The Benefits of Assigning Case Managers to Individuals with Diabetes
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Running head: THE BENEFITS OF ASSIGNING CASE MANAGERS The Benefits of Assigning Case Managers to Individuals with Diabetes Denise White Florida Atlantic University Teresa Barret, MSN, ARNP NUR3160 April 15, 2009 There are many illnesses and diseases causing people to have a poor quality of life. Diseases such as diabetes (type I and II), are increasing in alarming numbers due to poor management by both healthcare teams and patients. According to Wikipedia (2009), the role of case manager was implemented to help coordinate a patient’s care to both improve continuity and quality of care.
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Assigning case managers to individuals with diabetes significantly reduce emergency room visits, blood sugar levels, and secondary complications from diabetes. Case management nursing evolved in the mid-1980s as a way of managing health care costs and patient length of stay. Case management is multifaceted and is best defined as a procedure to plan, seek, and monitor services for different social agencies and staff on behalf of a patient (Wikipedia, 2009). The following summarizes Chitty and Black’s view on the functions of case manager: A case manager is an individual who assess, plans, facilitate, and is an advocate for the patient.
This involves gathering information from patient and family members about condition, planning to enhance outcomes and reduce payer’s liability, facilitating communication among all parties involved, and advocating for patient’s individualized needs. (Chitty & Black, 2007, pp. 368) An important tool that makes case management successful in helping patients achieve the highest quality of living is the use of evidence-based practice. According to Chitty & Black, (as cited in Cope, 2003, p. 97), evidence-based practice (EBP) means using the best available research findings “to make clinical decisions that are most effective and beneficial or patients”. In a Baltimore emergency room (ER), a study was conducted to assess what effect, if any, would assigning case managers to diabetic patients have on reducing the number of visits to the ER. During the study, the case manager worked with 100 randomly selected patients over an eighteen-month time span. Half of the patients received minimal care in which they were reminded every six months about preventative screenings and the other half received individualized care that included a yearly clinic visit.
According to Brunk (2005), the findings at the end of the study confirmed that case management had a significant role in reducing ER visits by thirty percent. Research also suggests that patients with case managers also had a reduction in blood sugar levels (Brunk, 2005). This was achieved by consistent monitoring. The nurse manager not only worked closely with the patient but also coordinated care with the physician, provided resources, monitored progress, and educated patient on taking prescribed medication.
Diabetic patients often have many complications because of consistently elevated blood sugar levels. There are many but the most common is blindness and amputations. In a recent study, case managers were assigned to 35 patients of a California diabetic clinic who had high risks favoring a future amputation because of years of poorly managed diabetes. The study showed a decline in amputation, which was due to the services provided by the case manager (Coffman, 2001). The use of evidence-based practice in case management was not the only tool used in helping patients achieve their best health.
The Neuman Systems Model, published by Betty Neuman in 1989, helped to shape the current role of case manager. This model is a total person approach to nursing and refers to an individual not only as a “patient” but also as a “client” (Neumansystemsmodel. org, 2009). By using this approach, it gives the person a since of value. One aspect of focus commonly found in helping reduce ER visits, blood glucose levels, and complications associated with diabetes is The Neuman Systems Model interventions to maintain stability.
It consists of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention (Neumansystemsmodel. org, 2009). The focus of primary prevention is educating patients before reactions occur as in the study of individuals with high risks of developing complications from diabetes. Secondary prevention deals with intervening after a reaction has occurred. The studies referenced in previous passages are an example of this type of intervention, in which a case manager was assigned to individuals having problems with poorly managed diabetes.
Lastly, tertiary prevention is taking the necessary action required to maintain stability. Case manager fulfilled this by providing resources, communicating with patient’s physician, and monitoring progress. The objective of using all levels of prevention of the Neuman Systems Model is to help patient achieve the best quality of life possible while managing their condition (Neumansystemsmodel. org, 2009). . Over the last decade, efforts to accomplish cost containment while focusing on the individual patient has been the primary role of case managers (Coffman, 2001).
Research provides evidence as to how assigning case managers to individuals with diabetes significantly reduce emergency room visits, blood sugar levels, and secondary complications from diabetes. Research has also proven that the role of case manager is beneficial in a variety of illnesses. Disease management programs have resulted in more consistency of care and, as a result, have improved individual patient outcomes. References Case Management. (2009, April 7). Retrieved April 11, 2009, from Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Case_management Chitty, K. K. Black, B. P. , (2007). Professional Nursing: Concepts and Challenges (5th ed. ). Missouri: Saunders Brunk, D. (2005, August). Intervention cut ED visits for blacks with diabetes. Family Practice News, 15 Coffman, S. , (2001). Examining Advocacy and Case Management in Managed Care. Pediatric Nursing, 27(3), 283. Cope, D. (2003). Evidence-based practice: making it happen in your clinical setting. Clinical Journal of Onocology Nursing, 7(1), 97-98. Neuman Systems Model. (2009). Retrieved April 13, 2009, from http://neumansystemsmodel. org/ Grading Rubric for Professional Organization Presentation
CATEGORY| 3| 2| 1| 0| Purpose of Presentation| The topic is clearly identified and discussed and all criteria fully addressed| The topic is clearly identified and discussed. Most criteria fully addressed| The topic is poorly identified and discussed and criteria partially addressed| The topic is not clearly identified nor discussed and criteria not addressed| Quality of Information| Information clearly supports the main topic. | Information somewhat supports the main topic. | Information minimally supports the main topic. | Information does not support the main topic. Organization| Information is organized with well-constructed PowerPoint slides| Information is somewhat organized with well constructedPowerPoint slides| Poor organization and slide incomplete| Information and overall structure disorganized| Sources| All sources, tables and citations are documented in correct APA 5th Edition format| 75% sources, tables, and citations are documented in correct APA 5th Edition format| 50% sources, tables and citations are documented in correct APA 5th Edition format| Less than 50% sources, tables and citations are documented in correct APA 5th Edition format| Mechanics| Free of grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors. | Two grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors. | Three grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors. | More than three grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors. | Total Points | | | | | /15|