efficiency and effectivity in pull offing the organisation can cut down production cost with an associated decrease of merchandise cost ( Schlie, 2000, Bernstein, 1981 ) . This can better a house ‘s competitory advantage ( Porter 1985, Khalil, 2000, Schlie, 2000 ) . The correlativity between engineering and competitory advantage in footings of low monetary value, higher quality, and sooner handiness will be investigated below.
1. Technology and low cost-low monetary value
Figure 3.1 illustrates a proposed nexus between advanced engineering and the competitory advantage of low monetary value. The of import thing that is need consciousness is that clients do non usually care about what the provider ‘s costs are-they merely see the monetary value that is charged ( Schlie, 1996 ) .
Manufacturing Management Technology
Manufacturing Hardware Technology
Lower Plant and Equipment cost
Better stock lists
Lower procedure downtime cost
Lower bit, rework, and cost of hapless quality
Production costs are lower
Monetary value is lower
Figure 3.1 Competitive advantage of low monetary value ( Schlie, 1996 ) .
Harmonizing to Porter ( 2001 ) , engineering alteration is one of the chief drivers of competition. It plays a major function in industrial structural alteration ( logistics, operations, markets ) , every bit good as in making new industries. The capableness of a house ‘s organisation to take or make the appropriate engineering may impact the house ‘s ability to acquire long term benefits. It is of import owing to the house ‘s demand to prolong their fight. For illustration, as shown in figure 3.1, the application of fabricating hardware engineering can cut down the cost of production, and this will impact merchandise monetary values. Technology will increase efficiency in fabrication procedures. Overall it will cut down production costs that consist of labour costs, energy costs and stuff costs. Better fabrication processes as a consequence of a new engineering will besides better efficaciously and truth of production and this will cut down ‘waste ‘ in fabrication procedures. Since engineering is capable of raising the economic graduated table, houses will be able to keep their low monetary value merchandise. This can better a house ‘s competitory advantage ( Porter 2001 ) . Furthermore, a function of fabricating direction engineering is to maintain efficiency and effectivity in pull offing the organisation. Their capableness to keep low cost operations will increase the possibility to bring forth low monetary value end products. And this will impact straight the house ‘s fight.
2. Technology and quality
Figure 3.2 illustrates how engineering may impact fight of the house through the capableness of engineering in keeping and heightening merchandise quality.
Manufacturing Management Technology
Manufacturing Hardware Technology
Better procedure Control
Design for manufacturability
Product design Choices
Quality is higher
Figure 3.2 Competitive advantage of quality ( Schlie, 1996 ) .
Technology ‘s function in incorporate fabrication procedures will take houses into better fabrication capablenesss ( Gaynor, 1996 ) . For case, truth in procedures and support of better procedure control and quality confidence will do a house more able to bring forth high quality merchandise that will better their fight.
Technology can do dependability of the merchandise or service and the public presentation of the merchandise or service higher. These two facets of quality are interrelated. For merchandises, this interrelatedness is known as design for manufacturability, which refers to the state of affairs in which a design which is unnecessarily complex or sets public presentation degrees unnecessarily high may do procedure jobs which decrease the dependability of the resulting merchandise. A similar construct can associate to serve design and the procedures necessary to supply that service ( Schlie, 1996 ) .
In the footings of dependability, hardware engineering and fabrication direction engineering will enable the house to increase their capacity to bring forth higher quality merchandises. Hardware engineering ‘s function is to increase production procedure preciseness. Computer mechanization in CAM for case will cut down human mistake as a beginning of particular fluctuation impacting the procedure. The greater potency of human mistake in runing a procedure, the more of import CAM is in bettering dependability ( Schlie, 1996 ) .
Manufacturing direction engineering ‘s function for illustration is statistical procedure control that technically affects the production procedure by alarming human operators to the fact that particular beginnings of fluctuation have crept into the procedure and stairss must be taken to convey the procedure back under control, otherwise losing merchandise dependability. And procedure control will let production procedure operation repeatability, hence, fluctuations in operations due to particular causes that are non inherently portion of procedure variableness are removed, and merely the acceptable portion of the procedure remains. ( Schlie, 1996 )
3. Technology and Oklahoman handiness
The 3rd competitory advantage to be examined in the context of advanced fabrication hardware and direction engineerings is that of handiness. Figure 3.3 proposes a construction to analyze this advantage.
Manufacturing Management Technology
Manufacturing Hardware Technology
Better merchandise development, Lead Time / Circle clip
Making merchandise households
Expanded/Extended Product lines
Available is sooner
Figure 3.3 Competitive advantage of Oklahoman handiness ( Schlie, 1996 ) .
