The First Green State In Malaysia Marketing Essay

In the attempts to reshape Penang into the first “ green ” province in Malaysia, the Penang State Government launched a “ No Plastic Mondays ” enterprise in July 2009. Based on the informations provided by 45 super/hypermarkets and other participants, it is estimated that Penangites have reduced plastic bags ingestion by more than one million in four months from the “ No Plastic Mondays ” run since July 2009. Feedback from 73 participants of the Declaration to Reduce the Use of Plastic Bags had shown that a sum of 32 1000000s plastic bags were saved under the `No Plastic Bag ‘ programme between July 1, 2009 and Oct 26, 2010 ( The Star, Monday 8th Nov 2010 ) .

For those consumers who insist on plastic bags, they will be required to lend 20 cents per plastic bag as a signifier of contribution to the Penang State authorities “ Partners Against Poverty ” Fund to pass over out hard-core poorness in Penang. To day of the month, the province had besides collected RM 21,403 from the charges of 20 cents per bags for the Partners Against Poverty Fund.

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Following treatments with all stakeholders including NGOs, public and fictile makers on whether this run should be extended to cut down fictile bag ingestion further, the State Government has decided to widen No Plastic Bags Day to three yearss a hebdomad for Hypermarkets, Supermarkets, Chain and Franchise Stores, Professional Outlets/firms get downing from 1 Jan 2010. The 3 yearss will be from Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday and plastic bags will still be charged 20 cents each during those yearss. For the first clip of all time, all individual retail shops will besides be required to take part but merely for one twenty-four hours a hebdomad in “ No Plastic Mondays ” .

Under Local Government Act 1976 Section 107 ( 2 ) and Municipal Council of Penang Island ( Food Constitutions ) By-laws 1991 by jurisprudence 3 ( 5 ) , local councils can enforce specific conditions in the reclamation of new licences. They will be required to either abide by the “ No Plastic Three Days ” in a hebdomad or No Plastic Mondays where relevant if they want to acquire their licence renewed. Those who are using for new licenses will besides hold to follow with this status. As for minimarkets and individual mercantile establishments in shopping promenades, in order to give more clip to retail industry and consumers to accommodate to the plastic bags decrease enterprise, they will besides necessitate to follow with No Plastic Monday ( The Star, Wednesday 3rd Nov 2010 ) .

A province authorities survey in 2009 on six chief supermarket and hypermarket concerns showed 2.5 million pieces of plastic bags were given out every month. This does non take into history the other 1000000s of plastic bags used by other retail merchants, peddlers and other concerns. It is hoped that by cut downing the inordinate usage of plastic bags can finally cut down the disbursals on the solid waste direction. In order to cut down the ingestion of plastic bags, the consumers now bring their ain reusable bags. Some of them have even found simple, originative ways such as turn uping up a clean plastic bag into a triangle accoutrement to convey along for reuse. To recycle, they have besides converted illegal streamers into reclaimable bags.

Each and everyone in this planetary community must recognize the importance of preserving, protecting and advancing a clean and healthy environment non merely for the investors, tourers and those who desires for sustainable life, but besides for future coevals. Penang, one time dubbed the Pearl of the Orient, is now deluged by a mountain of trash, much of it plastic. The Chief Minister of Penang noted that the local councils had spent RM57.6 million, about a 3rd of its income in 2007, to pay for with refuse disposal and added that Penang produces between from 1,500 to 1,600 metric tons of refuse a twenty-four hours that is approximately 1kg a individual.

In covering with the climb job, shoppers in Penang will hold to pay for every piece of fresh plastic bag at the check-out procedure counter or convey their ain bags when they shop, therefore cutting down on unneeded usage of plastic bags. It is learnt that shoppers who want to utilize fresh plastic bags and who do non convey their ain reusable bags will be charged 20 sen for each plastic bag when doing purchases from shopping composites and hypermarkets.

