The Co Operative Movement Management Essay


In the today ‘s turning universe Co-operatives do activities for the development of agribusiness, little industry marketingandprocessing, distribution and supplies. The progress study of co-operatives in the State is really good and part to agricultural advancement has peculiarly been important. For the intent of Green Revolution, these Co-operatives introduced assorted strategies for the transition of small towns into towns and besides the building of spell downs.

The Co-operative Movement was introduced into India by the Government to get the better of the load of debt of husbandmans and they can sell their merchandises easy and can acquire the maximal net income. The Co-operative Credit Societies Act, 1904 was passed by the Governmentof India and rural recognition societies were formed. Through the assignment of registrars and through vigorous propaganda, the Government attempted to popularise the Movement in the rural countries. Within a short period, the Government realized some of the defects of the 1904 Act and, hence, passed a more comprehensive Act, known as theCo-operative Societies Act of 1912. This Act recognized non-credit societies besides. But the rural recognition societies have continued to be prevailing boulder clay now.

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Agricultural Credit/Service Societies

The construction of Agricultural Co-operative recognition in the Punjab State is divided into two sectors i.e. Covering with the short-terms and medium-terms finance and the other with the long-run recognition. The short-run and medium-term recognition construction is based on a three-tier system i.e. the Apex Co-operative Bank at the State degree, the Central Co-operative Bank at the territory degree and the Primary Agricultural Credit Societies at the small town degree. The major function of these services which is provided to the husbandmans is to do the financess available to the husbandmans for their agribusiness production, for the purchase of machinery, fertilisers etc.

Type of societies

  • Co-operative Weaver ‘s society
  • Co-operative Consumer ‘s Societies
  • Co-operative Housing Societies
  • Co-operative Women ‘s Societies
  • Co-operative Milk-Societies

Problems for Co-operatives

  • Lack of supervising leads to the abuse of the fiscal resources.
  • Lack of review by Registrar
  • Government is wavering to intrust any of import authorities work since it does non hold any engagement.
  • The Co-operative Banks and other of import establishments are located far off from the range of the husbandmans.
  • NABARD and RBI are non holding for transition of Central and Urban Co-operative Banks.
  • R.B.I. has besides expostulation about the usage of word “ Co-operative ” since Banking Regulation Act uses the word “ Co-operative Society ” .
  • Incorrect individuals may take advantage of the state of affairs to rip off the general populace.
  • When the Government are researching the possibility of modulating the Non-governmental organisations holding huge experience, it is dubious as to whether the reciprocally assisted Co-operatives in assorted field can give coveted consequence.

Introduction to NABARD

NABARD is set up by the Government of India as a development bank for easing recognition flow for publicity and development of agribusiness and incorporate rural development. It besides helps in all other economic activities in rural countries, advancing sustainable rural development and for the prosperity of the rural countries.

With a capital base of Rs 2,000 crore provided by the Government of India and Reserve Bank of India, it operates through its caput office at Mumbai, 28 regional offices situated in province capitals and 391 territory offices at territories.

Present Scenario


Novices steps toward institution-building for bettering absorbent capacity of the recognition bringing system, including monitoring, preparation of rehabilitation strategies, restructuring of recognition establishments, preparation of forces, etc.


Coordinates the rural funding activities of all the establishments engaged in developmental work at the field degree and maintains liaison with the authorities of India, State authoritiess, the Reserve Bank of India and other national degree establishments concerned with policy preparation


Prepares, on one-year footing, rural recognition programs for all the territories in the state. These programs form the base for one-year recognition programs of all rural fiscal establishments


Undertakes monitoring and rating of undertakings refinanced by it


Promotes research in the Fieldss of rural banking, agribusiness and rural development


Functions as a regulative authorization, oversing, monitoring and steering concerted Bankss and regional rural Bankss

Role and Functions


In pursuit with the recommendations of the Parliamentary Committee on Agriculture, Cooperative Development Fund was constituted by NABARD in the twelvemonth 1992-93 under the commissariats of Section 45 of NABARD Act, 1981 with a position to strengthening and supplying aid to Co-operative Credit Institutions for bettering their infrastructural installations. The initial Corpus of the Fund was Rs.10 crore which was later raised to Rs.75 crore. The cumulative aid sanctioned to concerted establishments from the Fund for assorted intents unto 31 March 2007 amounted to Rs.76.35 crore against which Rs.67.66 crore has been disbursed.

