International brands – international and epicurean events such as expansive gaps and manner showsaˆ¦.using famous persons to advance their merchandises and trade names such David Beckham and H & A ; M, Topshop with Kate Moss and coaction such as H & A ; M and Marni, Versace and Adidas and Stella McCarthy.
Local companies are cognizant of the globalism impacting purchase determination of consumers and hence frequently give their local prodiced goods a foreign nam to do them look like planetary merchandises ( Ying, 2002 )
Cardinal words: Consumer Buying Behaviour, Consumer perceptual experience, Consumer penchant, Local trade names, International trade names, Country of beginning, Country of industry, Brand image.
The intents of this survey are to research and understand factors impacting client purchasing behavior, determination devising procedure and consumer perceptual experiences towards local and international dress trade names among Thai female consumers. Furthermore, the findings can move as indispensable information for trade names and sellers whom can use into their farther selling schemes. Prior to understanding the topics of the survey, achievements of secondary aims were critical. The secondary aims were to place the factors which associates with planetary trade names among Thai consumers ; to foreground the factors which associates with Thai trade names among Thai consumers ; to find the factors impacting the trade name image of Thai trade names ; to find the procedure and factors impacting the purchasing behavior and determination devising of Thai consumers and to place ways in which to work out issues that is impacting Brand image of Thai trade names.
Furthermore, the information gathered for aims of the survey act to find the two hypotheses: H1: State of Origin and Made in dramas a critical function in consumer ‘s perceptual experiences of trade names and their purchasing behavior and H2: Tai consumers are progressively purchasing more Thai trade names than International trade names.
The survey undertook a qualitative research by utilizing the signifier of focal point group to obtain relevant information and farther understand determination devising procedure and consumer perceptual experiences when measuring and doing purchases. The survey besides offers restrictions of the survey and recommendations for future research.
With the recent globalisation, it has contributed to the shrinkage of planetary market place and hence, an increased in planetary market competition with both international and local trade names viing in the same market place ( Roy and Chau, 2011 ) , although, within the same merchandise class, consumers will comprehend international and local trade names otherwise ( Herche, 1992 ) . Therefore, it is important for trade names to construct and make positive perceptual experiences within the head of the consumers. Hence, consumers use trade names as cues to do determinations to buy or seek merchandises and to find the public presentations and quality of merchandises alternatively of researching for information ( Ger et al. , 1993 ) . As many surveies conducted in developing states, they have all concluded that some consumers prefer international trade names due to symbolic significances, position enhancing tools and supply the sense of being a portion of the planetary consumer community ( Kottak, 1990 ; Agbonifoh and Elimimian, 1999 ; Batra et al. , 2000 ) . This is particularly in the instance of dress when it is related to conspicuous ingestion and position uncovering perceptual experience ( Piron, 2000 ) .
Harmonizing to Yip ( 1995 ) , increasing figure of trade names is following the planetary scheme in stigmatization and the scheme is appealing to a turning section of consumers worldwide with similar gustatory sensation and penchants ( Hassan and Katsanis, 1994 ) and hence, there has been a displacement from local trade names to international trade names in the recent old ages. This is echoed by Dogerlioglu-Demir and Tansuhaj ( 2011 ) , due to the fact that incorporate media, planetary images are in day-to-day lives of consumers and trade names are promoted globally, consumers are progressively similar gustatory sensations in vesture, music, nutrient and life styles.
Therefore, it is important for trade names and sellers to derive a deepness apprehension of consumer ‘s perceptual experiences and purchasing behavior and why consumers particularly in the development states do prefer international trade names to local trade names, in order for local trade names to implement schemes and have a better chance in viing with international trade names that are considered to hold higher economic power.
This survey is aim to understand consumer purchasing behaviour and consumer perceptual experiences towards international and local trade names in dress sector in Thailand. This sector of the market has been chosen due to the fact that there are increase Numberss of Thai trade names come ining the local markets and merely a few have managed to travel abroad. Furthermore, in the last decennary International trade names are besides come ining Thai market more than of all time due to the turning demand which increases more competitions for local trade names. This has provided the intent of the survey of Thai dress industry.
Summary of Chapters
Chapter 1: Introduction
This chapter will present the thesis and relevant topics.
Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal
This chapter is the scrutiny of bing surveies and researches which has been conducted on the topics that are important to this survey. The reappraisal of the literature are theories and constructs which discusses in this paper, literature are taken form diaries, books and studies. It begins with an overview of a consumer purchasing behavior and the procedure in which consumers make their determinations and factors act uponing those determinations when buying Thereafter, there will be a reappraisal of literature sing trade name name, trade name image, trade name equity, local trade names versus international trade names, consumers perceptual experience and penchant, Country of Origin and Country of Manufacture.
Chapter 3: Overview of the Industry
The chapter is to supply the overview of current state of affairs and history of dress market in Thailand. Furthermore, it will supply readers with general information of local and international trade names which are presently runing in the Thai market. Local trade names will include both trade names which are runing internationally and nationally.
Chapter 4: Research Methodology
This chapter will supply the readers with research methods which the research worker used to garner informations required for the survey. Primary information was collected through the usage of qualitative research method of focal point group treatment and secondary informations through diaries, studies and books.
Chapter 5: Analysis and Findingss
This chapter used the informations collected from the focal point group treatment and in concurrence with secondary informations and the research worker ‘s ain point of positions. In add-ons, quotation marks from participants in the focal point group are used to organize a thorough analysis of the findings.
Chapter 6: Decisions
This chapter will reason the findings of the full survey, along with supplying restrictions of the survey and recommendations for farther research to be conducted.
Main Hypothesis/Research Questions
H1: State of Origin and Made in label plays a critical function in consumer ‘s perceptual experiences of a trade names and their purchasing behavior
H2: Tai consumers are increasing purchasing more Thai trade names
Subjects and Questions:
There are increasing in figure of local trade names traveling international: Has the perceptual experience of local trade names changed? What has changed?
However there are many of Local trade names that have non gone international, what are your perceptual experiences towards those trade names?
1.1.1 And what do believe are the grounds behind this, in comparing to trade names that have managed to travel abroad?
2. Does Country of Origin impact your purchasing behavior and measuring your purchases? For illustration, does the label ‘Made in Thailand ‘ brand you perceive the merchandise to be inferior in quality?
2.1 For case, international trade names that have the label Made in Thailand, China or Vietnam influences your purchasing behaviour/ trade name image or how you perceive the trade name?