This run started on 1st July 2009 for every Monday. A aggregation box is set up at every supermarket check-out procedure counter throughout the province. The money collected the sale of plastic bags will travel to the province fund for the hardcore hapless and corporate societal duty enterprises. Over 300 hypermarkets, minimarkets, departmental shops, pharmaceuticss, pet shops and other take parting shops and stores in the province pledged their support for the enterprise with the aim of cutting down what the province estimations to be 2.1 million plastic bags distributed in the province each month.

The province had distributed declaration signifiers to shopping composites and hypermarkets to procure their committedness to the “ No plastic bag twenty-four hours ” . However, like the remainder of the universe, plastic bags are ingrained into the shopping civilization. Malaya is still a long manner from extinguishing them from our consumer life style. Large Numberss of plastic bags came into usage because they were lasting, H2O cogent evidence, visible radiation, easy to utilize and moderately priced. The most common shopping manner is now for clients to take things from the shelf, pay for everything at a hard currency registry, and put the things in plastic bags to transport place. Since convenience shops began to proliferate countrywide in the 1980s, it became common for the teller to set all things in a free plastic bag, even a individual battalion of masticating gum.

1.2 Problem Statement

Now with this run in topographic point, it will convey more benefits to supermarket and hypermarket as they will pass less on plastic bags in order to cutting down their cost. Obviously, the purchase cost of the plastic bags is shifted to the shoppers and retail merchants make money from the trade. Large shopping ironss besides took the enterprise to offer voguish and hardy reusable bags to promote people to utilize less fictile. Giving off fewer fictile shopping bags means decreased cost for the shop. However, most retail merchants are afraid that bear downing the plastic bags may turn shoppers off. Therefore, they have focused on more modest steps such as inquiring shoppers if they need a fictile bag, giving shoppers who refuse a bag a spine or the like that can be collected used as a voucher or supplying reclaimable shopping bags.

As many shoppers are still non cognizant of this run yet, some clients opt to keep their shopping in their custodies, holding declined to pay for a bag. Others were keeping reclaimable bags. A client feels a spot irritated when he bought two plastic bags but the charge put him off utilizing more. Another client was seen abandoned her packed streetcar at the teller ‘s lane in choler when asked to pay for plastic bags which are usually given out free. These reactions made some retail merchants think twice earlier take part the run as they want to cognize what their clients want.

There have been assorted public feelings where a group expressed support for the move whereas the remainder think otherwise. The ailments range from, inter alia, the public feeling prejudiced against paying for the plastic bags when they have already paid for the ware ; plastic bags are ever reused as refuse bags but due to the infliction of the levy, consumers are forced to purchase the fictile refuse bags.

Since Penang had imposed its “ No Plastic Bag Day ” opinion in shopping composites and hypermarkets, and each plastic bag is charged 20 sen, hypermarkets and retail stores in the province have claimed concern diminutions of up to 40 to 50 per cent. On the makers ‘ side, the Plastic Bag Day, downstream or upstream, did hold a negative impact. Fictile makers in Penang experienced a bead in concern between 10 per cent to 75 per cent. The replacing for bing petroleum-based plastic bags have halted in states overseas, which attempted to implement to utilize biodegradable bags in topographic point of predominating plastic bags. One of the grounds is that bio plastics like the corn-based plastic compostable bags release CO2 ( C dioxide ) more than the present plastic bags.

Compostable plastics such as PLA ( polylactic acid ) would last every bit long as the common plastics while there is the reverse due to the high cost of wide-scale composting necessitating O, heat and H2O amongst others to break up. Huge piece of lands of farming area will be needed for the bio-degradable industry. Biodegradable bags composting is no different from that of paper bags. Current research shows that in modern landfills, paper does non degrade or interrupt down at a well faster rate as plastic does in findings in the UK.