National Conference of Urban Credit Cooperative Societies

Saturday, 22 April, 2006,


( Talking Points )

Very important persons on the podium,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

The Cooperative Movement in India has contributed to the rural development of the state. Though the motion has developed in different States of the state non in the unvarying mode, some of the States like Maharashtra, Gujrath, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh have shown enormous growing of the Cooperative Movement in these States. The co-ops were considered as the equilibrating force between the private sector and the public sector. The advantages of the private sector and the populace sector could be really good achieved through the concerted sector and the disadvantages associated with the private sector and the populace sector could be eliminated in the co-op sector. The societies, which were promoted by the leading holding vision and who managed these co-ops good, have become successful ; whereas the concerted societies, which suffered from the deficiency of dynamic leading were mismanaged and these concerted societies became failure. Maharashtra State is one of those States in our state, which can tout of claiming that the co-ops in the State are managed by the elected representatives by the members and the elections do take topographic point on a regular basis except in few instances where there are jobs of misdirection. Out of the entire figure of 1.75 lakhs concerted societies in Maharashtra there are barely few hundred concerted societies, where the decision makers are working. This shows the Concerted Movement in Maharashtra is working strictly on democratic rules. The Concerted Movement in Maharashtra has made enormous advancement during the last 45 old ages. The figure of societies in 1960 was barely 30,000 in 1960, which has gone upto 1.75 hundred thousand in 2005. The figure of rank of all these societies increased from 42 hundred thousand in 1960 to about approaching 5 crores in 2005, whereas the members capital was merely 53 crores in 1960, which has increased to around 13,000 crores in 2005.

Though the figures indicate that the co-ops have made enormous advancement in Maharashtra some of the sectors in co-ops have been extremely successful, whereas some of the sectors could non do any success. The illustrations of successful societies are found in big figure in the countries of Cooperative Sugar Factories, Dairy Cooperatives, Urban Banking, whereas about 50 % of the Primary Agricultural Credit Coop. Societies and 50 % of the District Central Cooperative Banks are in a really bad fiscal place. The Agro Processing Cooperatives besides could non do any advancement, though there is a enormous potency for these co-ops, sing the immense production of the fruits and veggies ( production of fruits is about 100 lakh metric tons and that of veggies is around 50 lakhs metric tons, which is likely to be doubled in the following 5 old ages ) every bit good as other agricultural green goods in Maharashtra.

The Government of Maharashtra has late passed assorted amendments in the Maharashtra Agricultural Produce Marketing ( Regulation ) Act, 1963, on the lines of Model Act prepared by the Govt. of India and has introduced the commissariats for constitution of Private Markets, Farmer Consumers Markets, Direct Marketing, Single Licence for the Traders and the Contract Farming.

These amendments will hold really good consequence on the growing of agro-processing sector, exports of fruits and veggies and value added green goods from agribusiness and the development of retail concatenation direction, as these sectors will be able to beginning the demand of their green goodss straight from the husbandmans. This will besides hold good impact on big private investing coming in to agricultural sector, development of substructure like pre-cooling units, cold storages, cold concatenation for transit of perishable green goods, seting up of the processing industries etc. The employment coevals in agribusiness and allied sectors will besides be improved. It is envisaged that because of these alterations the overall economic system will turn and the husbandmans will acquire better returns for their green goods. This will besides hold the positive consequence on quality and productiveness betterment in agribusiness.

Besides 20,000 Primary Agricultural Credit Coop. Societies, 34 District

Cardinal Concerted Banks and the Maharashtra State Cooperative Bank, there are about 25,000 Urban Cooperative Credit Societies in Maharashtra. While the Primary Agricultural Credit Cooperative Societies give loans to the husbandmans for agribusiness and for harvest production, the urban recognition societies cater to the demands of the urban population, peculiarly to run into their demands of recognition for consumer articles. The entire rank of these societies is around 1.10 crores. The portion capital of these societies is around Rs.3,500 crore and their ain financess amounting to Rs.5700 crore. The sedimentations of these societies are around Rs.10,000 crore and they have given loans of about Rs.15,000 crore.