3. If a local trade names have a similar scheme as Superdry, i.e. American trade name with Nipponese design and image: Would this work with Thai consumers and alterations their purchasing behavior and how they perceive Thai trade names?
3.1 Does widely available replicate vesture merchandise in Thailand consequence your determination in purchasing Local trade names?
4. When you are traveling shopping would you state you are traveling to International trade name instead than Local trade name? Why?
5. If a merchandise of a Local trade name and International trade name has a same or similar pricing, which trade name would you take? Why?
6. In your sentiment, what are the positives and negatives factors of Thai trade names impacting their trade name image?
7. Make you hold that Buying behavior of Thai consumers to a great extent affected by trade name position and positive image of planetary trade name names instead than existent quality of the merchandises. Discourse
8. What information do you treat when you decide to travel shopping for new apparel/what inquiries and factors you think about prior to shopping?
.Aims & A ; aims
To underscore and place the grounds and the penchants of Thai consumers between local and planetary trade names
To place the factors playing cardinal functions in determine the purchasing behavior of local consumers towards local and planetary trade names
To place the factors which associates with planetary trade names among Thai consumers
To place the factors which associates with Thai trade names among Thai consumers
To find the procedure and factors impacting the purchasing behavior and determination devising of Thai consumers
To place ways in which to work out issues that is impacting Brand image of Thai trade name
In this chapter, the relevant theories, diaries and studies who have tried to understand the cardinal factors act uponing consumer purchasing behavior, consumer perceptual experiences, trade name image and state of origin consequence will be reviewed and analyze to supply a general background to current cognition of cardinal academic subjects from cardinal texts.
5.1 Consumer Buying Behaviour
Everyone is considered to be a consumer, we all required to devour and purchase merchandises and services for our day-to-day usage harmonizing to our demands, penchants and economic power. Consumer behavior is defined by Solomon and Rabolt, ( 2004 ) , utilizing one word ; “ ingestion ” which occurs when persons select, purchase, usage, or dispose of merchandises, services, ides, or experiences to fulfill demands and desires. As definition suggests, the procedure starts good in front of consumers set pes in the shop. Consumers will travel through phrases of determination doing procedure before doing the concluding determination to buy a merchandise or a service. Therefore, it is critical for administrations to understand their client ‘s thought procedure and penchants, in order to fulfill the clients and maximize gross revenues and net incomes. In order to understand the consumer behavior, there are 5 cardinal inquiries which needed to be reply ( see Fig. 1.1 ) , which can be done through consumer research.
Figure 1.1: Cardinal inquiries to understanding clients ( Jobber, D. , and Fahy, J. , 2003 )
All the above of inquiries of who, how, what, where and when which influence consumers ‘ purchases are all depending on internal factors such as attitudes, personality, perceptual experiences, self-concepts and emotions ; and external factors such as societal category, cultural beliefs and group association ( see Fig 1.4 ) .
Instigator: the individual who begins the procedure of sing a purchase. Information may be gathered by this individual to assist determination devising
Blackwell, R.D. , Miniard, P.W. and Engel, J.F. ( 2000 ) , Consumer Behaviour, Orlando, FL: Dryden, page 174.
5.1.2 Fashion Consumer Decision Making Process
There are 5 phases in the consumer determination doing procedure theoretical account which consist of demand recognition/problem consciousness, information research, and rating of options, purchase and post-purchase rating ( Blackwell et al. , 2000 ) . However, Yurchisin and Johnson ( 2010 ) have included 2 extra phases into the procedure: usage, attention, storage and disposal in order to show the ingestion procedure in dress merchandises ( see Fig 1.2 ) . However, this subdivision will concentrate on the concern theoretical account aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦of determination devising procedure
Problem recognition/Problem consciousness
This is the first phase in the consumer determination doing process theoretical account. Harmonizing to Dunne and Lusch ( 2005 ) the job acknowledgment occurs when the consumer ‘s coveted province of personal businesss departs sufficiently from the existent province of personal businesss to put the consumer in the province of agitation so that he or she begins believing of ways to decide the difference or in another words, consumers enters the determination devising procedure when they feel there is a demand to heighten their lives in a certain manner.
All consumers will come to a point where they feel there is a demand to carry through their demands or work out their job. The most cardinal demands are physiological demands and our really survival depends on fulfilling these demands ( Blackwell et al. , 2001 ) For illustration, if a consumer who is traveling on a skiing vacation, there will be a demand to purchase warm vesture to maintain warm and supply protection against the cold conditions, hence, he or she does non acquire ailment.
However, it does non intend that where there is a demand or a job, this will automatically trip the consumers into progressing to the following phase in the determination devising procedure, i.e. information hunt. This is due to the fact that current demand or job does non out weight the job work outing options. For case, a consumer may experience he or she needed a new shirt but the options might supply a little difference in satisfaction, hence, no information hunt or purchase will take topographic point and the determination doing procedure stopped.
In add-on, this phase can supply chances for the sellers to place penetrations into consumers and implement selling schemes. First, by placing client jobs and move on the information such as easy Fe shirts for busy business communities or consumers who dislike pressing or feverish life style. Furthermore, manner industry is a fast changing industry, hence, this will move as a stimulation and lead to organize a demand for consumers to purchase something newer, better and sooner than might otherwise hold been necessary ( Wolff, 2007 ) . The usage of media, for cases, manner show, magazine and utilizing famous persons to have on dress from certain trade names can besides move as a power selling tools as retail merchant and interior decorators will desire consumers to buy new dress by doing consumers believing that dress worn last twelvemonth are no longer adequate.
As the job or demand have been identified and it is sufficiently strong, consumers will come in the 2nd phase and seeking for information available on the merchandise or the service. There are two hunts when seeking for information ; internal and external hunt. Internal hunt consists of an effort to scan information stored in memory to remember past experiences and/or cognition sing assorted purchase options ( Belch and Belch, 2004 ) . For case, when buying a new shirt, consumers may remember from the old shirt purchases ( e.g. , Pink ) , where they were purchased ( e.g. , a section shop, a web site ) , how they performed ( e.g. quality ) , and how they made you experience ( e.g. , attractive, unhappy ) ( Yurchisin and Johnson 2010 ) . In contrast, some consumers may hold their usual or favorite trade names or shops where they on a regular basis return to.