Among the issues raised were the high cost of giving out eco-bags and whether it was appropriate to utilize them for fresh green goods. In fact, the conventional plastic wrapper for nutrient is still needed. Wraping in a modified atmosphere fictile bag greatly reduces waste because the bag protects the nutrient from taint and maturation and thenceforth extends the shelf life of the merchandise. Food wrapped in paper bags, for cases, would be easy rupture off compared to the nutrient wrapped in other packaging stuffs, fictile bag performs better.

1.3 Aims of the Study

Based on the background of the survey and the job statement mentioned above, the chief intent of the survey is to find the consumer ‘s behavior in province of Penang towards “ No Plastics Bag Day Campaign ‘ initiated by the State Government of Penang. Thus, the chief aims of the survey are as follow:

I ) To find whether retail merchants give options to shoppers and what option are more preferred by the clients. This information is of import as shoppers might reject the thought of paying for the fresh plastic bag and opt for options they like the most.

two ) To find whether the clients would welcome the alteration positively, conveying their ain bags when making their shopping or are willing to pay more for their convenience in utilizing fresh plastic bags.

three ) To find the practicality of utilizing eco-bags. This information will give information on how long this alteration will last and whether it will take to farther promote and continuity of the run.

1.4 Significant of Study

Geting to the underside of the confusion over the fictile bag crisis, the Southern Cross of the affair is, advancing and propagating the construct of 3Rs. In reenforcing this, the State Government of Penang have banned the usage of plastic shopping bags in all hypermarkets and supermarkets, and promoting lasting bags and reclaimable bags that implicate the reduced usage of freshly manufactured plastic bags. Therefore, it is most of import in finding the engagement mean per centum by cognizing the retail merchant ‘s base and credence toward the run whether they support, reject or do non care about the run and their ground of making so.

In making so, retail merchants must be cognizant of how the state of affairs environing plastic bag usage is bit by bit altering throughout the states which may impact their concern. This survey is fundamentally acquiring feedbacks from the populace in order to assist the retail merchant ‘s director in make up one’s minding the best option as whether to take part or non and whether this run affected their gross revenues or non.

1.5 Limitation of Study

Like any other research, we can non avoid and deny of restrictions that could go on during the period of the survey. Among the restrictions that might happened that needed to be highlighted are as follow:

1.5.1 Time

Due to the short acquisition period per semester, it is obvious that clip would be the chief restriction and job as the survey research needed to be completed within the stipulated clip. However, this restraint will be taken as a challenge in order to finish the needed survey research.

1.5.2 Information

`No Plastic Bags Days Campaign` in Penang had merely been launched merely on 1st January 2011. Therefore, there are non many articles or diaries been published yet refering to the run. Furthermore, there will be times when certain information can non be revealed which will constraint of garnering better information. Besides, it is besides predicted that certain informations particularly for the secondary informations for literature reappraisal will be restricted as some journal aggregation can non be accessed to the cyberspace or public library due to rank restraint.

1.5.3 Cooperation

Problem of cooperation can be considered as a norm as there will be consumers or hypermarket ‘s forces that will worsen to go a respondent, and at clip respondent non concerted plenty to garner adequate information.

1.6 Definition of Footings

Listed below are the definitions of footings or constructs that will be often used for this peculiar survey research:

1.6.1 Green State

The green province is a proposed economic and political province political orientation whose primary policy influence would be the wellness of the environment.

1.6.2 Penangites

A occupant of Penang is conversationally known as a Penangite.

1.6.3 Plastic Bag

A plastic bag is defined as a merchandise based on crude oil derived functions which are used to transport points from a shop to a place. Generally of individual usage, bearer bags may be besides reused at place for storage.

1.6.4 Bin Liner

A plastic bag used to line a rubbish or refuse bin.

1.6.5 Paper Bag

A paper bag means bag and sheet made from kraft paper. The paper may be brown ( uncolored ) or white ( bleached ) for keeping client ‘s purchases.

1.6.6 Eco Bag / Green Bag

Bags made with stuffs that benefit the environment in some manner such as earth-friendly bags which include those made from recycled merchandises, repurposed merchandises, sustainable stuffs, and organic stuffs.

