The freaks Essay

I. How many points of view are possible in a story? Which points of view do you see in the short story ‘The Selfish Giant’ and ‘The Happy prince’? Points of view
1. First person, second person, third person.
2. The point of view can change.
3. The pronouns are the best markers. E.g. is the speaker a character in the story? (I saw, I said, etc), is the speaker addressing someone (and then you just walked away as opposed to he just walked away)?

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II. Comment on the setting in any one of Guy de Maupassant’s short stories. Setting
1. Time (as in time of day as well as the period or the era) 2. Place
3. Helps set the mood or tone of the story.
4. In some cases can almost be a character in the story.
5. It can be a Utopia, fantasy world, etc.

III. What is the effect of the tone used in the poem “To His Coy Mistress”? 1. In the first stanza the speaker’s words are almost dripping with sarcasm (you are required to give examples from the text).The extensive use of hyperbole makes it evident that the speaker does not mean a single word of the stanza. 2. In the second stanza there seems to be a hint of seriousness as the speaker comments on the unstoppable passage of time. However the tone turns to harsh humour. The speaker makes fun of the lady’s feigned virtue(give examples) 3. The third stanza takes on a persuasive tone(give examples) 4. The speaker thus employs tone to point out the absurdity of wooing games and exhorts his lover to make hay while the sun shines.

IV. Comment on round and flat characters.
1. Flat (stereotypes, one sided characters). Doesn’t demand a lot of effort in analysis and appreciation. Saves the writer as well as reader sometime in the creative process. Very often used for comical relief. 2. Round (fleshed out characters) more human and believable. Often are imperfect and display contradicting qualities.

3. Some a mixture of the two. Often a flat character will turn into a round character. 4. It is difficult to have a story with only round characters. It is possible to have a story with only flat characters, resulting in irony. (This answer requires examples. You can give examples from the texts or from movies, serials, or any book that you have read, etc)

V. What effect can rhythm and meter have on poetry? Briefly explain any two types of rhythmic feet. 1. Rhythm is the musicality in a poem brought about by the rise and fall in the line, which in turn is brought about by a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. 2. Rhythm is made up of foot and meter. Foot is the unit of meter consisting of syllables.

Meter is simply the number of feet per line: one foot-unimeter. Two feet-dimeter; then trimester, tetrameter, pentamenter, hexameter and so on. 3. Feet that end with a stressed syllable have a rising motion and a sense of a build-up of action. Feet ending on an unstressed syllable have a falling action and very often carry a tone of finality.

VI. Write a note on the traditional structure of a play.
1.1. Exposition or introduction
1.2. Rising action
1.3. Climax
1.4. Falling action
1.5. Denouement or resolution.

VII. Write a note on the dialogue in the play Dance Like A Man. a. Hopefully by now you’ve read the play. Is the dialogue formal, casual, funny, humorous? b. How does that affect the mood of the play?

c. What is the length of the dialogue? What effect does it have on the pace of the play? d. If the length of the dialogues is mostly short, then what effect do the longer lines have on the play?

VIII. The tone of the play Dance Like A Man.
1. Try and analyse the tone act by act. That should help you structure your answer. Needless to say give some examples.

IX. What is intended readership?
Intended readership is the target audience of the writer and the editor. If any work is created with the intention of publishing it and sharing it, then It is obvious that the creative process has been shaped by an idea of what the consumer, or in this case, the reader would like. When it comes to writing and publishing plays, fiction, poetry, etc. it is obvious that the reader has to be taken into account.

Once the writer has formed an idea of what his intended readership is, he or she has to clarify a few other factors- the purpose of writing the book/play/script, the knowledge level of the reader and the need of the reader. The writer has to be aware that although the writer and readers are, at one level, having an intimate conversation, they cannot stop this ‘dialogue’ and ask questions. Feedback is never immediate. So the writer also has to anticipate the questions the reader might have upon reading his or her work; then he must try and reduce the number of possible questions.

In a corporate scenario, every creative work has to have an intended readership in mind; otherwise success would be highly unlikely. Thus intended readership is very important to the creative process in the corporate world.

X. Write a short note on any of the various creative processes discussed in class.

a. Morphological Matrix-a technique for organized thinking attributed to Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky. i) The method requires one to systematically list and consider all logically conceivable possibilities. ii) This method is useful when looking for new and original ideas for packaging, brochures, logos, etc. iii) There are five steps to the morphological matrix-work out a goal, break the problem down into its separate components, make separate notes of all possible forms that these components could take in the spaces alongside them, combine possible forms of the different component and see what new ideas come of it, and finally, use the possibilities created by combining them and letting them spark off
real ideas. b. Storyboarding-storyboards were invented by Walt Disney.

i) Storyboarding is especially appropriate for developing raw ideas into television and cinema spots, flash animations and web banners. ii) Storyboarding is more than just visualizing an idea. It creates the space to polish early ideas and at the same time develop totally new ones. The steps to storyboarding are- workout a goal and pin it at the top of the pin board. Then, using the new goal, choose the three best raw ideas to continue working with.

Then, the whole team sets to work drawing individual scenes and stages of the commercial as storyboard images. One can work with words, signs or symbols to save time. After that, the cards should be mounted horizontally, in the usual storyboard style, followed by a continual alteration and embellishment to existing ideas.

XI. Discuss the characters in Oscar Wilde’s story ‘The Selfish Giant’. Analyse which characters are flat and which ones are round. Note the personification of the seasons. Are these personifications flat or round?

