In today ‘s concern environment, cognition has become a major drive force for organisational excellence. Effective cognition direction is considered to be an indispensable beginning of competitory advantage and a key to the success of organisations. As a consequence, companies are now demoing a enormous involvement in making an environment which facilitates uninterrupted organisational acquisition. A concern school is supposed to be a cognition intensive and learning organisation. An organisation becomes a learning organisation when the full organisation learns while it works, and is able to accommodate rapidly to market alterations every bit good as to other environmental alterations. The increasing figure of concern schools in India in the last few decennaries has raised concerns about quality and sustainability in the instruction sector. There are assorted enterprises undertaken by different concern schools in order to derive considerable border over their challengers in the instruction sector. This paper tries to research if Indian concern schools are taking sufficient stairss in order to go learning organisation in true sense. Further, it examines the current degree of larning in a concern school and provides a way for heightening organisational acquisition activities to make a learning environment in the concern school.
Keywords: Organizational Learning, Learning Organization, Knowledge Management, Business Schools
In the present scenario, India is host to shut to 2000 concern schools in contrast to 50 or 60 it had two decennaries back. Thus, India is merely 2nd to United States as a supplier for direction instruction. But, unluckily the quality of instruction provided in these concern schools is non as per the international criterions. Organizations are founded upon the human cognition. It is the cognition and knowledge-based organisations which will rule the markets ( Drucker, 1995 ) . Therefore, in order to accomplish quality of international criterions, any organisation has to continuously germinate itself in the changing concern environment otherwise they are likely to die. They must stay flexible and must continually improvize to derive competitory advantage and must be able to accommodate and take, otherwise their endurance will be dubious. To run into these challenges of the quickly altering environment, an organisation must make and absorb new cognition, promote invention and learn to vie in fresh ways. This fact has led to the increased involvement in the learning organisation.
A learning organisation is considered cardinal to the advancement for organisations. It is realized that though there is no general prescription for success but one of the factors which is a common success factor in many companies is the grade to which an organisation is capable of working the accomplishments and experiences of their work force ( Edmonstone and Havergal, 1993 ) . If the expertness of the employees is to be to the full utilized for the benefit of the company, it is indispensable to hold some sort of procedures by which employees are rewarded for their attempts. ( Gardiner and Whiting, 1997 ) .
Definition of Learning
M. Domjan ( 2000 ) defined larning as a comparatively abiding alteration in the possible to prosecute in a peculiar behavior ensuing from experience with environmental events specifically related to that behavior.
Harrison ( 1993 ) defined larning as the procedure by which accomplishments, cognition and attitudes are acquired and translated into accustomed signifiers of behavior and public presentation, whether by design or through the natural transition of clip.
Learning efforts to convey about digesting alteration in employee behavior. It is the long permanent procedure of transforming information and experience into cognition, accomplishments, behaviours, and attitudes.
Learning involves both penetrations through formal instruction or preparation activity and penetrations from the procedure of set abouting work itself. Therefore, the acquisition does non needfully necessitate an investing in instruction and preparation, but can go on through everyday activities provided right sort of larning environment is provided in the organisation.
Definition of Learning Organization
SengeA ( 1990 ) defined Learning Organizations as “ Organizations where people continually expand their capacity to make the consequences they genuinely desire, where new and expansive forms of thought are nurtured, where corporate aspiration is set free, and where people are continually larning to larn together. ”
Nonaka ( 1991 ) defined the larning organisation from the context of cognition creative activity. Harmonizing to him, knowledge creative activity involves three stairss. First, the tacit-knowledge is converted into explicit-knowledge and so this explicit-knowledge should be disseminated throughout the organisation and this should ensue in invention in the signifier of new merchandises, services and systems. He suggested the usage of “ metaphor ” , “ analogy ” , and “ theoretical account ” for cognition creative activity.
Pedler et Al. ( 1991 ) defined it as an organisation, which is in a uninterrupted procedure of transmutation through the acquisition of all members within and outside the organisation. Kim ( 1992 ) said a learning organisation manages the acquisition of all its members through a procedure of cognition acquisition and an enquiry orientation.
Garvin ( 1993 ) defines a learning organisation as one which is non merely skilled at making, geting and reassigning cognition but besides modifies its behavior to reflect new cognition and penetration. The three edifice blocks of such establishments: ( I ) a supportive acquisition environment, ( two ) concrete larning procedures and patterns, and ( 3 ) leading behavior that reinforces acquisition. Harmonizing to him, new thoughts are important but a new thought represents larning merely when such thoughts are reflected in behavior.
Marquardt ( 1996 ) says any organisation which by authorising people within and outside the organisation jointly learns and transforms itself to better roll up, manage and usage cognition for corporate success is a learning organisation.
Baker and Camarata ( 1998 ) defines a learning organisation as one which has a clime that supports and encourages new cognition acquisition and through it larning. Therefore, a learning organisation is one which has a stimulating clime that supports acquisition and transmutation.