1.6.7 Biodegradeable bag

Plastic that will break up in natural aerobic ( composting ) and anaerobiotic ( landfill ) environments. Biodegradation of plastics can be achieved by enabling micro-organisms in the environment to metabolise the molecular construction of fictile movies to bring forth an inert humus-like stuff that is less harmful to the environment. They may be composed of either bioplastics, which are plastics whose constituents are derived from renewable natural stuffs, or petroleum-based plastics which utilize an additive. The usage of bio-active compounds compounded with swelling agents ensures that, when combined with heat and wet, they expand the plastic ‘s molecular construction and let the bio-active compounds to metabolise and neutralize the plastic.

1.6.8 Corn-based plastic compostable bags

It is really biodegradable and compostable, intending the stuff will interrupt down into little pieces that can be absorbed by micro-organisms and transformed into CO2, H2O, energy and impersonal residues.

Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 ARTICLES RELATED

There are some concerns among the homemakers on the no plastics bags issue, such as the supply of plastic bags to pack trash will run out with alibis such as the trash would non be collected if it was non placed in a fictile bag. However, the people of Penang should look on the positive side of the move, which stood to profit the hereafter coevals in the long tally. It was alright for the older coevals to be angry with the province authorities for non supplying them with plastic bags every bit long as the hereafter coevals to bask a better environment.

As reported in The Star newspaper dated 8 November 2010, Penang Chief Minister, Lim Guan Eng announced that plastic bags would be wholly banned province broad from Jan 1, 2011 in shopping Centres, hypermarkets, departmental shops, pharmaceuticss, fast nutrient eating house, nasi kandar mercantile establishments and convenience shops. Adding to his statement, Penang will press on with its determination despite ridicule from some quarters that the action is cheeky and impossible to implement.

Recently, people get downing to accept the construct of cut downing shopping bag plastics irrespective cognizing the chief aim of the run. In a research made in the United States of America made by Ipsos, MORI ( 2010 ) , the decision was made based on the research happening that 78 % of the respondents prefer to convey their ain bags and feels that they are lending something good to the environment when they refuse to utilize fresh plastic bags. Retailers are get downing to win over the populace in the thrust to cut down the one-use of plastic bags, but still need to break pass on the full benefit of their enterprises. The populace are easy encompassing the strategy, with 63 per cent now in favor of bear downing for plastic bags.

Comparative informations from March 2008 shows this in an addition of six per cent in merely over 18 months. Despite this increased support, 50 per cent of shoppers still wish to hold a pick in whether they use their ain bags. However, shoppers still fail to understand retail merchants ‘ motivations behind the strategy, with 50 per cent believing the thrust is about doing money, and merely 43 per cent recognising that retail merchants donate money made from the sale of plastic bags to charity.

Amongst all groups there is merely minority cognition that any retail merchant donates money paid for plastic bags to environmental charities among the populace as a whole, four in 10 agree this is the instance. Retailers have taken different attacks to how they distribute the cost nest eggs from the lower take-up of bags or gross from gross revenues. If there were greater lucidity about the donees of these strategies, public attitudes towards the strategy might be farther improved. Commenting on the study, Mark Kingsbury, Head of Marketing at Ipsos MORI said that retail merchants are making a great occupation in taking the manner by assisting shoppers make small differences through the decrease in one-use plastic bags. They now need to concentrate on pass oning the full benefits of the strategy more clearly to shoppers. If they are able to make this successfully, we may see even better statistics in the hereafter, with more Greenss minded people and fewer skeptics minded people. ”

Harmonizing to Rowena F Caranon ( 2001 ) , in Italy, the Italian authorities will let retail merchants to utilize up their stocks of plastic bags, provided these are free of charge, after implementing the selling prohibition on the production and distribution of plastic bags on Saturday. Plastic bags are risky to the environment, killing more than a million carnal species. They besides take excessively long to interrupt down, staying in the environment up to 1,000 old ages, harmonizing to the European Agency for the Environment. Italian consumers use about 300 plastic bags each yearly, numbering to 20 billion plastic bags every twelvemonth. The prohibition on plastic bags was introduced in 2006.