If no solution is found from internal hunt so the engaging in external hunt will get down. External hunt would include beginnings such as friends, household, work co-workers or the market place.
This phase of the theoretical account has been enhanced by the advanced engineering of cyberspace, where they are easy entree and broad scope of web sites supplying reappraisals and information from experts and other consumers. At the terminal of this phase, consumers will hold narrowed down their picks and construct up an consciousness set.
Evaluation of Options
At this phase, consumers have processes all information they have gathered and left little group of picks. Now, they will be in the phase where they use what it is known as ‘choice standards ‘ to find their concluding determination before doing the purchase ( Lake, 2009 ) . There are 4 types of standards which are includes proficient, economic, societal and personal facets ( see Fig 1.3 ) Choice standards can be described as properties and benefits a client uses when measuring merchandises or services ( Jobber and Fahy, 2003 ) .
The buying procedure is depending on the grade of importance the merchandise or a service is considered to be to the consumers, this can be classified as either a high engagement purchases where an extended rating will be carried out or a low engagement purchases where there is likely to be less rating involved. The degree of engagement is considered to be a nucleus component in how consumers evaluate a trade name.
Laurent and Kapferer have proposed that there are four factors finding the engagement, as follows: aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦
This is the phase when the clients will hold to do the determination to buy merchandises or services after measuring all options and comes to a decision. Belch and Belch ( 2004 ) stated that there
Post-Purchase Evaluation of Decision
Customers will often see in post-purchase concerns. All purchases will make uncertainties and inquiries for clients whether they have made the right determination in buying a peculiar merchandises or services ; this is normally known as ‘cognitive disagreement. ‘ Hint, a purchase of the chosen merchandise will intend the refusal of a characteristic of the options which the consumers may besides hold a penchant for. The degree of concern is normally happening when there is a high engagement when measuring the purchases. There are four largely causes of cognitive disagreement such as the monetary value of the purchase, a hard determination where there are broad scope of options with similar characteristics, when the determination is unchangeable and when the consumer is tend to hold a high degree of experience anxiousness ( Hawkins et al. , 1989 ) . Post purchase experience will probably play a cardinal function in the consumers ‘ future purchase of that peculiar merchandises or services, therefore it is critical for the consumers to be satisfied from the purchase and for sellers to understand the concerns so they can work out and better their merchandises and services from any dissatisfaction arises.
Figure 1.2 Decision devising theoretical account
5.1.3 Factors Influencing Decision Making Among Apparel Consumers
During the consumer determination doing procedure, there are other factors which will find and impact their determination devisings and behaviors apart from factors featured in their lives. There are two chief factors which strongly influences their determinations ( see fig 1.4 ) . First, internal factors such as motives, beliefs and attitudes, gender and personality, for illustration, a female client purchased an expensive interior decorator frock and showed to her exterior of work topographic point friends, in whom they can formalize with the frock as they have the same personalities, beliefs. However, her co-workers at work have thought different due to their differences in personalities ; beliefs or motivations in doing purchase determination or male co-workers will hold a different position to the frock as they are different in gender. Second, external factors such as societal category and civilization. Culture – can be defined as “ the corporate scheduling of the head that distinguishes the members of one group or class of people from another ( Hofstede, 2001 ) . For case, people from Western civilizations ( European states ) thrive on individuality where consumers are more likely to be satisfied with buying dress which expresses their individualism or no 1 else has it. In contrast, people from Eastern civilizations ( China and Japan ) thrive on Bolshevism where they stress on mutuality and hence are most likely to be satisfied to buy points which others wear. ( Hofstede, 2001 ) .
Figure 1.4: Factors influence consumer purchasing behavior
5.3 Local Brands versus International trade names
In many developing states such as Thailand, local and international values cross waies in bulk of consumers ‘ day-to-day lives. Therefore, it non unusual for the consumers to do a comparing and hunt for differences in characteristics and benefits between local and international trade names ( Knight, 1999 ) , furthermore, the ratings for local and international trade names will be different by the consumers when doing a comparing ( Herche, 1992 ) , for case, quality and position.
Local trade names are defined as ‘brands that exist in one state or in a limited geographical country ( Wolfe, 1991 ) while planetary or international trade names are defined by Johannson and Ronkainen ( 2004 ) as ‘a trade name that is marketed under the same name in multiple states with similar and centrally co-ordinated selling schemes. ‘
Many literatures affirms that international trade names are perceived as status-enhancers ( Batra et al. , 2000 ) , provide superior in term of quality, more esteemed ( Steenkamp et al. , 2000 ) , planetary myth and societal duty ( Herring, 2004 ) , in comparing to local trade names. However, an explorative research Schuiling et Al ( 2004 ) conducted in European states, stressed that there are positive factors in the local trade names where they benefits from trade name equality and high trade name consciousness. Conversely, with the new advanced engineering and communications in the modern universe, information is now widely and easier become accessible to consumers worldwide which act can move as a selling tool for local trade names to derive market portions within the sector. Furthermore, the apprehension, connectivity, direct designation with consumers ‘ ain local traditions, imposts and civilization can move as advantages for local trade names ( Cayla and Eckhardt, 2007, Ger, 1999 ) . The benefits of local trade names are besides echoed in the research by Holt et Al ( 2003 ) who emphases on the fact that local trade names are perceived to hold a better value as international trade names will hold a much higher pricing schemes. This state of affairs may be due the function in which consumer ethnocentrism plays in the head of consumers. Consumer ethnocentrism is defined by Kinra ( 2006 ) as ‘a psychological concept stand foring how consumers view merchandises made in their ain state markets as objects of pride and individuality versus those from other state markets, ‘ hence, local trade names are preferred by the consumers.
It was argued by Schuilling ( 2004 ) through the findings of his research which illustrates that local trade names are perceived as ‘down to earth ‘ where they do non supply the sense of exhilarations, alternatively merely carry throughing the basic demands and sense of tradition that associate with local civilizations. This is really different in the development states and emerging markets where consumers are considered to be philistinism ( Dogerlioglu-Demir and Tansuhaj, 2011 ) and accordingly, associates international trade names with high societal position and prestigiousness ( Li and Gallup, 1995 ) particularly with the wealthy and immature consumers because they like the ‘international genius ‘ within the international trade names ( Kapferer, 2002 ) .
It is besides an obstruction for local trade names to vie with international trade names due to the fact that local trade names are mostly produced and promoted locally with limited distribution, investing, and are by and large available within the state ( Van Gelder, 2003 ) , even with the e-commerce and modern engineering.