The on the job capital of these societies is around Rs.25,000 crore. The concerted recognition sector is runing in both Urban and Rural countries. The Urban recognition societies cater to the demands, chiefly, of the urban population. It besides caters to the family demands of the rural population. Recently the urban concerted recognition societies in rural countries have started financing the agricultural demands of husbandmans. This attempt was initiated and promoted by the Government by publishing the Govt. Resolution on 22.12.2005.

The loans to the melody of about Rs.15,000 crore to 1.12 crore member itself speaks of volume of work of these concerted recognition societies, who needfully reach the urban and rural multitudes. The presence of recognition societies in the locality provides assurance of easy handiness of financess, to both urban and rural multitudes.

The recognition societies are now meaning to diversify by widening their

services such as hard currency transportations and other permitted banking operations. The recognition societies ‘ Federation is seeking to play a outstanding function to hold joint venture operations along with the similar international administrations. The State Federation of Urban Credit Societies in Maharashtra has decided to widen the insurance to the Depositors of Urban Credit Societies, by organizing their ain Deposit Insurance Scheme. This is a alone radical determination and it will travel a long manner in constructing assurance of the depositors in these societies.

There are 2,106 Urban concerted Banks in the state holding sedimentations of Rs.1.10 hundred thousand crore. Out of these, there are about 650 Urban Concerted Banks in Maharashtra, holding the entire sedimentations of Rs. 65,000 crore. The Urban concerted Banks are besides providing to both the rural and urban population. The immense rank base available for both the urban concerted Bankss and concerted recognition societies must be utilized for the ultimate upliftment of both the members and the organisations. This base can be utilized as channels – both frontward and backward – in regard of different managerial facets such as selling, distribution, services etc. For accomplishing this, both these organisations should hold integrated attack in working and their policy framing like Ratess of Interest on sedimentations, Ratess of Interest on loans etc. It is necessary that borrowers get loans at sensible rate of involvement so that any concern becomes feasible and borrower is able to refund loans.

The fiscal engagement of both the urban and rural multitudes in the

concerted recognition societies by manner of sedimentations ever demanded its safety. The engagement of Insurance Agencies was good solicited. However, the attempt in this way was unambiguously made by the Maharashtra State Cooperative Deposit Guarantee Corporation which happens to be a concerted society. It has to travel a long manner but a good start has been made to cover up 70 recognition societies guarantying their sedimentations up to the bound of Rs.50,000/- . The amalgamate attempt to qualitatively beef up the administration and increase its range is the demand of this hr.

The concerted recognition societies are confronting countless jobs some of them can be listed as follows.

  • Accepting sedimentations at higher rate from depositors
  • Huge disbursals on disposal.
  • Lack of direction accomplishment
  • Lack of preparation and instruction to the employees and Board of Directors
  • Poor public presentation in recovery
  • Loans are sanctioned without proper examination

These jobs demands to be addressed by all the concerned with the focal point on the overall quality to be maintained by these concerted organisations. The co-ops including the urban recognition concerted societies should work in such a mode that they have the highest operational efficiency and professional direction so that they can present the coveted consequences to the members and the common adult male. Unfortunately the professional direction and operational efficiency is missing in many societies.

As I have already mentioned earlier the societies, which have been managed expeditiously and have been able to function their members and public in a most desirable mode the illustration of the concerted sugar mills in Maharashtra is an oculus opener to a individual who looks at these societies really closely. Out of 200 concerted sugar mills in Maharashtra about 50 % have first-class consequences whereas 50 % of these mills are in jobs. Some of the concerted sugar mills, which are magnificently managed could pay about Rs. 1100 to 1200 per metric ton as a sugar cane monetary value, whereas many of the severely managed Cooperative Sugar Factories could non pay even statutory minimal monetary value. For paying the statutory minimal monetary value, these mills are required to borrow from Bankss by making short border and with the Govt. warrant. The Govt. of India is assisting these mills with the bundle for rehabilitation.