This marks a important measure frontward in the battle against pollution, doing us all more responsible in footings of reuse and recycling. Objecting to the debut of it ‘s another extension. For the step to bring forth concrete consequences, you need the full engagement of bargainers, little, and big retail merchants because they will see large-scale conveyance systems as options to plastic bags. But despite these unfavorable judgments, the fictile prohibition earned the support of Italian consumers.

Harmonizing to Anne Sharp ( 2006 ) , in Australia, It is non the forbiddance of single-use plastic bags alone that will make a positive impact on the environment, but besides the behavior of consumers after the prohibition is in consequence. Which bag the consumer chooses to utilize, how long they think these bags last for before they are disposed of, and how frequently they use them, will all hold a major impact on the environment. Nowadays, shopper behavior has changed since the prohibition in relation to the ownership and use of ‘green ‘ bags and the deduction of this for ‘doing more with less ‘ in transporting food market shopping. It besides analyzing retail mercantile establishments that had instigated their ain voluntary plans to promote consumers to recycle plastic bags, suggests that without legislative enforcement, a decrease in the usage of plastic bags by more than 50 % is improbable.

As stated by Alice Baker ( 2010 ) , a fee on single-use carryout bags is a executable and effectual method to cut down the impact of plastic bags on the environment. For old ages conservationists and industry have attempted to relieve the jobs posed by plastic bags through recycling. However, it is evident that recycling is non plenty. Plastic bags have proved to be risky to the environment and to human wellness. Plastic bags are now present throughout our environment from distant islands to the deepnesss of the oceans. Chemical additives from the bags are even present in the human population with unknown effects. The disposal of plastics bags is besides debatable.

Recycling of plastic bags has besides proved hard. Plastic bags are normally non reclaimable through curbside plans. Bags erroneously brought into the recycling procedure frequently become caught in treating equipment, conveying recycling kind lines to a arrest while bags are removed from machines. Without an efficient method to cover with the environmental impacts of the current volume of plastic bags being consumed, efforts to cut down ingestion seem an appropriate method to turn to the jobs created by plastic bags.

2.2 NEWSPAPER REPORTS

2.2.1 The Slow Wheels Of Recycling – more can be done to raise consciousness of the 3Rs among Malaysians ( The Star, Tuesday -2nd November 2010 )

This study accent on the populace ‘s attitude peculiarly the Penangites towards the degree of a greener environmental consciousness. Although Penang has the highest recycling rate nationwide, it was at unimpressive degree, a mere 15 % . Mentioning to Universiti Sains Malaysia ( USM ) School of Civil Engineering, Dean Dr. Hamidi Abdul Aziz, Malaysians still necessitate to be educated in pull offing solid waste and following a `No Plastic Bag Day ‘ nationwide will be good while giving inducements to recycling companies. Education is besides a cardinal factor that influenced the success or failures of any environmental run such as waste minimization programme and The 3R ( Reduce, Reuse and Recycle ) run.

2.2.2 Trash-ing Out The Bigger Issue ( Soo Ewe Jin, Starbiz, Monday 8th November 2010 )

Penang Chief Minister Lim Guan Eng said feedback from 73 participants of the Declaration to Reduce The Use Of Plastic Bags had shown that a sum of 32 million plastic bags were saved under the `No Plastic Bags ‘ programme between July 1, 2009 and Oct 26, 2010. This programme is a measure frontward in doing us environmentally witting, but in the writer ‘s sentiment, the bigger issue is still to cut down the sum of rubbish that we generate. Mentioning to this study, it is clear that the environmental consciousness among Malaysians is still at a low rate as Malaysians generate close to 20,000 metric tons of refuse everyday. The move of `No Plastic Bag Day ‘ is a measure frontward to do Penangites consumers to be more environmentally-conscious. However, there is hope that environmental consciousness among Malaysians is turning. Persons are making their portion to recycle, cut down and recycle, and for Corporate Malaysia to encompass the Green Agenda.