5.4 Consumer Perception and Preference for International Trade names
It has been demonstrated in 5.3 the fact that international trade names possesses the sense of high position, superior quality and high position ( Batra el al. , 2000 ) , nevertheless, all these prestigiousnesss are non considered to be the most critical factor in driving penchant for international trade names ( Steenkamp et al. , 2003 ) , alternatively, trade name globalness which are perceived by consumers have the capableness to make consumer perceptual experiences of trade name high quality ( Shocker et al. , 1994 ) . Many surveies conducted have all came to similar results where Country of Origin of international trade names was an of import facet on impacting the consumer ‘s penchants towards local and international trade names ( Verlegh and Steenkamp, 1999 ; Wang et al. , 2004 ; Kinra 2006 ) . State of Origin will be discussed in more deepness in the following portion.
A survey conducted by Steenkamp ( 2003 ) in South Korea and the United States was to obtain a farther apprehension into the consumer penchant for local and international trade names. The research implemented the three tracts which included: higher sensed quality, higher prestigiousness and the psychological benefits, in order to understand the sensed trade name globalness ( PBG ) and how this have effects on consumers ‘ purchase likeliness ( see fig 1.5 ) . The research worker came to the decision that the most intensify factor of PBG ‘s effectivity on purchase likeliness was through perceptual experiences of superior quality and less replied on higher prestigiousness and position. Han ( 1990 ) besides added that the three tracts set by Steenkamp ( 2003 ) , can straight impact the purchase likeliness and indirectly affect through trade name quality and trade name prestigiousness.
Figure 1.5 Conceptual theoretical account of Perceived Brand Globalness ( Steenkamp el al. , 2003 )
State of beginning
There are other constructs which are playing a critical portion in purchasing behaviors and attitudes towards both local and planetary trade names worldwide, for case, “ State of Origin and Made in label ” ( Koubaa, 2008 ) .
Majority of the planetary trade name has been good recognised and long-established individualities where merchandises are perceived to be high in position and quality. BRAND IMAGE. ? Therefore, this has farther illustrates the obstructions which local trade names faces to mount up the trade name position and set uping themselves within the market. As Keller 1993 suggested that by carry oning a research on trade name image and its consequence on purchasing behavior will supply a nucleus component in order for trade names to fix marketing mix issues and besides act as important function in constructing long term trade name equity.UNCLEAR
Further surveies have besides stressed that purchasing behavior of consumers buying manner merchandises are to a great extent reflects of impulse purchasing. Fashion-oriented vesture impulse purchasing has been defined by Park ( 2006 ) as “ individual ‘s consciousness and perceptual experience of manner ability attributed to an advanced design or manner or another words “ fashion-oriented impulse purchasing occurs when consumers see a new manner merchandise and but it because they are motivated by the suggestions to purchase new merchandises ( Han et al. , 1991 ) and trade name image play a cardinal function in determine that determination. HOW DOES IMPULSE BUYING LINK TO BRAND IMAGE, OR IS IT A FACTOR IN ITS OWN RIGHT? TRY AND BE MORE PRECISE AND CAREFUL IN WHAT YOU SAY.
Brand names or hallmarks can be used to find the quality of the merchandise and along with increasing competition in the market, this forces administrations to make and develop a trade name name which is good known in order to supply a competitory advantage for the administration. Furthermore, trade name name can move as a powerful agencies of distinction ( Pappu et al. , 1995 ) and distinction is an indispensable competitory placement scheme ( Porter, 1990 ) . Constructing a trade name name will necessitate a big investing from the beginning ; hence, administrations with big capital to put in developing a trade name will hold an advantage as successful trade name name can take to many benefits if it is successful. However, it is clip devouring and the procedure can necessitate a figure of old ages. In contrast, smaller administrations with little or minimum start-up capital may utilize to fight when viing with rivals with larger capital but can now go successful in developing a well-known trade name name due to the modern HERE BRAND NAME MOVES INTO A DISCUSSION ABOUT PROMOTION AND ADVERTISING. IS THAT THE ONLY ASPECT OF HOW YOU BUILD A BRAND NAME. ? engineering. A good illustration would be the usage of societal webs such as Facebook and Instagram with no operating costs in which can increase involvement in the trade name and this can now make wider and larger market. Furthermore the followings from these societal web sites can be seen as possible clients and will supply word of oral cavity and hence free public relation within itself. In add-on, old researches has shown that even if the administration spent huge amounts on advertisement, this does non ever justified or guaranteed by short term gross revenues and the return in the investing can be translated into factors such as trade name consciousness, image and trueness ( Motameni and Shahrokhi, 1998 ) .
Brand image is defined by Keller ( 1993, p. 3 ) as “ the perceptual experiences about a trade name as reflected by the trade name associations held in consumer memory. ” To set it more merely, trade name image is what comes to mind of the consumer when a trade name name is mentioned. The importance of stigmatization has been farther stated by Keller ( 2008 ) , “ The trade name is one of the most of import assets an administration owns. Administration with high trade name equity achieves high perceptual experiences of the trade name by the clients, great trueness by clients, less exposure to rivals ‘ selling actions, high net income borders, less negative reaction by clients to monetary value additions, higher support of jobbers, higher selling publicity effectivity, increasing licensing and trade name extension chances. ”
Keller ( 1998 ) believed that for any administration to construct a trade name, constructing trade name equity should be considered as a nucleus component and this will provided advantages to the administration. For case, higher consumer penchants and purchase purposes will be as a consequence from high trade name equity degrees ( Cobb-Walgren EL al. , 1995 ) , high stock returns ( Aaker and Jacobson, 1994 ) and lower advertisement to gross revenues ratios ( Sriram el al. , 2007 ) . Furthermore, trade name equity can be developed from the assurance that consumers place in one trade name over another ( Kamakura and Russell, 1991 ) . Many research workers asserted that elements such as trade name trueness, trade name consciousness, perceived quality, brans association makes up the dimensions of trade name equity ( Shocker and Weitz, 1998 ; Aaker, 1991 and Yoo et al. , 2000 ) .