Figure 3.3 shows two state of affairss from which to analyze the handiness advantage: that of new merchandises and that of expanded or extended merchandise lines. Possibly the ultimate handiness advantage is to come to market foremost with a new merchandise that is non available from any rival. For that period of clip when no viing option is available, a house can bear down what the market will bear, can make first-mover advantages ( Porter, 1998 ) which will digest even after a viing option is available, can replace its current new merchandise with an even better or cheaper one to remain in front of the rival, and so forth.
Summary of the function of Technology on Competitiveness
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
PRODUCT / SERVICE
COMPETITIVENESS — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
Generic Competitive Advantage
Plant & A ; Equipment
Inputs — — — — — — — — — & gt ; Value Chain — — — — — — & gt ; Outputs
Figure 3.4. The Summary of the function of Technology on Competitiveness ( Schlie, 1996, p.7.25 )
At the right side of figure above are clients. The clients act as a determination shapers who communally determine the possible title-holder and the also-rans in the competition when they decide to take peculiar merchandises or service over other options in the competition between makers for their ain ( clients ) some principle which so called competitory advantages. At the left side, the makers mobilize the available competitory advantage beginnings. In the status that the industries are successful to optimise their fight, the clients will value its merchandises or services others viing options. Hence clients decided to purchase. The function of the engineering in this activity is to guarantee the procedure of transmutation during the activity to transform the input ( competitory advantage beginnings ) into the end product ( possible competitory advantage ) . The choice of engineerings applied to execute the activities is the most of import to the advantage being sought ( Schlie, 1996, Sumanth 1988 )
Some success narratives of little to medium endeavors in Java show that engineering transportation for proficient upgrading through the proviso of a service installation, export preparation, and betterment of the substructure, such as logistic and information equipment aid SMEs to promote their fight, and bit by bit develop their export markets ( Tambunan, 2005 ) . In order to happen a more comprehensive reply refering the correlativity between engineering transportation and fight, the proposed research plan will measure the impact of engineering transportation plans provided by authorities, concern and universities on SME fight.
2.5. The Relations between Sustainable Technology Transfer, Competitiveness and Profitability
Net income is the ultimate ground why transferees ( SMEs ) desire to have a new engineering through engineering transportation ( Kremic, 2003 ) . In the absence of net incomes, non -government houses can non go on to be -even the largest of houses ( Schlie, 1995 ) . Therefore, a company will prosecute in engineering transportation if it can recognize more net income by making so ( Kremic, 2003 ) When SMEs have applied a new engineering that successfully supports their end in accomplishing more net income, they will probably inquire the transferor to reassign more engineering to maintain increasing the additions ( BPPT, 2005 ) . This rhythm of engineering transportation being supported and driven by improved net incomes can be thought of as ‘sustainable engineering transportation ‘
The relationship between engineering transportation and fight in SMEs has been established in the literature as reported above. It is besides clear that go oning profitableness is necessary to back up ongoing engineering transportation. Slightly surprisingly nevertheless, the impact of fight on profitableness is non certain. Some research workers agree that fight has a direct impact on profitableness. A company ‘s industry construction and its ability to make sustainable fight have a direct impact on house profitableness ( Porter, 2001 ) ; and the ability of the company in prolonging fight to keep market portion and its impact on company ‘s profitableness ( McGrath, 2006 ) . Bing competitory agencies bring forthing or supplying, in a timely and cost effectual mode, a merchandise or a service that meets the trial of the market place and the demands of clients. To keep its competitory place, the company must go on to surpass its concern challengers ( Khalil, 2000 ) . By surpassing challengers, the house is able to take advantage of market chances to increase its market portion. The chance is presented to go market leader, with associated dominant market portion, and through this, profitableness.
Alternatively, Schlie ( 1995 ) has argued that while fight and profitableness are both critical, they are non correlated. He has maintained that the end of fight is non to maximise net incomes, but to sustainably increase market portion. Again harmonizing to Schlie ( 1995 ) it is really possible for a house to be losing competitiveness even as it is accomplishing record degree of net income. Another research determination explored that the impact of fight on profitableness is elusive ( Bunker and Yin, 2005 ) .
The correlativity between fight and profitableness will be analyzed in the proposed research in context of Java as a sample case-study in a underdeveloped state.