2.2.3 Penang Ban On Plastic Bags Stays – ( The Star, Monday -8th November 2010 )

On Nov 2, Penang Chief Minister, Lim Guan Eng announced that plastic bags would be banned statewide from Jan 1, 2011 in shopping Centres, hypermarkets, departmental shops, pharmaceuticss, fast nutrient eating house, nasi kandar mercantile establishments and convenience shops. Adding to his statement, Penang will press on with its determination despite ridicule from some quarters that the action is cheeky and impossible to implement. There are some concerns among the homemakers on this issue, such as the supply of plastic bags to pack trash will run out with alibis such as the trash would non be collected if it was non placed in a fictile bag. However, Lim Guan Eng insisted that the people of Penang should look on the positive side of the move, which stood to profit the hereafter coevals in the long tally. It was alright for the older coevals to be angry with the province authorities for non supplying them with plastic bags so long as the hereafter coevals get to bask a better environment.

2.2.4 Request For Reduction of Shopping Bag Charge – ( The Star, Thursday, 4th Nov 2010 )

This study shows the reaction from the consumers when the prohibition was implemented. Although consumers support the enforcement, they wish for the 20sen plastic bag charge to be reduced. The charge is considered excessively expensive. At the same clip, clients besides urged the province to guarantee that the opinion ‘s execution was consistent so that the populace would take it earnestly. There is besides remarks such as the opinion should be merely two yearss a hebdomad alternatively of every twenty-four hours and the move would present some jobs as it would be hard to retrieve to convey along a shopping bag each clip they go shopping. However, most of the consumers believed that if less plastic bags are given, there ‘ll besides be less for them to utilize for throwing trash.

2.2.5 Taking The Soft Approach – ( The Star, Thursday, 4th Nov 2010 )

The Penang State Government believe that there has been more than adequate clip for consumers to set with the opinion of `No Plastic Bag ‘ as it was started with one twenty-four hours to three yearss and now mundane.

2.3 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

As a decision, the re-use wont is going ingrained non merely in what people do, but besides in how they think and feel at least for some of the public.A The impact on behavior is clear as most of shoppers now try to convey their ain bags instead than pay for them in-store, while merely lesser shoppers would prefer to pay for a plastic bag than re-use one of their ain.

In add-on, today, most of shoppers now feel guilty utilizing free bags, and the feel-good factor is even stronger. These shoppers besides believe that non utilizing free plastic bags is one of their little parts to assist the environment. The penchant for consumer pick is once more apparent, with uncertainties originating among shoppers who are supportive of the authorities censoring retail merchants from giving off free plastic bags.

Therefore, in relation with the above literature reappraisal and for the intent of this research, the theoretical model will concentrate on the cognition towards the run, the consciousness towards environmental pollution and the understanding towards the run which will finally reason the findings towards the consumer ‘s behavior on the “ No Plastic Campaign ” in Penang. Thus, the theoretical model of this survey is shown as per below tabular array:

Table 2.3: Theoretical Model

2.4 Hypothesis

Continuing from this survey research aims and based on the theoretical model that has been outlined, this survey research will develop the relevant hypothesis to this research. The hypotheses that will be explored in this survey are as follows:

H1 The public voluntarily participates in environmental committedness enterprises.

H2 The consequence to environmental committedness is an betterment to the quality of life.

H3 The populace does non necessitate environmental run to act upon 1s action to environmental commitment enterprises as no 1 wants environmental debasement.

H4 The public understand the motivations behind the run.