Though this is required in the larger involvement of the husbandmans, the sugar mills, which are executing good should besides be given inducements by the Govt. of India. Lapp policy should be applied to the other successful concerted societies besides. The urban concerted recognition societies in the State and in the state must retrieve that they have to confront competition with large Multi-National Banks and the Commercial Banks. These societies should therefore, be vigilant in progressing loans and in no instance loans, which can non be recovered should of all time be sanctioned. These societies must follow the modern direction patterns including cybernation in their working, professional preparation to their employees and to their members of the Board and should maintain their degree of working really competitory. This lone can convey success to these societies.

Thank you.

Jai Hind… . ! ! ! Jai Maharashtra… .. ! ! ! !


In the above article, the adult male emphasis is on utilizing the modern techniques of working, professional preparation should be given so that they can manage each and every individual job and most of import all work should be done thorough computing machines so that the committedness of mistakes should be minimal. Whatever the loans provided to the husbandmans, the record of that and the paperss should be maintained decently so that it will be easy for the working of the employees every bit good as for the husbandmans to cognize every individual point. With this proper certification recovery section can easy comes to cognize about the individual from they have to roll up the peculiar sum. Proper instruction preparation should be given so that the employees can give their 100 % to the work and they should no charge higher rate for accepting the sedimentations. The loans which will be given to the husbandmans should be given after the question of that peculiar individual that whether the individual truly necessitate the loan and the information he is supplying is true or non.



Agricultural Cooperatives in India are really actively and closely involved in several agribusiness related activities. The most of import activities are the expense of production recognition and distribution of fertilizers and other inputs viz seeds, pesticides and agricultural implements. Agricultural Cooperatives are besides involved in procurance of farm green goods, processing and selling of oil-rich seeds, Cotton, sugar, milk and milk merchandises, distribution of indispensable trade goods, apparels, kerosene oil and ware etc. Coop. motion in India started manner back in 1905. Till 1939, Agricultural Cooperatives in India were administering merely the recognition to the husbandmans. Its activities got diversified to consumer articles and besides some agricultural inputs in the rural countries over a period of clip. Subsequently, based on the suggestions made by different commissions and committees, the co-ops were given a important function in distribution of fertilizers. Presently, co-ops are playing a important function both in production and selling of fertilizers.

Cooperatives Role in Agricultural Credit Disbursement

Cooperatives play a really of import function in expense of agricultural recognition. Credit is needed both by the distribution channel every bit good as by the husbandmans. The distribution channel needs it to finance the fertilizer concern and husbandmans need it for run intoing assorted demands for agricultural production including buying fertilizers. The recognition needed by the husbandmans for purchase of fertilizers and other inputs is called ‘short term ‘ recognition or ‘production recognition ‘ whereas recognition needed by the distribution channel is called ‘Distribution Credit ‘ . Cooperatives besides play a really of import function in expense of ‘Medium Term ‘ and ‘Long Term ‘ recognition needed by the husbandmans ‘ for buying agricultural equipments viz tractors, installing of tubewells and land development

plants etc.

‘ Joint General Manager ( Marketing ) , IFFCO,53-54, Nehru Place, New Delhi -110019 Paper presented at 13th ICA-Japan Training Course on “Strengthening Management of Agricultural Cooperatives in Asia” 1988-99 at FMDI, Gurgaon, Haryana, India, on Jan 21, 1999 In India, 78 per cent of the husbandmans belong to the class of little and fringy husbandmans. They depend to a great extent on recognition for their agricultural operations. These husbandmans will non be able to follow the modern agricultural patterns unless they are supported by a system which ensures equal and timely handiness of recognition on sensible footings

and conditions. Recognition in India is made available to the husbandmans through a multi-agency web dwelling of co-ops, commercial Bankss and Regional Rural Banks ( RRBs ) . However, cooperatives histories for a big proportion of the agricultural recognition made available to the husbandmans. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development ( NABARD ) was established in the twelvemonth 1982 by an Act of Parliament and was entrusted will all affairs refering policy, planning and operation in the field of recognition for agribusiness and other economic activities in the rural countries. Before that, this occupation was being done by Reserve Bank of India itself. NABARD works for progressive institutionalization of the rural recognition and ensures that the demands for recognition from agribusiness including the new and approaching countries like flower gardening, tissue civilization, bio-fertilisers, sprinkler irrigation, drip irrigation etc. are met. The medium and long term of loans are disbursed to the husbandmans through Primary Land Development Banks ( 757 ) who draw their fundss from Central Land Development Banks ( 20 ) who in bend draw their fundss from NABARD. As for the short term recognition, this is disbursed to the husbandmans through Primary Agricultural Credit Societies ( PACS-66,200 ) who draw their fundss from Central Cooperative Banks ( 363 ) who in bend draw their fundss from the State Cooperative Banks ( 29 ) . The State Cooperative Banks draw their fundss from NABARD.