There are legion of definitions of trade name equity but it can be loosely classified into two classs ; based on financial-perspective and emphasis the value of a trade name to the administration ( e.g. Mahajan et al. , 1990 and Simon and Sullivan, 1993 ) . The 2nd class is based on the consumer-perspective and explained as the value of a trade name to the consumer ( e.g. Aaker 1991 and Rangaswamy et al. , 1993 ) ( Pappu et al. , 2005 ) . Although, the most two recognized definitions of trade name equity by Aaker ( 1991 ) and Keller ( 1993 ) have a different return, in term of its construct but both defined from a consumer position based on consumer ‘s memory-based trade name association.
Brand equity was defined by Aaker ( 1991, p 15 ) as:
“ A set of trade name assets and liabilities linked to a trade name, its name and symbol, that adds to or detracts from the value provided by a merchandise or service to a house and/or to house ‘s clients. ”
Definition by Keller ( 1993 ) :
“ the differential consequence of trade name cognition on consumer response to the selling of a trade name. ”
Furthermore, Aaker ‘s construct of trade name equity sees it as a set of assets ( or liabilities ) with trade name consciousness, trade name associations, perceived quality, trade name trueness and other proprietary assets were the five assets of trade name equity in which he proposed ( Pappu et al. , 2005 ) where a few of these assets are mentioned in this research.
As can be seen from old research workers that trade name equity Idaho considered to be a nucleus component in consumers doing their determination when buying and consumer ‘s perceptual experience on the merchandises from each trade name. For illustration, Raju ( 1995 ) stated that many Nipponese and Western trade names are good established in developing states and hence being perceived by consumers to hold a higher criterion, quality and more luxury in comparing to the local products/brands.
State of Origin Effect
Due to the fact that Thailand as a state is considered by many the so called “ underdeveloped state ” and the image and acknowledgment of Thailand by people have ever been a vacation finish and exporter of agribusiness goods instead than state which produces quality manner merchandises. Therefore, this plays a critical function in the image of manner vesture coming out from Thailand and Thai interior decorators. This have led to the construct of Country of Origin ( COO ) to be relevant to the research to find how Thai vesture trade names are being perceived by Thai consumers and an issue which Thai trade names will necessitate to get the better of to win in the planetary market and first of all within the domestic market.
State of beginning can be defined as “ aˆ¦aˆ¦the image, the repute, the stereotype that business communities and consumers attach to merchandises of a specific state. This image is created by such variables as representative merchandises, national features, economic and political background, history, and traditions. ” ( Nagashima, 1970 ) . More recent definition given by Roth and Romeo ( 1992 ) is as follows, “ The overall perceptual experience consumers signifier of the merchandises from a peculiar state, based on their anterior perceptual experiences of the state ‘s production and selling strengths and failings. ”
There has been legion researches and literature that has been conducted on the topic of COO. Many have found that the COO of a merchandise is often used by the consumers as an extrinsic cue to find in their purchasing determination such as Han ( 1989 ) ; Hong and Wyer ( 1990 ) , and Ahmed and d’Astoud ( 2008 ) ( Prendergast et al, . 2010 ) . The extrinsic cues can be determine as intangible merchandises traits such as monetary value and trade name name, where intrinsic cues are associated with the physical facets of the merchandise ( Bikey and Nes, 1982 ) and furthermore, the impact of consumer ‘s cognition sing merchandise ‘s COO has on subsequent merchandise rating ( Papadapoulos and Heslop, 1993 ) . It was further stressed by Kinra 2006 that the COO is to be considered as the polar factor when it comes to consumer attitudes towards local and foreign trade names. For case, the most recent vesture trade name, “ Superdry ” , all their vesture merchandises will hold Nipponese composing on them and many consumers ‘ initial perceptual experiences will believe it is a Nipponese trade name. However, it is in fact a British trade name where the interior decorator was inspired by a trip to Tokyo and the design influences from Nipponese artworks and vintage Americana ( Superdry, 2012 ) . Furthermore, the Nipponese Hagiographas on their merchandises are slightly unrelated to the merchandises and many consumers will probably make non cognize what the words really mean, but to the consumers it does non truly matter as the Nipponese authorship provides them with the sense of manner, COO and International trade name. Similarly, Kanynak and Kara ( 1997 ) , showed that the local consumers tend to hold significantly more favorable beliefs, attitudes and purposes towards imported merchandises so local merchandises.
Sellers and administrations has been contriving new construct to help and find the consumers ‘ attitudes towards trade names. The most noticeable construct for COO label is “ made in ” . The “ made in Europe ” was implemented in order to analyze how consumers ‘ perceived the quality of the merchandises with the label when comparing to “ made in USA ” and “ made in Japan ” . As found out by Schweiger et al. , ( 1995 ) , the quality of merchandises with made in Europe label were perceived to be at a similar degree of the US and Nipponese rivals in the planetary markets.
State of Industry
With the advanced engineering and logistic, international trade names are outsourcing their fabrication procedure and taking advantage of lower pay rates and other operating costs in order to increase their net income border by relocating their fabrication to the developing states ( Prendergast et al. , 2010 ) . As a consequence, the construct of COO and an exclusivity of a trade name or merchandise tie ining with one state is now no longer the instance for many trade names. For case, Nike is will perceived as an American taking athletics trade name but their fabrication has been relocating to states such as Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Thailand and even in Portugal. Therefore, a merchandise may be branded in state X, but manufactured in Y or Z ( Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000 ) . With this in head, many faculty member has come up with new constructs which are more appropriate to the state of affairs of multi-country association such as state of industry ( COM ) ( Samiee, 1994 ) and state of branding ( COB ) ( Johansson, 1989 ) . However, the construct of COO has late once more been argued by Phau and Prendergast ( 2000 ) who suggested due to the globalization, COB is more suited and accurate than COO
History and Background of Thai Clothing and Textile Industry
Thai fabric and vesture production has had a long history but the industry was established tardily in comparing to other Asiatic states ( Koomsup, 1973: cited Suphachalasai, 1994: P 19 ) . It was until the 1936 when the first fabric machine was imported from Germany for military intents ( Koomsup, 1973 ) which led to a first in private owned fabric company by Thai man of affairs in 1942 ( Supachalasai, 1994 ) . The industry started to din and quickly picked up gait, which led to foreign investors come ining Thailand, most noticeable was the Nipponese joint venture during the sixtiess. This has played in a critical function to the industry by presenting new direction techniques, part of capital and engineering ( Katano, 1981 ) .
Clothing dominated the dress industry in Thailand in 2010. Women remain the cardinal mark market and gross revenues of adult females ‘s dress saw the highest growing in 2010, in peculiar in adult females ‘s denims, trunkss and pants and athleticss footwear. Lifestyles of adult females have changed as they socialise more and respond to the wellness consciousness tendency.