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

In acquiring the information, a descriptive research is chosen to use over explanatory or insouciant research. This type of research is suited when a survey intends to bring forth accurate description of variables relent to the determination being faced, without showing that some relationship exist between variables, ( Baker, 1992 ) . This description fits good with the aim of this survey. In add-on a cross sectional surveies is elected over longitudinal surveies. The former allows the research workers to measure to a larger figure of clients, therefore enabling them to bring forth a more representative information. Through this method, informations are typically cross-tabulated against each other to reply specific issues.

Respondents will be chosen indiscriminately among consumers ‘ in any hypermarkets in the province of Penang. Permissions will be obtained from the hypermarket ‘s direction to administer questionnaires and held observations and direct interview with respondents for this peculiar research with the consent missive from Universiti Teknologi Mara ( UiTM ) as cogent evidence that the survey is echt and non for any commercial intents. Respondents will dwell of the hypermarkets ‘ clients every bit good as its ‘ forces working at such hypermarkets.

3.2 Data Collection

The method used in any research will depend on the research. In order to to the full implement this research, the survey will be gathered around using the two classs of informations aggregation. The aggregation of the primary and secondary informations are used due to acquire the related informations as the input of the research.

3.2.1 Primary Data

This class of roll uping informations considered to be the most of import ingredient in this research as informations collected will be evaluated and assessed in footings of the factors influences clients ‘ behavior, credence and suggestion towards the run. It is besides the informations that originated from the research worker that have been used for specific intent of turn toing a job at manus. Normally the primary information is collected when secondary informations is non sufficient, depending on the research aim. For this research, the primary informations will be obtained through communicating and observation attack. The communicating attack comprises the questionnaires and interviews.

3.2.2 Secondary Data

Secondary informations is utile to the research worker because it can back up or replace the information additions from primary informations. It besides helps the research worker to construe primary informations more insightfully. At the same clip, it can assist reply certain research inquiry. This class of informations aggregation will chiefly be highly used to garner information for this research proposal ‘s debut, background survey and its ‘ literature reappraisal in order to acquire the existent survey research model. This information will be gathered and extracted from diaries, text edition, newspaper, intelligence bulletin and multi companies ‘ one-year study which can be sourced through the public library every bit good as the cyberspace.

3.3 Survey Instruments

In order to acquire the best end product from the survey research, the best research instruments for this peculiar survey research would be to make relevant self-administered questionnaires, observations and direct interviews with respondents. The three major classs of informations aggregation will be divided into acquiring two chief subdivisions, whereby the first subdivision will be specially designed to garner information about the respondents ‘ personal and demographic features. The features among them are age, gender, employment, race and faith. Meanwhile in 2nd subdivision, respondents will be asked to bespeak their consciousness, credence, sentiments and suggestions towards the run. The 2nd subdivision will be merely applicable for questionnaires and interviews with respondents. A structured questionnaire is used to guarantee standardisation of inquiry and reply among the respondents and the digest of the valuable informations that needed. Interviews will be conducted utilizing the study questionnaires prepared. There will be 100 questionnaires distributed to a selected respondent ; the written questionnaires consist of 35 structured inquiries concentrating on the two subdivisions mentioned above.

3.3.1 Multiple Question

A type of fixed alternate inquiry that requires a respondent to take one ( and merely one ) response from among several possible option ( Zikmunnd, 2000 ) . It uses multiple points to arouse a individual response in the questionnaires and seven ( 7 ) inquiries are used based on this type chiefly to garner the demographic informations.

3.3.2 Likert Scales

Likert graduated table is besides used in these questionnaires. This inquiry require the respondent to reply five ( 5 ) response classs of 1 ( Strongly Disagree ) , 2 ( Disagree ) , 3 ( Quite Agree ) , 5 ( Strongly Agree ) . Ten ( 10 ) inquiries are used based on this type to garner information of the awareness subdivision of the study.

The other likert graduated table questionnaires used require the respondent besides to reply five ( 5 ) response classs of 1 ( Very Poor ) , 2 ( Poor ) , 3 ( Quite Good ) , 4 ( Good ) , 5 ( Very Good ) . Five ( 5 ) inquiries are used based on this type to garner information of the understanding subdivision of the study.