2.6. The Role of Transferor
Empirical consequences on the effectivity of engineering transportation in developing states are instead inconsistent ( Marcotte, 2000 ) . Some of these consequences suggest that companies from developing states may larn how to utilize the cognition acquired during engineering transportation quickly with good touchable results, whereas other surveies give a more pessimistic mentality of the engineering transportation results ( Freeman and Hagedoorn, 1994 ; David, 1997 ) . Harmonizing to Freeman and Hagedoorn ( 1994, in Marcotte ( 2000 ) ) , the fact that developing states receive small engineering transportation is likely due to the deficiency of autochthonal capablenesss to capitalise on the acquisition procedure that comes with inter-firm transportation. This of import issue has a bearing non merely on the capacities of recipient houses but perchance besides on the success of the provider of engineering.
It has been good established that engineering transportation is chiefly a individual – to – individual procedure ( Tsang, 1997 ; Osman-Gani, 1999 ; Wei, 1995 ; Carr, 1992 ; Jung, 1980 ; Kingsley et al. , 1998 ; Spivey et al. , 1997 in Kremic 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Hoetker ( 1997 ) ; Lundquist ( 1999 ) ; Russo and Harenkohl ( 1990 ) , communicating has been found to be one of the most of import, if non the most of import, status for success ( Kremic, 2003 ) . In the instance of engineering transportation through human resources engagement, it is considered that the function of communicating will strongly encroach on the success of engineering transportation. It shows that in transportation of engineering, successful edifice of interactions between transferor and transferee is important
The issue of engineering transportation is made complex by the fact that neither the procedure itself nor the bundle being transferred are homogenous ( Chen, 1994 ) Technology transportation classs are
( 1 ) International engineering market
( 2 ) Intra-firm
( 3 ) Government-directed understandings or exchanges
( 4 ) Education, preparation, and conferences ; and
( 5 ) Imitating or reverse-engineering.
In this research, the three classs associated with the defined hypotheses in subdivision VI are ( 2 ) , ( 3 ) , and ( 4 ) .
In developed states, many transportation of engineering policies that involve authorities, higher instruction and industry sectors have been established, such as in UK, USA and Australia ( Grady, Pratt 2000 ; Lee, 1997 ; Burvill, Leary, na ) . The Knowledge Transfer Partnership plan ( KTP ) in the UK has been a successful theoretical account for engineering transportation ( KTP one-year study 2004/5 ) . In United States the federal authorities, federal R & A ; D laboratories, research universities and industrial houses have been involved in engineering transportation plans that address engineering development ( Lee, 1997 ) . In Australia, a university/industry plan has been designed and implemented at the University of Melbourne through CUPID ( Collaborative University/industry Programme In technology Design ) ( Burvill and Lewis, 2001 ) and besides a Collaboration Research Partnership ( CRP ) that involved coaction between two universities ( Melbourne University and RMIT ) and industry ( Burvill and Leary, 2001 ) .
Government, besides playing a direct function in engineering transportation plans, has an of import map to back up engineering development through their policies ( Kumar, 2003 ) . Developed states, such as Japan and USA show that authorities policy and support in order to develop engineering for that state in ways such as through Torahs and executive order ( Spivey et al. , 1994 ) ordinance ( Teece, 1986 ) , and political will ( Davis, 1998 ) have positive impacts on engineering transportation plan effectivity, whereas in other developed states the engagement of authorities in making benefits in footings of SMEs ‘ engineering development has claimed to be instead obscure ( Bunker and Yin 2005 ) . In Java, the chief transferor organisations which have concern or duty and involvement in cognition and engineering transportation for little to medium endeavors are authorities, concern, and universities ( BPPT, 2005 )
2.6.1. Government as Technology Transferor for SMEs
Governments in reassigning engineering have their ain motivations, such as ( Bozeman, 1997 )
( 1 ) Legislative demand motivation
( 2 ) Economic development motivation
( 3 ) Outgrowth of concerted research and development
( 4 ) Scientists ‘ and applied scientists ‘ involvements in entrepreneurship and personal wealth
The effectivity of a engineering transportation plan will be influenced by authorities motivations. One might presume that accent on the legislative authorization as a motivation for engineering transportation would be negatively related to success, merely because such a desultory motivation ( “ we ‘re in the engineering transportation concern because we have no pick ” ) would seldom take to success ( Bozeman, 1997 ) . On the other manus, motivations such as economic development and entrepreneurship motive will perchance positively impact on the engineering transportation plan ( Bozeman, 1997 ) .