Organizational acquisition happens when people who have the power to move learn ( De Gues 1988 ) . Organizations are made of persons and it is through the acquisitions of an person that organisational acquisition occurs. But, the sum sum of single acquisition does non needfully ensue in organisational acquisition ( Hedberg 1981 ) . Therefore, single acquisition though necessary but is non a sufficient status for organisational acquisition.
Harmonizing to Sun ( 2003 ) , a learning organisation is one which is larning or in the procedure of larning. Learning organisation has besides been defined as the procedure of development in the thought and actions of people belonging to, or working with organisations, which so becomes institutionalised and integrated into organisational pattern ( Child 2005 ) .
Features of Learning Organization
McGill et Al.
Personal Mastery/ self-development, Mental Models/Culture/Climate/Environment, Team acquisition, Leadership, Knowledge/Information Flow, Rewards & A ; Recognition
McGill and Slocum
Mental Models/Culture/Climate/Environment, Leadership, Knowledge/Information Flow, Experimentation/Experimental Learning, Management/Executive Practices, Management/Executive Practices, Rewards & A ; Recognition
Mental Models/Culture/Climate/Environment, Team acquisition, Systems Thinking, Knowledge/Information Flow, Information/scanning jussive mood, Learning from others
Bennet and O’Brien
Personal Mastery/ self-development, Mental Models/Culture/Climate/Environment, Shared Vision/Mission, Team acquisition, Systems Thinking, Information/scanning jussive mood, Training, Management/Executive Practices, Structure/Network Intimacy, Rewards & A ; Recognition, Performance Management, Work Processes
Gephart and Marsik
Personal Mastery/ self-development, Mental Models/Culture/Climate/Environment, Team acquisition, Systems Thinking, Knowledge/Information Flow, Information/scanning jussive mood, Training,
Mental Models/Culture/Climate/Environment, Team acquisition, Systems Thinking, Personal Mastery/ self-development, Mental Models/Culture/Climate/Environment, Shared Vision/Mission, Team acquisition, Systems Thinking, Knowledge/Information Flow
Personal Mastery/ self-development, Mental Models/Culture/Climate/Environment, Shared Vision/Mission, Team acquisition, Systems Thinking, Leadership, Knowledge/Information Flow, Structure/Network Intimacy
Personal Mastery/ self-development, Mental Models/Culture/Climate/Environment, Shared Vision/Mission, Team acquisition, Systems Thinking, Leadership,
Mental Models/Culture/Climate/Environment, Leadership, Knowledge/Information Flow, Information/scanning jussive mood, Experimentation/Experimental, Learning, Training
Table 1 – Features of Learning Organization by different Research workers
Peter Senge ‘s Model of Learning Organization
Peter Senge ‘s survey of organisations suggests that organisations does non of course develop a learning civilization, alternatively organisations need to intentionally further such factors which makes a organisation learn. In order to last in a competitory concern environment, organisation demands to introduce faster than their rivals and develop an environment for client delectation. Usually organisations do “ survival acquisition ” which is reactive in nature and therefore besides known as “ adaptative acquisition ” . But for a learning organisation, “ adaptative acquisition ” must be joined by “ productive acquisition ” , larning that enhances organisations capacity to make ( Senge 1990 ) . Following are the five characteristics of the learning organisation:
Systems believing – Making mutuality among all maps in such a manner that the whole system works together.
Personal command – Making single acquisition necessary and accessible. Making single members committed to the procedure of acquisition by supplying inducements to larn continuously.
Mental theoretical accounts – Making an environment where members unlearn unwanted values and larn new values.
Shared vision – The vision of the organisation has to be understood and owned by all degrees.
Team larning – Roll uping single acquisition so that it is shared by the squads so that it becomes team cognition.
Fig 1 – Peter Senge ‘s Model of Learning Organization
Dimensions of Learning Organization
Assorted research workers of larning organisation have developed different diagnostic tools to mensurate larning organisation. An analysis of such instruments was initiated by Gephart, Marsick and Van Buren through the American Society for Training and Development ( Gephart et al. , 1996 ) . Many of these instruments were developed with a aim of diagnosing and intercession. Some instruments suggested certain recommended patterns which when implemented will ensue in betterment in organisational public presentation.
The Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire ( DLOQ ) was developed through research which was further tested and modified through research surveies. The DLOQ measures important displacements in an organisation ‘s clime, civilization, systems and constructions to place the extent of influence on an person ‘s learning degree. The DLOQ questionnaire examines single larning degree, squad degree acquisition and organisational acquisition degree.
Marsick and Watkins ( 1997 ) identified seven action dimensions that characterise the companies trying to go learning organisations. These seven dimensions of the learning organisation are the footing of the DLOQ. These dimensions are integrated into the Learning Organization Model in the undermentioned manner-
Learning Organization Action Imperative
Business Schools and Level of Learning
A learning organisation is an organisation which is committed to larning. The aim of a learning organisation is to assist an organisation to seek for new thoughts and new chances for acquisition, in order to construct a competitory advantage in an progressively competitory concern environment. In such an environment, organisations and their members must cognize how to alter ( Rowley 1998 ) . Therefore, concern schools must transform into larning organisation lest they will go irrelevant in a quickly changing universe.