International trade names gear up and surpass local trade names
Store-based retailing remains dominant channel for dress gross revenues
Thai trade names and their merchandises were normally available at local indoor markets and little dress shops, chiefly available and aiming local and younger consumers with minimum aggregations and low pricing scheme. However, the scheme and tendency has shifted to higher pricing scheme and upper market consumers, in add-on, selected Thai trade names such Kloset, Sretsis, Senada, Disaya and Greyhound are now viing following to international trade names in the shopping promenades countrywide. The mentioned trade names are besides available in assorted states across the universe. In contrast, trade names like Milin, Issue, Kwankao and Vickteerut are besides moved up to shopping promenades but have non managed to travel abroad.
International trade names has been opening their shops worldwide, particularly in Thailand where new international trade names are introduced about every twelvemonth – both pure imports and from local companies which have licensed trade names and are bring forthing them locally.in the past decennary ( Euromonitor International, 2010 ) , hence, making more competitions for local trade names. However, non merely top high street trade names that have been come ining Tai market but besides high terminal, luxury, interior decorator trade names such as Chanel, Christian Dior, Hermes and Louis Vuitton. Furthermore, Thai trade names such as Asava, Munchu ‘s, Theatre, Olanor and Curated by Ekthongprasert has been trying to come in foreign markets through e-commerce but still non considered as International trade names may be due to their current trade name image, trade name place and repute. Hence, cyberspace retailing accounting for somewhat over 1 % of entire dress gross revenues in Thailand ( Euromonitor International, 2010 ) , for local trade names to vie and last in this market, these obstructions are required to be tackled. The issue has been recognised by Bangkok Fashion Society ( BFS ) where they have gathered all Thai trade names mentioned above and managed to acquire all trade names involved in a run known as ‘Stop Fake, Wear Original Now ‘ , which started in February 2011, in order to halt consumers buying sham planetary vesture merchandises and aid to increase the gross revenues of Thai trade names as this has been identified as they crucial issue which has stalled the patterned advance of Thai trade names, hence, increasing Thai trade names ‘ ability to prolong themselves and come on in the universe of manner by get downing with the local market ( Fashion Biz, 2011 ) . In add-on, their old run set up was called ‘Think Global Dress Local ‘ 2009 to promote consumers to turn to buy and have on Thai trade names. The successes of these two runs could be seen from the increased figure of consumers registered with trade name ‘s fan pages with approximative figure of 30,000 fans per trade name comparison to an norm of 7,000 registries in 2009. Furthermore, Thai famous persons are now have oning dress from Thai trade names to events instead than international trade names which they antecedently wore.
Local Apparel trade names in Thailand
Local trade names with merchandises and shops available outside Thailand
Greyhound Original was foremost established in 1980 and opened its first shop in the same twelvemonth in Bangkok, offering work forces ‘s insouciant wear. It was non until 1990 when Greyhound expanded their aggregations by establishing adult females ‘s wear, along with leather goods and accoutrements – The Greyhound trade name manner = Chic and Contemporary, simple but ne’er tiring. They expanded their scope of merchandises and services in order to add value and different facets to the trade name: Greyhound cafe was opened in 1998 and went onto launched a 2nd dress line to offers younger showy apparels with modern, insouciant and experimental street attitude called “ Playhound by Greyhound ” – Playhound trade name manner = Greyhound + Playtime. To day of the month, they now have 14 stand-alone and shop-in-shop dress shop shops plus 5 coffeehouse and 1 saloon and eating house in Bangkok entirely with 2 shops in Hong Kong and Singapore. Furthermore, their merchandises are besides available in Singapore, Malaysia, Japan, Russia, France, Switzerland, Germany and Sweden through distributers ( Greyhound, 2012 ) .
Kloset was founded in 2001 and the trade name offers adult females ‘s dress and accoutrements. The trade name addition an inspiration from aggregation of embracings the interior decorator ‘s childlike-endearment and Thai civilization ‘s notion and gaiety with handcrafted inside informations add to each aggregation including lace cyberspaces, low gage knits and thread tape. There are presently 4 in Bangkok, Thailand and Kloset ‘s merchandises are now exported into 11 states worldwide: the United States, France, United Kingdom, Ireland, Greece, Spain, South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Australia ( Kloset, 2012 ) .
Sretsis was officially started in 2002 by three sisters who run the trade name ; a interior decorator, a seller and a publishing house. The Sretsis sisters started from run uping each other ‘s prom frock and playing about with other ‘s outfits. The construct and designs of the trade name still keep on to the childhood political orientation and sistership with their signature oddity, elusive cheeks, obstinate sugariness and rebellious liquors. There are 2 shops in Thailand with merchandises available through distributers internationally in 8 states: the United States, France, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Singapore, Japan, China and Australia ( Sretsis, 2012 ) .
Disaya was founded in 2006 by Disaya Sorakraikitikul, the trade name offers adult females ‘s ready to have on and jewelry aggregation which influenced by London and alone creativeness embedded within the metropolis. Disaya was foremost presented internationally in 2007. Her first aggregation caught the attending of both local and international audience picking up 70 stockists and worn by Amy Whitehouse, Jennifer Lopez and Kelly Osbourne. Disaya is sold in over 20 states worldwide at assorted retail merchants including Harrods, Henri Bendels, Harvey Nichols, Le Bon Marche and Seibu with 5 flagship shops in Thailand ( Disaya, 2012 ) .
Senada and Senada Theory were founded in 1991 by Chanita Preechawitayakul who is besides the design manager. The trade name is now managed by Strong Waves Co. , Ltd. The trade name is inspired by the merger of vintage love affair, cultural appeal, savvy street manner, feminine and cutting border. There are 5 flagships shops in Thailand and available internationally through distributers in 16 states worldwide ( Senada, 2012 ) .
Milin was established in 2009 by Milin Yuvacharuskul with are 5 flagship shops in Thailand the construct is to convey sexy back to Thai manner with edification and encompassing the versatility of twenty-four hours to dark outfit that best sums up the work difficult drama harder life style of Milin.
Kwankao was founded by Kwankao Svetavimala and was launched in 2011 with two flagship shops in Thailand, for the intent of carry throughing the interior decorator ‘s dream and vision of making wearable apparels for adult females based on ‘chic and iciness ‘ elegance ( Kwankao, 2012 )
Vatanika was founded in 2010 by Vatanika Patamasingh and first aggregation launched in the same twelvemonth with two flagship shops in Thailand ( Vatanika, 2012 ) .