2.6.2. Business as Technology Transferor for SMEs
Large endeavors ( LEs ) have their ain motivations and features in reassigning engineering. In the instance of Java, the motivation of big endeavors in reassigning engineering to SMEs is normally because big endeavors need possible providers to back up merchandises. In order to acquire standard quality or criterion operating to bring forth the merchandise from SMEs ( provider ) , big endeavors ( transferors ) transfer the engineering that is needed ( BPPT, 2005 ) . Relative to engineering transportation for SMEs, big endeavors have some advantages, for illustration, greater tacitness capableness ( expertness, experience, civilization, ) and explicitness capableness ( statistical informations, written instructions, bluish prints ) , besides more financess, equipment, and market handiness. In Java, Indonesia has besides established a partnership plan, called Foster Parents Scheme, between LEs, such as an electricity company, and an oil company, and SMEs ( Tambunan, 2005 ) .However engineering transportation by concern has its restrictions. Businesss, in reassigning engineering to SMEs, tend to reassign to back up particular/ limited merchandise that is needed by the concern ( transferor ) . It leads to the restriction of the transportation of engineering by concerns to SMEs that in bend bounds the engineering capableness of SMEs ( BPPT, 2005 ) .
2.6.3. Universities as Technology Transferor for SMEs
Universities offer human resources, research and development chances ( BPPT, 2005 ) , and recorded case in point ( libraries ) . Universities have good codification, but tend to non hold financess to back up effectual engineering transportation.
University motives include ( Lee, 2000 ; Burvill, Lewis, 2001 ) :
To foster the university ‘s outreach mission ;
To derive cognition about practical jobs utile for instruction ;
To derive penetration in the country of one ‘s ain research ;
To look for concern chances ; and
To make pupil internships and occupation arrangement chances.
Both research workers and practicians have realized the importance of effectual engineering transportation ( Mann, 1995 ; Spivey et al. , 1994 ; Tsang, 1997 ; Hongxin and Grier, 1991 in Kremic 2003 ) . Analysis of the transferor ‘s function could explicate a cardinal success factor in engineering transportation sustainability ( Matkin, 1997 ; Lee, Gaertner, 1997 ; Bozeman, 1997 ) . It is therefore of import to analyse the function of authorities ( Kremic, 2003 ; Bozeman, 1997 ) , the function of concern ( Kremic, 2003 ; Lee, 2000 ) and the function of universities ( Lee, 2000 ; Bercovitz and Feldmann, 2006 ) in engineering transportation. The virtues of the transferor function of authorities, concern, and universities can so be assessed, and the associated success and failure of the engineering transportation.
Therefore, this research will look into the function of the transferor of tacit and codified cognition transportation through expertness, accomplishment, cultural plans, literary stuff ( e.g. books ) , machinery, and equipment handiness and the impact of these factors on sustainability engineering transportation.
2.7 Preliminary fieldwork Research
There were two facets to the work carried out. First, the relevant literature was reviewed with the purpose of placing demands in the country of engineering transportation. This has shown that the procedure by which engineering may be successfully transferred in developing states has non been decidedly determined. A more targeted literature hunt so followed that sought to develop a systematic analytical attack tightly linked to implicit in theories. The 2nd portion of the research has involved the preliminary fieldwork in Indonesia. It is this facet that is discussed in this subdivision
2.7.1 Preliminary field work in Java
The consequences of the initial literature reappraisal and planning showed that some background informations from a underdeveloped state would be indispensable in order to transport out elaborate readying of the balance of the research plan. It was decided to seek this information in Java, Indonesia.
Datas from extremum industry organic structures and authorities sections, and information sing national and provincial authorities policies from authorities sections has been sought in this preliminary fieldwork research, face-to-face interviews with five little to medium endeavors ( SMEs ) and had treatments with staff at some universities called National Institute of Technology, Brawijaya University, and Polytechnic Ceper in East Java and Central Java.
This preliminary fieldwork besides searched for the being of transportation of engineering that had antecedently occurred where the primary fieldwork research will be conducted. This consisted of information about the SMEs in base metal goods industries which had already received engineering transportation from authorities, universities and private concerns, and even from foreign organisations ( based on authorities to authorities understandings ) . These company names were derived from the meeting and treatment about engineering transportation for SMEs in Indonesia with BPPT ( The Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology ) , section of ministry that to be responsible for engineering policy of engineering in Indonesia.
2.7. Findingss from Ceper
Ceper, Middle Java state, Indonesia is home to a important figure of SMEs in the base metal goods machinery sectors. The primary merchandises produced are
1. Pumps and H2O gear distributers
2. Automotive constituents ( brake maestro, cylinders break membranophones, etc )
3. Generator constituents
4. Gas range constituents ( caput burners and brass cups, etc )
5. Sewing machine constituents
6. Industrial machine constituents
Aggregated across all SMEs in Ceper, about 150,000 dozenss of metal is processed every twelvemonth. This is a really important 45 % of the entire national capacity. The points produced are exported every bit good as bought and used locally. About 200 SMEs employ about 5,000 people with the figure of employees changing from 10 to 100 for each SME. The instruction degree of both the proprietors and the employees varies markedly. Generally, older staff have at best the simple school certification with many holding received no formal instruction. Younger people have frequently completed senior high school and may even hold unmarried mans or Masterss grades. As is typical of many SMEs in most states, the companies largely operate occupation store environments, the theoretical account of production system that is runing based on client ‘s order.