3.3.3 Dichotomous Question

A fixed alternate inquiry that requires the respondent to take one of two dichotomous options. These inquiries asked the respondent to reply `Yes ‘ or `No ‘ merely. Ten ( 10 ) inquiries will be used based on this type to garner information of the behavior and credence subdivision of the study.

3.4 Observations

Other primary informations that research worker intend to usage is through observation. Observation is done ascertain the initial apprehension of the respondents attitudes and behavior towards the run. By making this, the research worker will be able to find the interconnected factors that contribute to the job statement.

3.5 Target Population and Sampling Methods

The procedure of trying involves utilizing a little figure of points from the population to do decisions about the whole population ( Zikmund, 2000 ) . Characteristic of the topic will be generalising the belongingss of characteristic to the population. Choosing the population and the method of trying for this population are really of import stairss in the research. Due to the clip restraint factor, a sum of 100 respondents from assorted locations located in Penang will be selected indiscriminately for this survey research as the sample size to garner information by replying the questionnaires given.

It is considered appropriate to stand for the whole community in Penang. Roscoe ( 1975 ) for case stated “ sample size larger than 30 and less than 500 are appropriate for most research ” . Likewise, Sekaran ( 1996 ) agrees that 500 sample are appropriate upper bound for the sample size. He states that ‘too big a sample ( say, over 500 ) could go a job in every bit much as we would be prone to perpetrating Type 11 mistake ” . ( Type 11 mistake occur when, based on the consequences, the Null Hypothesis is non rejected when it is in fact false ) .

3.6 Procedure Data Analysis And Interpretations

Once all the primary informations are collected from the questionnaires, observations and interviews, all the informations will be edited and transverse sectional in conformity to the first subdivision of demographic factors and 2nd subdivision of consumers ‘ behavior towards `No Plastic Bags Days Campaign ‘ . All informations that have been collected will be transferred into the SPSS ( Statically Package for Social Science ) plan to be analyzed. It is a really comprehensive system for analysing informations. SPSS can take informations from about any type of file and utilize them to bring forth tabulated studies, charts and secret plan distributions and tendencies, descriptive statistics and complex statistical analyses. Frequency process is besides being used depicting many types of variables.

3.7 Cost and Time

3.7.1 Budget Allotment

Budget will be allocated for the survey research is estimated at RM600.00 taking into consideration the all possible disbursals needed to finish such survey research. However, it is improbable that the cost of the undertaking to be over exhausted as the estimated budget was quoted much more higher for eventuality action program if deemed necessary. Detailss of the estimated budget are shown as in table below: –

Table 3.7.1: Budget Allocation

Activities

ESTIMATED COST ( RM )

Forming and planning of the survey research

50.00

Execution of the survey research get downing from initial phase until concluding phases

50.00

Stationeries ( including as keepsakes to respondents )

250.00

Logisticss and transit

150.00

Food / Beverages/Miscellaneous

100.00

Sum

600.00

3.7.2 Undertaking Scheduling

The estimated period of the survey research will take about three ( 3 ) months from get downing month of February 2011 and stoping month of April 2011. The undertaking programming of survey research will be categorized into three chief phases which comprise of initial, readying and concluding phases. The inside informations of the undertaking scheduling are shown in the tabular array below:

Table 3.7.2: Undertaking Scheduling

A

A

A

Feb

Mac

April

May

Initial Phase

1

Topic readying, entry and blessing

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

2

Research Proposal readying, entry

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

Preparation Phase

3

Introduction and Questionnaires

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

4

Literature Review

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

5

Research Methodology and Design

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Data Collection: Questionnaires

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Data Analysis and Interpretation

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Decision and Recommendations

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Concluding Phase

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Draft undertaking paper readyings and entry

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Viva Presentation

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Project paper rectifications and resubmission to advisor

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Complete undertaking paper entry

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