Literature reappraisal shows some surveies on university as a learning organisation ( Lorange 1997, Willcoxson 2001, Martin 1999, Patterson 1999, Portfelt 2006 ) . Most of them discuss either some theoretical accounts or assorted features universities must hold in order to go learning organisation. But, empirical research on this subject is scarce. Except Portfelt ( 2006 ) , the assorted other theoretical accounts and models on universities as larning organisations have been theoretical instead than empirical research.
Lorange ( 1997 ) studied concern schools as learning organisations and proposed that a concern school could go a learning organisation by promoting four complementary types of acquisition: single discipline-based module acquisition ; subject based squads of module larning together ; squads of module larning around specific academic programmes and fully fledged module squad acquisition. The theoretical account developed by him proposes partnership relationship between concern schools and companies as learning organisations. Harmonizing to Peter Lorange, organisational acquisition is a cardinal driver for any concern school which aspires to progress.
Willcoxson ( 2001 ) studied the assorted facets of university such as its construction, systems civilization, the function of directors etc. He suggested that it is the leader ‘s duty to guarantee that the constructions and systems are in topographic point in order to maximize the chance for organisational acquisition through promoting the acceptance of diverse thoughts. He advocated that the university ‘s construction has a important function in developing universities as learning organisation.
Martin ( 1999 ) identified some of the features of larning organisation in context of its shared vision, coaction, independency, answerability and wages. His survey was a farther develop of Senge ‘s work as he used Senge ‘s subjects of the larning organisation to recommend universities need to go learning organisations.
Patterson ( 1999 ) applied the construct of larning organisation on universities. He said that as universities adapt to the altering environment they become larning universities. Harmonizing to him, universities can be considered as larning organisation if they apply new cognition to better their public presentation and if they change new ways of operating. He concluded that the universities developed from strategic confederations are organisations that both learn and encourages larning.
Portfelt ( 2006 ) in his survey raised two research inquiries. The first was with regard to if the organisational construction of a university fulfils theoretical theoretical account of the learning organisation. The 2nd issue was to place if the elements of an organisation interact with one another and whether they support or block organisational acquisition. Portfelt identified assorted ways to larn the civilization and construction of the university. To larn the organisational civilization of the university Portfelt analysed assorted paperss and interviews. Portfelt developed an incorporate theoretical theoretical account of a learning organisation and divided university into six subsystems. To place university ‘s organisational features informations and factor analysis and system theory analysis were applied. The decision of the survey was that the internal construction of the university does non fit with the theoretical theoretical account standards of a learning organisation. It was concluded more through empirical observation based research on larning organisation in general and on universities as larning organisations in peculiar should be undertaken.
Schemes to develop Continuous Learning Climate in Business Schools
The procedure of transforming any Business school into Learning Organization may non go on overnight. The concern schools specifically its top direction must take deliberate enterprise in order to construct larning clime in the organisation. At the first topographic point, there has be a general consciousness among the organisational members to lend towards this transmutation. Following schemes can be used by the organisation for this purpose-
Develop corporate vision – Business Schools must develop a clear vision for itself right from the origin. This vision must be on a regular basis communicated to all its members. It should besides be an indispensable portion of initiation programme. At regular intervals, meetings should be held in order to discourse if organisations are traveling towards its declared vision.
Make a civilization of Learning and Development – Deal and Kennedy ( 1982 ) defined organisational civilization as the manner things get done around here. To help in developing a civilization of acquisition and development, the concern schools must hold forum of cognition sharing. The modules can run into together hebdomadal to update others about the advancement in their several field of specialisation. The single competences of non learning staff can be identified and recognised. And so, they can be asked to portion about it with other organisational members.
Make single acquisition necessary and accessible – Learning should be made indispensable portion of KRA ‘s of all organisational members, which should be assessed in the one-year public presentation reappraisal. Besides, it should be made accessible. An annual budget can be allocated to all organisational members which sponsors them for assorted larning programmes.
Link larning to productiveness – Both single and group acquisition must be linked to productiveness and eventually to organisational public presentation. Basically, the members must be allowed to work in the country wherein at that place has been new acquisition by apportioning such work assignments to them.
Provide inducements for persons to larn continuously – Both pecuniary and non-monetary inducements must be provided to those persons who take enterprises to larn. It can be done by acknowledging and appreciating them in public forums and besides supplying them with some sort of pecuniary allowances.
Promote coaction and squad larning – Team acquisition and coaction should be encouraged. Cross functional treatments and research work should be encouraged. Similarly, learning and non learning staff should be put together to certain assignments which lead to common acquisition.
Business Schools is meant to be a Centre for larning for the pupils but it is clip that they transform themselves into larning organisations, in all sense. Unlike past decennaries, this is an epoch of stiff competition among Business Schools and in order to last in such a competitory environment, they have to germinate themselves with clip. And to make so, cognition sharing and knowledge direction becomes indispensable. This paper has given the inside informations of literature reappraisal of surveies on Universities or Business Schools as learning organisations. It besides suggests of assorted schemes which a Business School can implement in their procedure of going larning organisation.