2.7.1. Technology transportation plan:
Government ‘s engineering transportation plan for SMEs:
The authorities has through authorities bureaus from an inter-ministry section plus local authorities, such as Ministry of Research and Technology, Ministry of Cooperation and Small to Medium Enterprises, Ministry of Industry, and Ministry of Trade, provided machinery, tools, developing plans and expertness. The authorities besides provides a peculiar infinite as a centre of developing plan needed by SMEs. It besides was found that through authorities to authorities understandings, some states such as Japan have provided some expertness to help engineering transportation plan for SMEs in Ceper in a long term plan
Government bureaus from some ministries and local authorities have besides collaborated with SMEs in Ceper to construct local establishments to the degree of TAFE stopping point to that country. The TAFE provides instruction and preparation peculiarly for Ceper ‘s SMEs community in order to develop SMEs ‘ engineering capableness, spread a plan for standardisation of procedures and merchandises.
Businesss were discovered to keep engineering transportation to SMEs by making engineering transportation plans in human resource development. Businesss are concentrating preparation plans for the development of SMEs to accomplish capableness in merchandise standardisation ; therefore the SMEs can go competent in providing merchandises for these concerns.
The universities were found to back up engineering transportation to SMEs by carry oning specifically targeted preparation plans in human resource development. They are aimed at the long term sweetening of SMEs ‘ capableness to do better usage of staff. Universities were besides discovered to join forces with authorities in supplying specific expertness for short term engineering transportation plans.
2.8. Findingss from Pasuruan
Pasuruan, Indonesia is base for a big figure of SMEs in the base metal goods machinery sector in East Java state. The primary merchandises produced are
1. Automotive constituents and accoutrements
2. Furniture constituents
3. Industrial machine constituents
4. Agricultural tools
5. Sugar industry equipment constituents
The 250 SMEs employ about 3,000 people with the figure of employees changing from 5 to 20 for each SME. It was besides discovered that the instruction degrees of both the proprietors and the employees in Pasuruan are similar with those in Ceper, that is by and large, older staff have at best the simple school certification, but the younger coevals have frequently completed senior high school and may even hold a unmarried man grade. These SMEs besides operate in occupation store environments.
2.8.1. Technology transportation plan
1. A Government engineering transportation plans for SMEs:
Through authorities bureaus from the inter-ministry section plus local authorities, the authorities provides machinery, tools, developing plans and expertness. The authorities besides provides a peculiar infinite as a centre of developing plan needed by SMEs. The term of engineering transportation plans from authorities normally is long term that is approximately 1 to 10 old ages. A plan ‘s end normally is to beef up fabrication for SMEs, which is besides as a policy of local authorities to increase their local economic system capableness. It was found that cooperation between SMEs and authorities bureaus have been built, particularly in human resources development.
The plan of engineering transportation from Government consists:
Machinery and tools for developing plan
Training for production procedures to better merchandise public presentation
Training for quality control and stuff and merchandise standardisation
Expertise-technician/ applied scientist exchange and arrangement.
Businesss have conducted engineering transportation to SMEs through provider development plans. Business provided SMEs ‘ with human resources developing plans. Businesss have besides concerned with standardisation of SME ‘s machinery and equipment through standardization of tools. Consequently, SMEs as a provider of merchandise for concern are able to bring forth standardised merchandise
The universities were found to back up engineering transportation to SMEs by carry oning preparation plans for SMEs ‘ human resources. Universities were besides discovered to join forces with authorities in supplying specific expertness for short term engineering transportation plans.
Through treatment during this fieldwork research, the existent status of where engineering has been successfully transferred was revealed. An illustration of this was in a engineering hardware development, where a engineering transportation plan has delivered engineering betterment from low ( traditional ) engineering to better engineering, as a consequence, greater efficiency in clip and energy have been achieved.
Technology transportation plans associated with cognition betterment encompassed both tacit and codified cognition. The transportation of engineering plans provides expertness from authorities bureaus, university and expatriates to back up SMEs human resources skill development plans and even the civilization and behaviour of concerns in related industries. Knowledge about standardisation of merchandise and system such as International Standard, ISO 9000, or local criterion SNI ( Indonesia National Standard ) have besides been made available.