Cooperatives Role in Fertiliser Distribution:


Agribusiness continues to be the pillar of India ‘s national economic system. Its part to India ‘s Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) is about 30 per cent. About two tierces of the population still depends on this sector straight or indirectly. Autonomy in foodgrains has been the basic aim of India ‘s policy on agribusiness. Foodgrain production has increased from the degree of 52 thousand metric tons in 1951-52 to 199

million metric tons in 1996-97. However, the foodgrain production declined to 193 million metric tons in 1997-98. The present population of the state is about 960 million and is likely to touch 1000 million by the bend of this century. To feed this degree of population, India has to bring forth 208 million metric tons of foodgrains from the present degree of 193

million metric tons which is, no uncertainty, a mammoth undertaking The critical function of fertilizers in increasing agricultural production is good recognised. Since, the land adult male ratio is worsening due to increasing population, the extra foodgrain production has to come by increasing the productiveness of land under cultivation. Adoption of modern agricultural patterns is the lone manner for increasing agricultural productiveness. This calls for application of inputs like chemical fertilizers, high giving up seeds and pesticides besides usage of mechanical equipments like seed-cum-fertilizer drills, sprayers, pump sets etc. Chemical fertilizers are really dearly-won, peculiarly the phosphatic and potassic 1s which have been decontrolled w.e.f 25th August, 1992. Urea, of class, is comparatively low priced due to allow of subsidy by GOI. However, unless balanced foods are applied, the productiveness can non be sustained.

Fertilizer Distribution Channels

Fertilizers are produced/ imported at approximately 200 locations in the state and distributed to the husbandmans scattered through the length and comprehensiveness of the state in about 600,000 small towns through a web comprising of private and institutional channels. Some measures are besides made available through makers ‘ ain mercantile establishments. Private trade histories for about 60 per cent of the entire fertilizers distributed in the state followed by institutional bureaus at 35 per cent and staying 5 per centum through the makers ‘ ain mercantile establishments. Among the institutional bureaus, co-ops are the chief bureau which entirely account for about 30 % of the entire fertilizer concern. The

entire figure of fertilizer salepoints in the state is 262,000 ; out of which about 71,000 ( 27 % ) are institutional bureaus ‘ salepoints ( chiefly cooperatives ) and the staying 1,91,000 ( 73 % ) are controlled by the private trade.

Concerted Channelss

Cooperatives are the chief institutional bureau in the state managing fertilisers. Cooperative web, at present, comprises of 29 province degree selling federations, 171 territory degree selling societies and about 66,200 small town degree concerted societies. These village degree concerted societies are by and large called Primary Agricultural Credit Societies ( PACS ) . These societies are the anchor of the concerted selling system. These societies are good spread in the full state covering 97 % of the 0.6 million small towns and 95 % of the agrarian households. The other chief institutional bureaus engaged in the distribution of fertilisers are State Agro-Industries Development Corporations, Commodity Federations and State Departments of Agriculture etc. They operate both through their ain sale terminals every bit good as through the private traders web. However, their portion is merely fringy. The concerted construction differs from province to province and societies at different degrees ( district/taluka/village ) execute different maps in different provinces. By and large, the concerted web operates through a 3 grade system. However, in some provinces such as Haryana, the concerted selling system operates on 2 tier footing, while in some others like Gujarat a 4 grade system exists. At the province degree, Apex Cooperative Marketing Federations act as jobbers ; marketing societies at district/taluka degree as sub-wholesalers while PACS, PAMS ( Primary Agricultural Marketing Societies ) at grass root degree act as retail merchants. The map of State degree Apex Cooperative Marketing Federations differ from province to province. In some provinces, the Federations are actively involved in fertilizer concern like Gujarat, Haryana, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh etc. and they act as the jobbers for the full State. In some States like Uttar Pradesh ( U.P. ) , they are non straight involved in the fertilizer concern and make the occupation of affair and coordination merely for which they are acquiring service charges from the fertilizer providers. In U.P. , the State Federation is besides making warehousing every bit good as transit occupation both for IFFCO and KRIBHCO ( The merely makers in the concerted sector ) . In the States where Federation is non involved in fertilizer concern, the makers are providing fertilisers straight to the lower societies at the district/village degree and the societies are acquiring full or close full distribution border which has improved the fiscal wellness of these societies.