Global Apparel trade names in Thailand
Ted Baker was founded in 1987 with the first flagship shop was opened in Glasgow, Scotland in 1988. It was foremost launched and renounced for work forces ‘s modern-day shirt specializer. Ted Baker ‘s attack to selling has remained the same from twenty-four hours one with chiefly through word of oral cavity and without international advertisement run. The enlargement of Ted Baker ‘s aggregations has included menswear, womenswear, planetary, endurance, accoutrements, aroma, skinwear, footwear, eyewear and tickers. There are shops across the United Kingdom and the United States and expanded into 6 states across Asia and Middle East including Bangkok, Thailand, after subscribing three new territorial licence understandings in 2006.
Paul Smith is an English manner interior decorator whom repute began with menswear before spread outing into womenswear, accoutrements, books, art and old-timers with his signature multistripe looking on all merchandises. He transmits a sense of temper and mischievousness assorted with his love of tradition and the classics with popular civilization. He opened his first dress shop in Nottingham, United Kingdom in 1970. In 1976, Paul Smith label was foremost introduced to the international eyes in Paris with his menswear aggregation and now there are 14 different aggregations under the label. All aggregations are wholesaled to 66 states worldwide including Bangkok, Thailand and 17 flagship shops in England. It is a immense success in Japan where there are now over 200 shops in operation ( Paul Smith, 2012 ) .
Gallic Connection or widely known as ‘FCUK ‘ was founded in 1972 by Stephen Marks who set out to make good designed stylish vesture with a far-out mark spin on design. FCUK offers menswear, womenswear and expanded its portfolio including toilet articless, accoutrements and places. There are 11 flagship shops in the United Kingdom with 33 shops worldwide including 7 shops across Thailand ( Gallic Connection, 2012 ) .
Armani Exchange This is a vernal label created designed by Giorgio Armani and was launched in 1991 and its construct is an accessible Armani, inspired by street-chic-culture, stylish dance music and all facets that signifies freedom and personal manner. There are over 200 shops in 32 states worldwide such as Thailand, Qatar, Brazil and Barbados.
However, with Thai trade name holding to come in a really competitory market, a study published by the ( Thai chamber of commercialism in 2011 ) has suggested that there has been a 20 % addition in export of Thai vesture trade name to United States of America and the popularity of Thai trade names has besides been farther boosted by holding Hollywood movie stars being photographed in them. WE NEED TO See SOME ACTUAL FIGURES. 20 % OF WHAT? The roar in Thai trade names can be seen by the fact that the authorities has set up a section to help and promote exportation of Thai dressing trade names by working with private company to garner Thai interior decorators around the universe who are working for the international trade names to put up a undertaking called “ Fashion web ” DATE? REFERENCE? in order for Thai trade names to hold a better chance in perforating the International vesture industry and act to help Thai trade name in term of their trade name selling. Furthermore, the study farther stated that the Thai vesture industry has exported 194 million US dollars in 2011 which seen an addition of 2.8 % . As reported by AC Nelson that there has been an addition by 76 % addition in the market house trade name in past 3 old ages. This has been echoed by the like of the market analysts and administrations within the market and besides predicts that the market will maintain progressing in the following twelvemonth. This is due to the fact that the monetary value and populating criterion has increased whereas as people ‘s income has non grown at the same rate. In add-on, the purchasing behavior of metropolis people has besides changed where they have turned their attending to buying more house trade names due to their better of quality. This has promote the smaller concerns sell house trade name to turn their manus and go more serious and hope to see the advancement of house trade name in the following twelvemonth similar degree of the international trade names. ( Gotomanager, 2012 ) THIS WHOLE PARAGRAPH VERY UNCLEAR – EXPAND AND Give MORE DETAIL.
CONCLUSION? A mark of brighter hereafter for Thai trade name can be seen by the fact that Thai merchandise has been perceived by consumers in huge state in the like of the United States of America where the perceptual experiences are that Thai trade names are good designed at a competitory monetary values when comparing with the higher monetary values of planetary trade names ( The Thai Chamber of Commerce, 2011 ) . Support WITH DIRECT QUOTATION FROM THIS REPORT
THIS PARAGRAPH STARTS A NEW SUBJECT. THINK HOW TO INTRODUCE IT. USE SUB-HEADINGS Furthermore, consumers will already keep certain perceptual experiences and elements tie ining with single trade names through their old experiences, word of oral cavity, advertizement or image that has be associated. These pre conceived perceptual experiences will impact the purchasing behavior and determination devising of consumers ; hence, it is of import for the research worker to place the factors that are tie ining with Thai trade names and accordingly, better their image to understate or extinguish the negative factors tie ining with their trade names. Are the issues originating from pre conceived perceptual experiences of the trade name and/or the existent design or quality itself?
As can be seen above that more than of all time before in which there are many Thai vesture trade names and those interior decorators has got together and came up with 3 tendencies in order to assist the patterned advance of Thai trade names which are as follow:
2. Classcial Sensuality:
( Beginning: FashionBiz, 2011 )
This has shown that Thai interior decorators are placing the jobs and working together to undertake the jobs. HOW IS THIS RELEVANT? IS THIS THE RIGHT PLACE FOR THIS INFORMATION? WHO AND WHEN DID THEY Get TOGETHER? DOES THIS WORK AS A FORM OF BRANDING? .
Ill-defined SENTENCE Due to the fact that some consumers may hold ne’er physically been in contact with merchandises from local trade names but the purchasing behavior can be altered through perceptual experiences. This will go on to many of us, including myself where I have perceptual experiences of certain trade name before I have even see the merchandises or the services myself which resulted in myself extinguishing a certain trade name.
Some bookmans has conducted surveies of selling and consumer behaviors have expressed that factors such as handiness, advertisement, image and consumer features does impact the manner consumer behave towards a trade name ( Engel et al, . 1986 and Bromley 1993 ) and consumers will based their determination on an image of a trade name which consumers perceived to be reflecting their ain self-image ( Schiffman and Kanuk 1983 ) . Therefore, will take to making a knock on affect, either positively or negatively and accordingly, the consequence can be seen from the gross revenues as showed in antecedently surveies ( Graeff 1996 and Mehta 1999 ) .