XII. Does Dance Like a Man fit the mould of a traditional structure of a play? Give reasons for your answer. Needless to say, you need to have read the play.

XIII. Write a short note on Imagery.

Imagery is the use of adjectives and nouns which are used to create a mental or sensational image in the mind of a reader. The effect of these words and phrases is photographic and sensory in some cases, where the sensation of touch, smell and sound is evoked. In some cases imagery also leads to evocation of emotion.

In other words, by using words and phrases the author or poet stimulates the reader’s memory of those senses. If those memories are positive then the mood of the poem or story will also be perceived as positive and warm. On the other hand, if those memories are negative then the mood of the literary work will be perceived as dark. Thus the poet or author depends on the universality of human experience and assumes that the reading experience will be more or less similar to all.

Some examples of imagery are:
“the clouds were low and hairy…like locks blown forward in the gleam of eyes.”

“the scythe whispering to the ground”

“the iced branches shed “crystal shells””

“the cottages up to their shining eyes in snow”

XIV. What is the aspect of publication that one should pay attention to? Publishing is the act of making any work accessible to the public, either for free or for a fee. Although traditionally publishing is associated with books, magazines and newspapers, even electronic information like online journals, ebooks, etc. now come under the gamut of publishing.

It must be kept in mind that publishing is a business. With a few exceptions, publishing entities make sure that their selling price always exceeds their cost price. At the end of the day, these companies have to make a profit.

Successful publication has a lot of aspects that need to be looked into, but with respect to the creative process the aspect of intended readership is very important. Intended readership is the target audience of the writer and the editor. If any work is created with the intention of publishing it and sharing it, then It is obvious that the creative process has been shaped by an idea of what the consumer, or in this case, the reader would like. When it comes to writing and publishing plays, fiction, poetry, etc. it is obvious that the reader has to be taken into account.

Once the writer has formed an idea of what his intended readership is, he or she has to clarify a few other factors- the purpose of writing the book/play/script, the knowledge level of the reader and the need of the reader. The writer has to be aware that although the writer and readers are, at one level, having an intimate conversation, they cannot stop this ‘dialogue’ and ask questions. Feedback is never immediate. So the writer also has to anticipate the questions the reader might have upon reading his or her work; then he must try and reduce the number of possible questions.

In a corporate scenario, every creative work has to have an intended readership in mind; otherwise success would be highly unlikely. Thus intended readership is very important to the creative process in the corporate world.

XV. What are the various script formats used for radio and television? Four basic script formats are used in television and radio: i) The single column format for radio
ii) The single format which is sometimes used for television iii) The two column principal television format, with video on the left and audio on the right. iv) The film or screenplay format, with each sequence consecutively numbered.

Final production scripts are sometimes written in two columns, with the technical source on the left and continuity on the right. Television scripts sometimes have the audio on the left and video on the right. However, most television scripts have video directions on the left and the audio information (including dialogue) on the right. The single-column television script resembles that of the stage play, with only essential character movements added to the dialogue and virtually no video or audio techniques inserted. In radio scripts, music, sound effects and microphone positions are essential parts of the script. Two column formats are mostly used in taped productions like television shows, films and documentaries as well as televised news. For film dramas, screenplays are used with or without numbered sequences.

XVI. What themes are explored in the play Dance Like a Man? With examples, refer to the state of classical dance in India, masculinity, moral hypocrisy, notions of masculinity, ambition, power struggles, etc.

XVII. Write a short note on Intellectual Property.
Intellectual property refers to inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs. Intellectual Property is divided into two categories: Industrial property, and Copyright. The former includes inventions, trademarks, industrial designs, logos, etc. whereas the latter includes literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. Most copyright laws give the author or owner of the copyright the authority to forbid certain acts in relation to a work, such as: A work’s reproduction in various forms, (such as printed publications or sound recordings) Distribution of copies

Public performances
Broadcasting or any other communication to the public
Translation into other languages

Any works of adaptation, such as the adaptation of a novel into a screenplay. The right of the copyright owner to prevent others from making copies of his works without his authorization is the most basic right protected by copyright legislation. Many laws include a right specifically to authorize distribution of copies of works. The right of reproduction would be of little economic value if the owner of copyright could not authorize the distribution of the copies made with his consent. The right of distribution usually terminates upon first sale or transfer of ownership of a particular copy. This means, for example, that when the copyright owner of a book sells or otherwise transfers ownership of a copy of the book, the owner of that copy may give the book away or even resell it without the copyright owner’s further permission.

The right of public performance entitles the author or other copyright owner to authorize live performances of a work, such as a play in a theatre, or an orchestra performance of a symphony in a concert hall. Public performance also includes performance by means of recordings. Thus a musical work is considered publicly performed when a sound recording of that work, or phonogram, is played over amplification equipment, for example in a discotheque, airplane, or shopping mall.

The right of broadcasting covers the transmission for public reception of sounds, or of images and sounds, by wireless means, whether by radio, television, or satellite. Translations and adaptations are themselves works protected by copyright. So in order to publish a translation or adaptation, authorization must be obtained both from the owner of the copyright in the original work and from the owner of copyright in the translation or adaptation. Copyright does not continue indefinitely. The law provides for a period of time during which the rights of the copyright owner exist. Needless to say, intellectual rights are very important since they protect the interests of artists.

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