Current Cooperative Fertilizer Distribution Status

Soon, in Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, J & A ; K, H.P. and Assam, in the co-op sector, fertiliser supplies are made to the Apex Coop. Selling Federations merely and they act as jobbers. Direct supplies are non at that place at all. Merely little measures under the particular strategy like IFFCO-NCDC strategy in Haryana and IFFCO societies acceptance programme in M.P. are supplied

straight to the societies. In these provinces territory degree societies operate as sub-wholesalers. In the provinces like Punjab, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa A.P. and Kerala, both the systems i.e. supply done federation every bit good as direct supply to the societies are prevailing. As a consequence, some of the societies at the lower degrees are acquiring supplies straight from the makers while others are acquiring from the Federations. However, in the provinces of U.P. and Bihar, supplies of fertilizers are made to the small town degree societies straight by the makers. In provinces where province degree federations act as jobbers, the maker has to cover with merely one bureau. Consequently, the occupation of gross revenues be aftering, motion and stocks be aftering, realization of gross revenues returns etc. becomes really easy. In provinces where maker trades with the lower grade co-ops straight, the volume of work additions many fold and it becomes much more complex. The stuff has to be

released to single societies and the gross revenues returns realization has besides to be done at that degree merely. This requires deployment of larger field force. Decentralised release system leads to set uping larger figure of warehouses and correspondingly larger stock list. This all increases the operating cost. Manufacturers Own Outlets Some makers viz. IFFCO, KRIBHCO, GSFC, GNFC and NFL have their ain retail mercantile establishments called Farmers Service Centres or Service Centres or Farm Information Centres etc. In these mercantile establishments, agricultural inputs like fertilizers, seeds, agro-chemicals and agricultural implements etc. are made available to the husbandmans under one roof along with agricultural production engineering literature. The chief slogan of these service Centres is non merely to supply all quality agro-inputs to the husbandmans but besides educating them on scientific agricultural by supplying proficient cognize how in the field of agribusiness. This aid the husbandmans in increasing their agricultural productiveness and profitableness. Promotion activities are besides carried out in the small towns located around these Centres ( within radius of 8-10 kilometer ) which includes presentations, husbandmans meetings, dirt trial runs, harvest seminars etc. In add-on, societal runs like tree plantations, medical check-up, veterinary look into up etc. are besides organized. They besides serve the intent additional/alternative distribution channel for the organisation. A graphical presentation of fertiliser distribution channels in India – the co-ops and the private trade is given at Annexure- I. Linkage in expense of Production Credit and Agro-Input Distribution As already mentioned elsewhere in this paper a big figure of husbandmans in India peculiarly the little and fringy husbandmans depend upon recognition for purchase of fertilisers and other inputs. A really strong point with the co-op is that the Primary Agricultural Credit Societies ( PACS ) which are involved in expense of agro-inputs


Agricultural Cooperatives in India are the anchor of the concerted system and involved in assortment of map and functioning the rural multitudes by supplying recognition, fertilisers, seeds, Agro-Chemicals, Agriculture Implements etc. Their function has been applaudable and helped in doing indispensable inputs handiness to the rural multitudes. These demand to be farther strengthened.


In the terminal we can state that these Co-operative societies plays a critical function in the growing of the rural countries every bit good as the growing of the Economy of the Country. These societies helps in the development of the husbandmans by supplying financess to them for the irrigation intent and besides supply new machines for the agriculture so that they can bring forth maximal in the minimal clip period and of the best quality and besides they helps them in gaining the good value of their produced merchandises.


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