Research methodological analysis is relates to the wide doctrine and preferred to the manner of research conducted, frequently this refers to the pick of quantitative or qualitative methodological analysiss. There are differences between qualitative and quantitative, Wengraf ( 2001 ) remarks that the qualitative research is descriptive in term of character where quantitative research normally produces its findings every bit exactly as possible and in term of Numberss and statistics.
Qualitative research method is used for this survey for informations aggregation, both primary and secondary are collected and used. As Fossey et al. , ( 2002 ) explained that Qualitative researches are oriented towards developing apprehension of the significance and experience dimensions of human lives and their societal interactions which suited to the survey of consumer purchasing behavior and perceptual experiences.
For this survey, both primary and secondary informations were used. Harmonizing to Malhotra ( 2005 ) , primary informations are originated by the research worker for the specific intent to turn to the job. There are different signifiers to roll up primary informations such as interview, observation, focal point group and study. However, focal point group has been chosen and used for this survey.
Secondary informations are known to be collected through bing diaries and studies. Marketing diaries and studies related to the topics being researched were used as secondary informations for this survey prior to the aggregation of primary informations. This process has been affirmed by Malhotra ( 2005 ) who stated, “ Examination of available secondary informations is a requirement to the aggregation of primary informations. Start with secondary informations and continue to primary informations merely when the secondary information beginnings have been exhausted or yield managerial returns. ”
Other method signifier of research methodological analysis is quantitative methods as Bell ( 1999 ) suggests that quantitative methods are used in research in order to bring forth and farther explore hypotheses where qualitative schemes are more appropriate in proving such hypotheses, seting it in another manner qualitative research orientates more towards an inductive research scheme while quantitative research employs a deductive scheme. Therefore, for this peculiar research, a qualitative method of focal point group treatment will be conducted for informations aggregation.
The focal point group is a possible method to obtain deep item of informations which enables an effectual analysis. This method of research normally involve a little group of participants gathered by the research worker to discourse a peculiar issue under the counsel, in this instance which is the research worker, who would sooner to play a degage function ( Wibeck et al. , 2007 ) and the signifier of treatment will lasts between 60 -90 proceedingss and all treatments are either audio and/or picture tapes before transcribed and analysed ( Barbour and Kitzinger, 1999 ) . The process and agreements for this research will be demonstrated in the following subdivision. Importantly, the focal point group will supply chances for the participants to interact with each other and certain subjects can be farther extended in their treatments. Furthermore, focal point groups are group treatments organised to research a specific set of issues such as people ‘s positions and experiences ( Barker and Rich 1992 ) .
As Morgan ( 1997, p 2 ) commented, ‘The trademark of focal point groups is their expressed usage of group interaction to bring forth informations and penetrations that would be less accessible without the interaction found in a group ‘ . Furthermore, treatments can supply information which may non be accessible in an single interview ( Kitzinger, 1994 ) and can raise issues which the research worker may be thought of earlier, ( Morgan, 1993, 1997 ) . Additional, focal point group treatments ‘provide direct grounds about similarities and differences in the participant ‘s sentiments and experiences as opposed to making such decisions from station hoc analyses of separate statements from each interviewee ‘ ( Morgan, 1997, p 10 ) .
The choice of participants will be critical for the research worker to garner the collect the appropriate informations and for treatments provide. Jarrett ( 1993 ) and others frequently recommended to choose homogenous focal point groups as they believes that if the participants with the same involvements, experiences and sentiments will more likely portion and interchange their thoughts and idea among the focal point group. However, Kitzinger and Barbour ( 1999 ) , argued that a heterogeneousness among the participants can besides uncover farther penetrations into the subjects in the. In add-on, Kitzinger ( 1994, p 113 ) argues that ‘the difference between participants aˆ¦ allows one to detect non merely how people theorise their ain point of position but how they do so in relation to other positions and how they put their ain thoughts “ to work. ” Therefore, it is the duty of the research worker to carry on the session which all participants will be willing to portion their sentiments and besides expand each point further instead than holding with each other on every subject and to do the choice of participants indiscriminately.
Sampling is the procedure of choosing a sample, and includes everything that is involved in the choice and merely a comparatively little figure of population members are to queried ( Tull and Albaum, 1973 ) .
The method of the qualitative method of focal point group treatment was used for informations aggregation and took topographic point in Bangkok, Thailand. There were 20 adult females who aged between 20-35 old ages old of Thai nationality take parting in the focal point group who were indiscriminately selected and all participants were local trade name community selected by the research worker which the research worker had already e-mail them to inquire for voluntaries. The age group of 20-35 old ages old had been selected to take part in the focal point group because they are the mark group of the Thai dress trade names and reported as the age group that have the highest disbursement of dress in Thai market. In add-on, the chief dress lines of Thai trade names are adult females ‘s vesture. All participants were consumers within the Thai market, due to the fact the survey is aim to understand the behavior of consumers and perceptual experiences to help Thai dress trade names and heighten their gross revenues and trade name image.
Focus Group Procedure
The group participants indiscriminately selected were separated into 2 groups of 10 participants. At the start of each session, all participants were informed that all treatments will private and confidential to the intent of the survey. Discussions of both groups were recorded by voice recording equipment during the all Sessionss and each session lasted about 60 proceedingss. The research worker provided a set of subjects and inquiries for the participants to discourse and the research worker sat in the treatments and interacted in the treatments in order to spread out the subjects and treatments which was assisted in assemblage and discovering in deepness inside informations ( see Appendix 1 for subjects and inquiries ) .
There were several ethical issues that the research worker needed to see during conductivity of the research and composing the thesis ; the ethical issues are as follows:
As secondary informations were used in this paper, the research worker had referenced suitably of any plants which was taken from diaries and studies. Therefore, there were no plants being passed on as the research worker ‘s ain work.
The research worker is required to be true by describing and utilizing the information which has been gathered through the research methodological analysis which has been chosen and non to misdirect the readers, as a consequence, all treatments were voice recorded.
The research will hold to maintain any information which has been gathered private and confidential where a petition has been made and esteem the information and the suppliers. In add-on, for societal duty intent, the research worker was required to help to promote and do no injury to the society through the research, therefore, no participants were forced or pressurised into replying and discoursing any subjects which they felt uncomfortable with or invaded their privateness in any manner.
Analysis and Findingss
This chapter is to critically analyze and discourse the findings through the usage qualitative informations collected from the focal point grou